Comprehensive Employment and Training Act
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Comprehensive Employment and Training Act
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA)
U.S. Congress
CitationPub. L. 93-203 Job Training and Community Services Act
Territorial extentUnited States
Enacted byU.S. Congress
EnactedDecember 28, 1973
SignedDecember 28, 1973
Signed byPresident Richard Nixon
Legislative history
BillS. 1559, the Job Training and Community Services Act
Bill citationPub. L. 93-203 Job Training and Community Services Act
Introduced bySenator Gaylord Nelson
Repealed by
President Ronald Reagan in March 1984
Related legislation
Job Training Partnership Act
artist relief, art jobs program, federal artist employment, public art
Status: Repealed

The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA, Pub.L. 93-203) was a United States federal law enacted by the Congress, and signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973[1] to train workers and provide them with jobs in the public service.[2] The bill was introduced as S. 1559, the Job Training and Community Services Act,[3] by Senator Gaylord Nelson (Democrat of Wisconsin) and co-sponsored by Senator Jacob Javits (Republican of New York).


CETA funds were administered in a decentralized fashion by state and local governments, on the assumption that they could best determine local needs.[4]

The program offered work to those with low incomes and the long term unemployed as well as summer jobs to low income high school students. Full-time jobs were provided for a period of 12 to 24 months in public agencies or private not for profit organizations. The intent was to impart a marketable skill that would allow participants to move to an unsubsidized job. It was an extension of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) program from the 1930s.[2]

Inspired by the WPA's employment of artists in the service to the community in the 1930s, the San Francisco Arts Commission initiated the CETA/Neighborhood Arts Program in the 1970s, which employed painters, muralists, musicians, performing artists, poets and gardeners to work in schools, community centers, prisons and wherever their skills and services were of value to the community.[] The idea for CETA/Neighborhood Arts Program came from John Kreidler, then working with the Arts Commission as an intern, with the Arts Commission's Neighborhood Arts Program under the direction of Stephen Goldstine.[5][6] The program was so successful in San Francisco that it became a model for similar programs, nationally. The CETA Artists Project in New York City was one of the largest.[2]

Nine years later, CETA was replaced by the Job Training Partnership Act.[7][8]


  1. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T., "Statement on Signing the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973, December 28, 1973", The American Presidency Project, retrieved
  2. ^ a b c Maksymowicz, Virginia (2020-12-26). "The Forgotten Federally Employed Artists". Hyperallergic (in American English). Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Bill Summary & Status, 93rd Congress (1973-1974), S.1559". THOMAS. Library of Congress. Retrieved .[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Maureen A. McLaughlin; United States. Congressional Budget Office (1981). Effects of eliminating public service employment. The Office. pp. 13-.
  5. ^ Hamlin, Jesse (2008-04-21). "S.F. Neighborhood Arts: 40 years of art for all". SFGATE (in American English). Retrieved .
  6. ^ Chen, Kevin B.; Cortez, Jaime (2017). "Legacy of the Neighborhood Arts Program". FoundSF. Retrieved .{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "WB - Our History (An Overview 1920 - 2012)". Retrieved .
  8. ^ Bovard, James (2011-09-13). "What Job 'Training' Teaches? Bad Work Habits". Wall Street Journal (in American English). ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved .

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