Constan%C8%9Ba
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Constan%C8%9Ba
Constan?a
Constanta Casino.JPG
Constanta Historisches Museum.JPG
Constanta Griechische Kirche.JPG
Restorated medieval lighthouse and modern radio tower.jpg
Constanta Moschee.JPG
Fatada principala Casei cu Lei.JPG
Top: The Constan?a Casino
Second row: the Museum of National History,
Third row: The Genoese Lighthouse, the Carol I Mosque, The house with Lions
Interactive map outlining Constan?a
Constan?a is located in Romania
Constan?a
Constan?a
Location in Romania
Coordinates: 44°10?N 28°38?E / 44.167°N 28.633°E / 44.167; 28.633Coordinates: 44°10?N 28°38?E / 44.167°N 28.633°E / 44.167; 28.633
Country Romania
CountyActual Constanta county CoA.png Constan?a
Founded7th century BC as Tomis
Government
 o MayorVergil Chi?ac[1] (PNL)
Area
 o City124.89 km2 (48.22 sq mi)
 o Metro
1,013.5 km2 (391.3 sq mi)
Elevation
25 m (82 ft)
Population
(2011 census[2])
 o City283,872
 o Estimate 
(2016)[3]
317,832
 o Density2,273/km2 (5,890/sq mi)
 o Metro
425,916
 o Ethnic groups
Romanians Tatars Turks Roma Lipovans Macedonians Greeks Armenians
Demonym(s)const?n?eanconst?n?eanc? (ro)
Postal code
900xxx
Area code(s)(+40) 41
Vehicle registrationCT
LanguagesRomanian
Websitewww.primaria-constanta.ro
Sister cities: Sulmona, Turku, Yokohama, Brest, Istanbul, Rotterdam, Odessa, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Dobrich, Thessaloniki, Mobile, Trapani, Sidon, Lattakia, Heraklion, ?zmir, Alexandria, Santos, Havana, Shanghai, Perugia, Novorossiysk.

Constan?a (, ,[4][5][6][7]Romanian: [kon'stantsa] ; Greek: ?, romanizedK?nstántza, or ? K?nstántia; Bulgarian: , romanizedKjustend?a, or Konstanca; Turkish: Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Ancient Greek: ),[8] is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania. It was founded around 600 BC. The city is located in the Northern Dobruja region of Romania, on the Black Sea coast. It is the capital of Constan?a County and the largest city in the historical region of Dobruja.

As of the 2011 census, Constan?a has a population of 283,872, making it the fifth most populous city in Romania. The Constan?a metropolitan area includes 14 localities within 30 km (19 mi) of the city, and with a total population of 425,916 inhabitants,[2] it is one of the largest metropolitan areas in Romania.

The Port of Constan?a has an area of 39.26 km2 (15.16 sq mi) and a length of about 30 km (19 mi).[] It is the largest port on the Black Sea, and one of the largest ports in Europe.[9]

History

Historical affiliations
Roman Empire Roman Republic 29 BC-27 BC

Roman Empire Roman Empire 27 BC-5th century AD
Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire 5th century-7th century
First Bulgarian Empire 7th century-971
Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire 971-1187
Second Bulgarian Empire 1187-1325
Despotate of Dobruja 1325-1388
Wallachia Wallachia 1388-1397
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire 1397-1404
Wallachia Wallachia 1404-1420
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire 1420-1878
Kingdom of Romania Kingdom of Romania 1878-1918
German EmpireAustria-HungaryOttoman EmpireKingdom of Bulgaria Central Powers May 1918-Sept. 1918
Kingdom of Bulgaria Kingdom of Bulgaria Sept. 1918-1919
Kingdom of Romania Kingdom of Romania 1919-1947
Socialist Republic of Romania Romanian People's Republic 1947-1965
Socialist Republic of Romania Socialist Republic of Romania 1965-1989

Romania Romania 1989-present

According to Jordanes (after Cassiodorus), the foundation of the city was ascribed to Tomyris, the queen of the Massagetae (the origin and deeds of the Goths):[10]

"After achieving this victory (against Cyrus the Great) and winning so much booty from her enemies, Queen Tomyris crossed over into that part of Moesia which is now called Lesser Scythia - a name borrowed from Great Scythia -, and built on the Moesian shore of the Black Sea the city of Tomi, named after herself."
Ruins of Tomis

In 29 BC, the Romans captured the region from the Odryses, and annexed it as far as the Danube, under the name of Limes Scythicus ("Scythian Frontier").

In AD 8, the Roman poet Ovid (43 BC-17) was banished here by Augustus and it was where he spent the remaining eight years of his life. He laments his exile in Tomis in his poems: Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto. Tomis was "by his account a town located in a war-stricken cultural wasteland on the remotest margins of the empire".[11]

Casino after the occupation of the port of Constan?a by Soviet sailors in 1944.
Statue of Ovid in front of the Museum of National History

A statue of Ovid stands in the Ovid Square (Pia?a Ovidiu) of Constan?a, in front of the History Museum (the former City Hall).

A number of inscriptions found in the city and its vicinity show that Constan?a lies where Tomis once stood. Some of these are now preserved in the British Museum in London.[12] The city was afterwards included in the Province of Moesia, and, from the time of Diocletian, in Scythia Minor, of which it was the metropolis. After the 5th century, Tomis fell under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire. During Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Tomis was besieged by the Avars in the winter of 597/598.

Tomis was later renamed to Constantiana in honour of Constantia, the half-sister of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (274-337). The earliest known usage of this name was "?" ("Constantia") in 950. The city lay at the seaward end of the Great Wall of Trajan, and has evidently been surrounded by fortifications of its own. After successively becoming part of the Bulgarian Empire for over 500 years, and later of the independent principality of Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici and of Wallachia under Mircea I of Wallachia, Constan?a fell under the Ottoman rule around 1419.

Constan?a panorama in 1910
Constan?a Prefecture (nowadays the Constan?a Military Circle) damaged during city's occupation by the Central Powers (1916-1918)
The port of Constan?a in 1941

A railroad linking Constan?a to Cernavod? was opened in 1860. In spite of damage done by railway contractors there are considerable remains of ancient masonry walls, pillars, etc. An impressive public building, thought to have originally been a port building, has been excavated, and contains the substantial remains of one of the longest mosaic pavements in the world.

In 1878, after the Romanian War of Independence, Constan?a and the rest of Northern Dobruja were ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Romania. The city became Romania's main seaport and transit point for much of Romania's exports. The Constan?a Casino, which is both a historic monument and a modern symbol of the city, was the first building constructed on the shore of the Black Sea after Dobruja came under Romanian administration, with the cornerstone being laid in 1880.[13]

On October 22, 1916 (during World War I), the Central Powers (German, Turkish and Bulgarian troops) occupied Constan?a. According to the Treaty of Bucharest of May 1918, article X.b.[14] (a treaty never ratified by Romania), Constan?a remained under the joint control of the Central Powers. Allied troops liberated the city in 1918 after the successful offensive on the Macedonian front knocked Bulgaria out of the war.

In the interwar years, the city became Romania's main commercial hub, so that by the 1930s over half of the national exports were going through the port. During World War II, when Romania joined the Axis powers, Constan?a was one of the country's main targets for the Allied bombers. While the town was left relatively unscathed, the port suffered extensive damage, recovering only in the early 1950s.

Geography

Constan?a is the administrative center of the county with the same name and the largest city in the EU Southeastern development region of Romania. The city is located on the Black Sea coast, having a beach length of 13 kilometres (8 miles). Mamaia, an administrative district of Constan?a, is the largest and most modern resort on the Romanian coast. Mineral springs in the surrounding area and sea bathing attract many visitors in the summer.

Climate

Mamaia, view towards Constan?a

Constan?a is one of the warmest cities in Romania. It has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), with oceanic and semi-arid influences. There are four distinct seasons during the year.

Summer (early June to mid September) is hot and sunny with a July and August average of 23 °C (73 °F). Most summer days see a gentle breeze refreshing the daytime temperatures. Nights are warm and somewhat muggy because of the heat stored by the sea.

Autumn starts in mid or late September with warm and sunny days. September can be warmer than June, owing to the warmth accumulated by the Black Sea during the summer. The first frost occurs on average in mid November.

Winter is milder than other cities in southern Romania. Snow is not abundant but the weather can be very windy and unpleasant. Winter arrives much later than in the interior and December weather is often mild with high temperatures reaching 8 °C (46 °F) - 12 °C (54 °F). The average January temperature is 1 °C (34 °F). Winter storms, which occur when the sea becomes particularly treacherous, are a common occurrence between December and March.

Spring arrives early but it is quite cool. Often in April and May the Black Sea coast is one of the coolest places in Romania found at an altitude lower than 500 m (1,640.42 ft).

Four of the warmest seven years from 1889 to 2008 have occurred after the year 2000 (2000, 2001, 2007 and 2008). As of September 2009, the winter and the summer of 2007 were respectively the warmest and the second warmest in recorded history with monthly averages for January (+6.5 °C) and June (+23.0 °C) breaking all-time records. Overall, 2007 was the warmest year since 1889 when weather recording began.

Climate data for Constan?a (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
24.5
(76.1)
30.8
(87.4)
31.9
(89.4)
36.9
(98.4)
36.9
(98.4)
38.5
(101.3)
36.8
(98.2)
34.8
(94.6)
31.0
(87.8)
26.5
(79.7)
21.0
(69.8)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
5.7
(42.3)
9.3
(48.7)
14.1
(57.4)
20.0
(68.0)
24.7
(76.5)
27.2
(81.0)
27.1
(80.8)
22.7
(72.9)
17.4
(63.3)
11.3
(52.3)
6.2
(43.2)
15.9
(60.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
2.0
(35.6)
5.5
(41.9)
10.3
(50.5)
16.1
(61.0)
20.7
(69.3)
23.2
(73.8)
23.0
(73.4)
18.6
(65.5)
13.5
(56.3)
7.7
(45.9)
3.0
(37.4)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F) -1.4
(29.5)
-0.7
(30.7)
2.7
(36.9)
7.3
(45.1)
12.5
(54.5)
16.9
(62.4)
19.1
(66.4)
19.0
(66.2)
14.9
(58.8)
10.3
(50.5)
4.9
(40.8)
0.3
(32.5)
8.8
(47.8)
Record low °C (°F) -24.7
(-12.5)
-25.0
(-13.0)
-12.8
(9.0)
-4.5
(23.9)
1.8
(35.2)
6.4
(43.5)
7.6
(45.7)
8.0
(46.4)
1.0
(33.8)
-12.4
(9.7)
-11.7
(10.9)
-18.6
(-1.5)
-25.0
(-13.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 27.6
(1.09)
24.0
(0.94)
34.0
(1.34)
31.8
(1.25)
37.9
(1.49)
40.4
(1.59)
37.5
(1.48)
35.2
(1.39)
42.1
(1.66)
36.8
(1.45)
45.6
(1.80)
37.0
(1.46)
429.9
(16.93)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 7.0
(2.8)
7.0
(2.8)
4.2
(1.7)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
5.5
(2.2)
3.4
(1.3)
27.1
(10.7)
Average precipitation days 9.9 8.5 9.2 8.2 9.1 8.2 7.0 4.6 6.1 7.1 9.0 10.5 97.4
Average relative humidity (%) 86 85 85 83 81 78 76 77 79 82 86 88 82
Mean monthly sunshine hours 87 110 140 192 272 282 327 308 230 168 102 83 2,301
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization,[15] Ogimet (mean temperatures and sun 1981-2010)[16]
Source 2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901-2000),[17] NOAA (snowfall 1961-1990),[18]Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1973-1993)[19]

Demographics

Historical population of Constan?a
Year Population
1853 5,204 --
1879[20] 5,430 4.3%
1900[21] 12,725 134.3%
1912 census[22] 27,201 113.7%
1930 census 59,164 117.5%
1941 census[23] 80,028 35.2%
1948 census 78,586 -1.8%
1956 census 99,676 26.8%
1966 census 150,276 50.7%
1977 census 256,978 71%
1992 census 350,581 36.4%
2002 census 310,471 -11.4%
2011 census 283,872 -8.6%

According to the 2002 Romanian census, there were 310,471 people living within the city of Constan?a, making it the fifth most populous city in Romania.

As of 2011, 283,872 inhabitants live within the city limits,[2] a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census.

As of 2014, an article of INS said that the population of Constan?a grew, the city having at the end of the year 319,678 inhabitants living permanently within the city limits.

After Bucharest, the capital city, Romania has a number of major cities that are roughly equal in size: Constan?a, Ia?i, Cluj-Napoca, and Timi?oara.

The metropolitan area of Constan?a has a permanent population of 387,593 inhabitants,[2] i.e. 61% of the total population of the county, and a minimum average of 120,000 per day, tourists or seasonal workers, transient people during the high tourist season.

Ethnicity 1853[24] 1896[25] 1912[26] 1930[27] 1956[28] 1966[29] 2002[30] 2011[31]
All 5,204 10,419 27,201 60,106 99,676 150,276 310,471 283,872
Romanian 279 (5.4%) 2,519 (24.1%) 15,663 (57.6%) 40,857 (68.0%) 90,232 (90.5%) 138,955 (92.5%) 286,332 (92.2%) 235,925 (93.11%)
Tatar 1,853 (35.6%) 2,202 (21.1%) 277 (1%) 573 (1.0%) 1,968 (2.0%) 2,682 (1.8%) 8,724 (2.8%) 7,367 (2.6%)
Turkish 104 (2.0%) 2,451 (9%) 3,491 (5.8%) 3,260 (3.3%) 4,840 (3.2%) 9,018 (2.9%) 6,525 (2.3%)
Greek 1,542 (29.6%) 2,460 (23.6%) 3,170 (11.6%) 3,708 (6.2%) 791 (0.8%) 559 (0.4%) 546 (0.17%) 231 (0.08%)
Bulgarian 342 (6.5%) 1,060 (10.1%) 940 (3.4%) 1,196 (2.0%) 162 (0.2%) 191 (0.1%) 48 (0.01%) 18 (0.01%)
Jewish 344 (6.6%) 855 (8.2%) 1,266 (4.6%) 1,678 (2.8%) 585 (0.6%) 240 (0.2%) 44 (0.01%) 31 (0.01%)
Roma/Gypsy 127 (2.5%) n/a n/a 282 (0.5%) 4 (0.0%) 35 (0.0%) 2,962 (0.97%) 2,225 (0.78%)

Economy

The port of Kustendje/Köstence in 1856. Drawing by Camille Allard
View toward Constan?a shipyard

As of 1878, Constan?a was defined as a "poor Turkish fishing village." As of 1920, it was called "flourishing", and was known for exporting oil and cereals.[32]

Constan?a is one of Romania's main industrial, commercial and tourist centers.[33] During the first half of 2008, some 3,144 new companies were established in Constan?a and its neighbouring localities, a number surpassed only in Bucharest and Cluj County.[34] The Port of Constan?a is the largest on the Black Sea and the fourth largest in Europe.[35] The city also boasts a comparably large shipyard.[36]

Tourism has been an increasingly important economic activity in recent years. Although Constan?a has been promoted as a seaside resort since the time of Carol I, the development of naval industry had a detrimental effect on the city's beaches.[37] Nevertheless, due to its proximity to other major tourist destinations, Constan?a receives a significant number of visitors every year, who discover and visit the city's monuments and attractions. Also, Constan?a is a centre of commerce and education, both of which significantly contribute to the local economy.

Transport

A2 motorway, also known as "Sun's Highway"

The opening, in 1895, of the railway to Bucharest, which crosses the Danube River at the bridge at Cernavod?, brought Constan?a considerable transit trade in grain and petroleum, which are largely exported; coal and coke head the list of imports, followed by machinery, iron goods, and cotton and woollen fabrics.

The A2 motorway provides a rapid road link between Constan?a and Bucharest, while the A4 motorway acts as the city's outer traffic ring, diverting heavy traffic to and from the Port of Constan?a and to Mangalia.

The Port of Constan?a includes the North Port and the South Port, and is the fourth largest in Europe. It is protected by breakwaters, with a lighthouse at the entrance. The port is sheltered from the northerly winds, but southerly winds can prove highly dangerous at times. The Black Sea squadron of the Romanian fleet is stationed here. A large canal (the Danube-Black Sea Canal) connects the Danube River to the Black Sea at Constan?a.

The city is served by Mihail Kog?lniceanu International Airport.

One of Constan?a's distinctive pink MAZ buses, running on Route 44

Constan?a's public transport system is run by Regia Autonom? de Transport în Comun Constan?a (RATC), and consists of 23 year-round bus lines, and one summer sightseeing double decker open top bus line to tourists.

In the early 2000s, the city bought 130 new MAZ buses to replace the aging fleet of DAC buses. The entire fleet is now made up of buses from the 2000-2008 period, which are painted in distinctive bright colors, such as pink, yellow and green. There is also a fleet of double decker Volvo buses that run in the summer, providing access to and from the resort of Mamaia. As of October 2013, the cost of a return ticket is 3 lei.[38]

Trams were active until the early 2000s. By this time, however, the cars were almost 25 years old and with the difficulties in maintenance, were decommissioned in favour of long-wheelbase buses. Two trolley bus lines were active until the late 2000s - now also decommissioned and replaced by buses.

At the end of March 2014, all public buses were upgraded with Wi-Fi for free use by all passengers. Speeds fall into the 3G HSDPA mobile range. Also, as an upgrade to the ticketing system, since the same time, tickets and per day all bus lines subscriptions can be bought via SMS, accepted by all national operators.[39]

In July 2018 Constan?a municipality signed an EUR18 million-contract to acquire new buses manufactured by the Turkish company Anadolu Isuzu.[40]

There are also plenty of private minibuses (similar to a share taxi) which run along longer and more intricate lines. The price of a minibus ticket, as of October 2013, varies between 1 and 2 lei depending on the operator.

Tourism

The Thinker and The Sitting Woman; by Hamangia culture from Romania; circa 5000 BCE; terracotta; height of the man: 11.5 cm, height of the woman: 11.4 cm

Situated at the crossroads of several commercial routes, Constan?a lies on the western coast of the Black Sea, 185 miles (298 km) from the Bosphorus Strait. An ancient metropolis and Romania's largest sea port, Constan?a traces its history some 2,500 years. Originally called Tomis, legend has it that Jason landed here with the Argonauts after finding the Golden Fleece.

One of the largest cities in Romania, Constan?a is now an important cultural and economic center, worth exploring for its archaeological treasures and the atmosphere of the old town center. Its historical monuments, ancient ruins, grand Casino, museums and shops, and proximity to beach resorts make it the focal point of Black Sea coast tourism. Open-air restaurants, nightclubs and cabarets offer a wide variety of entertainment. Regional attractions include traditional villages, vineyards, ancient monuments and the Danube Delta, the best preserved delta in Europe.

The National History and Archaeology Museum is located in the old City Hall and has a very large collection of ancient art.

Main sights

The Casino at sunset
Details from the House with Lions
Carol I Mosque, Constan?a is the centre of Islam in Romania.
The Ottoman Hunchiar mosque in Constan?a is still used by the Turkish minority

Ovid's Square

Designed by the sculptor Ettore Ferrari in 1887, the statue dedicated to the Roman poet, Publius Ovidius Naso, gives name to this square. There is an identical replica of the statue in Sulmona, Ovid's hometown in Italy. Emperor Augustus exiled Ovid to Tomis in 8 AD. In 1916, during the occupation of Dobruja by the Central Powers, the statue was taken down by Bulgarian troops, but it was later restored by the Germans.[41]

The Roman Mosaics (Edificiul Roman cu Mozaic)

A vast complex on three levels once linked the upper town to the harbor. Today, only about a third of the original edifice remains, including more than 9,150 sq ft (850 m2) of colorful mosaics. Built toward the end of the 4th century AD and developed over the centuries, it was the city's commercial center until the 7th century. Archaeological vestiges point to the existence of workshops, warehouses and shops in the area. Remains of the Roman public baths can still be seen nearby. Aqueducts brought water 6 miles (10 km) to the town.

The Genoese Lighthouse (Farul Genovez)

Soaring 26 feet (7.9 m), the Genoese Lighthouse was built in 1860 by the Danubius and Black Sea Company to honor Genoese merchants who established a flourishing sea trade community here in the 13th century.

The Casino (Cazinoul)

Designed by architects Daniel Renard and Petre Antonescu and completed between the two World Wars, the art-nouveau style Constan?a Casino features sumptuous architecture and a wonderful view of the sea. The pedestrian area around the Casino is a sought-after destination for couples and families, especially at sunset. The Constan?a Aquarium is nearby.

The House with Lions (Casa cu Lei)

Blending pre-Romantic and Genovese architectural styles, this late 19th century building features four columns adorned with imposing sculptured lions. During the 1930s, its elegant salons hosted the Constan?a Masonic Lodge.

The Archeology Park (Parcul Arheologic)

Situated in the heart of Constan?a City, the park is the place that emanates the perfume of the history of Tomis Fortress. Here there are exposed dozens of vestiges: columns, amphorae, capitols, fragments of 3rd and 4th-century buildings and a 6th-century tower.

National Opera and Ballet Theater Oleg Danovski

Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul

Constructed in Greco-Roman style between 1883 and 1885, the church was severely damaged during World War II and was restored in 1951. The interior murals display a neo-Byzantine style combined with Romanian elements best observed in the iconostasis and pews, chandeliers and candlesticks (bronze and brass alloy), all designed by Ion Mincu and completed in Paris.

The Great Mahmudiye Mosque (Moscheea Mare Mahmoud II)

Built in 1910 by King Carol I, the mosque is the seat of the Mufti, the spiritual leader of the 55,000 Muslims (Turks and Tatars by origin) who live along the coast of the Dobrogea region. The building combines Byzantine and Romanian architectural elements, making it one of the most distinctive mosques in the area. The centerpiece of the interior is a large Turkish carpet, a gift from Sultan Abdul Hamid. Woven at the Hereke Handicraft Center in Turkey, it is one of the largest carpets in Europe, weighing 1,080 pounds. The main attraction of the mosque is the 164 ft (50 m) minaret (tower) which offers a stunning view of the old downtown and harbor. Five times a day, the muezzin climbs 140 steps to the top of the minaret to call the faithful to prayer.

Hünkar Mosque (Geamia Hunchiar)

The mosque was built between 1867-1868 by Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz for Turks who were forced to leave Crimea after the Crimean War (1853-56) and settled in Constan?a. The mosque has a 24m high minaret and was subject to a restoration in 1945 and 1992.

The Fantasio Theatre (Teatrul Fantasio)

Built in 1927 by Demostene Tranulis, a local philanthropist of Greek origin, this theatre used to be called "Tranulis" before 1947, after the name of its benefactor. It's a fine building featuring elements of neoclassical architecture, located in the heart of the city, on Ferdinand Boulevard.

Romanian Navy Museum (Muzeul marinei române)

The museum is the largest institution of this kind in Romania and it hosts precious evidence concerning the development of the country's military and civil navy. The idea of founding the museum was outlined for the first time in 1919, but it was materialized only in the late 1960s at the initiative of Nicolae Ceau?escu, when the Romanian Navy Museum was officially opened on 3 August 1969. Museum collections capture models of ships, knots, anchors, navy uniforms. It has also a special collection dedicated to important figures who made history in the Romanian navy. Prices for a single ticket range from 5 RON to 10 RON.

The Natural Sciences Museum Complex (Complexul Muzeal de ?tiin?e ale Naturii)

It is considered an important reference point for the cultural and scientific image of Constan?a, with a high emblematic value in the summer offer of the Romanian seacoast. It consists of Dolphinarium, Planetarium, Exotic Birds Exhibition, and Micro Delta.

Neighborhoods

  • Abator
  • Anadalchioi
  • Badea Câr?an
  • Boreal
  • Casa de Cultur?
  • Centru
  • C.E.T.
  • Coiciu
  • Dacia
  • Energia
  • Falez? Nord
  • Falez? Sud (Poarta 6)
  • Far
  • Gar?
  • Groap?
  • Halta Traian
  • I.C.I.L.
  • I. C. Br?tianu (Filimon Sîrbu between 1948-1990)
  • Inel I
  • Inel II
  • Km. 4 (Billa)
  • Km. 4-5
  • Km. 5
  • Mamaia
  • Medeea
  • Palas
  • Palazu Mare
  • Peninsul?
  • Pesc?rie
  • Pia?a Chiliei
  • Pia?a Grivi?ei
  • Port
  • T?b?carie
  • Tomis I
  • Tomis II
  • Tomis III
  • Tomis IV
  • Tomis Nord
  • Trocadero
  • Unirii
  • Victoria
  • Viile Noi
  • Zona Industrial?

(Formally, Mamaia and Palazu Mare are separate villages administered by Constan?a municipality.)

Politics

The current mayor of Constan?a is Vergil Chi?ac (National Liberal Party).

The Constan?a Municipal Council is made up of 27 councilors, with the following party composition:

    Party Seats in 2004 Seats in 2008 Seats in 2012 Seats in 2016 Seats in 2020 Council following the 2020 local elections
  Social Democratic Party 15 19 15 13 8                    
  National Liberal Party 6 3 4 10 10                    
  USR-PLUS N/A N/A N/A 3 9                    
  People's Movement Party N/A N/A N/A 3 0                    
  Independent N/A N/A N/A 1 N/A                    
  Democratic Liberal Party 3 5 3 N/A N/A                    
  National Union for the Progress of Romania 0 0 3 0 N/A                    
  People's Party - Dan Diaconescu 0 0 3 N/A N/A                    
  Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party 0 0 1 0 0                    
  Greater Romania Party 3 0 0 0 0                    

Media

Sports

Constan?a is home to several football clubs, with FC Viitorul playing in the Romanian first division and FC Farul playing in the Romanian second division. There are two rugby teams in Constan?a: RC Farul Constan?a, who play in Divizia Na?ional? BRD, and Constructul Cleopatra Constan?a, who play in Divizia A. One of the top Romanian handball clubs, HCD Constan?a, is also based in the city. Olympic champion gymnasts Camelia Voinea, Nicoleta Daniela Sofronie, Simona Amânar and C?t?lina Ponor were born in Constan?a. R?zvan Florea, swimmer who won bronze medal at 2004 Summer Olympics was also born in Constan?a. Former World number 1 in tennis Simona Halep is also a native of the city.

Constan?a and Mamaia, the neighboring summer holiday resort, are home to the Constan?a-Mamaia ETU Triathlon European Cup that was held there in 2014 and 2015 and is also planned to take place in 2016.[42][43]

International relations

Twin towns - sister cities

Constan?a is twinned with:[44]

Consulates

  • Russia The Consulate General of Russia
  • Turkey The Consulate General of Turkey
  • Albania The Honorary Consulate of Albania
  • Austria The Honorary Consulate of Austria
  • Cyprus The Honorary Consulate of Cyprus
  • Estonia The Honorary Consulate of Estonia
  • Finland The Honorary Consulate of Finland
  • France The Honorary Consulate of France
  • Italy The Honorary Consulate of Italy
  • Kazakhstan The Honorary Consulate of Kazakhstan
  • Lebanon The Honorary Consulate of Lebanon
  • Netherlands The Honorary Consulate of the Netherlands
  • North Macedonia The Honorary Consulate of North Macedonia
  • Norway The Honorary Consulate of Norway
  • Syria The Honorary Consulate of Syria

Natives of Constan?a

Education

References

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  4. ^ "Constanta". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ "Constan?a". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ "Constan?a" (US) and "Constan?a". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ "Constan?a". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2019.
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  11. ^ The Cambridge Companion to Ovid ed. Philip Hardie p.235.
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  14. ^ "Article X of the Treaty". Retrieved 2018.
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  16. ^ "CLIMAT summary for 15480: Constanta (Romania) - Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved 2017.
  17. ^ "AIR TEMPERATURE (monthly and yearly absolute maximum and absolute minimum)" (PDF). Romanian Statistical Yearbook: Geography, Meteorology, and Environment. Romanian National Statistic Institute. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2015.
  18. ^ "Constan?a Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015.
  19. ^ "Klimatafel von Constanta (Konstanza), Dobrudscha / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 2016.
  20. ^ "The history of Constan?a" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2011-09-14.
  21. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  22. ^ "A Handbook of Roumania". Retrieved .
  23. ^ Populatia RPR la 25 ianuarie 1948
  24. ^ Robert St?nciugel and Liliana Monica B?la?a, Dobrogea în Secolele VII-XIX. Evolu?ie istoric?, Bucharest, 2005; pg. 202
  25. ^ Lucian Boia, History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Central European University Press, 2001, p. 182
  26. ^ Ioan N Roman, La population de la Dobrogea d'après le recensement du 1er janvier 1913 in La Dobrogea Roumaine, Bucharest, 1919
  27. ^ "Ethnic composition of Romania 1930". pop-stat.mashke.org. Retrieved .
  28. ^ "Ethnic composition of Romania 1956". pop-stat.mashke.org. Retrieved .
  29. ^ "Ethnic composition of Romania 1966". pop-stat.mashke.org. Retrieved .
  30. ^ 2011 census results per county, cities and towns "Structura Etno-demografic? a României". Edrc.ro. 2011-12-28. Retrieved .
  31. ^ "Popula?ia stabil? dup? etnie - jude?e, municipii, ora?e, comune" (XLS) (in Romanian). Institutul Na?ional de Statistic?. Retrieved .
  32. ^ Stoica, Vasile (1919). The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Printing Company. p. 77.
  33. ^ "GhidTuristic.Ro: Jude?ul Constan?a" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 2008.
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  35. ^ "Port of Constan?a Ranking". www.eosnap.com. 2010-10-19.
  36. ^ "?antierul Naval Constan?a: Despre noi". Retrieved 2008.
  37. ^ Juler, Caroline. Rumunia. Przewodniki National Geographic (in Polish). National Geographic Polska.
  38. ^ ILiNC. "Regia Autonom? de Transport în Comun Constan?a | Home". www.ratc.ro. Retrieved .
  39. ^ "Internet gratuit în autobuzele RATC. Wireless în toate mijloacele de transport din Constan?a". www.digi24.ro.
  40. ^ "Anadolu Isuzu signs 18 mln euro bus supply deal with Romania's Constanta". seenews.com. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  41. ^ Fati, Sabina (11 June 2020). "?tergerea memoriei sau rescrierea istoriei. Când a d?râmat România prima statuie" (in Romanian). Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 2020.
  42. ^ "2014 Constanta-Mamaia ETU Triathlon European Cup | Triathlon.org". www.triathlon.org. Retrieved .
  43. ^ "2016 Constanta-Mamaia ETU Triathlon Premium European Cup | Triathlon.org". www.triathlon.org. Retrieved .
  44. ^ "Ora?e înfrite". primaria-constanta.ro (in Romanian). Constan?a. Retrieved .

Studies

  • Livia Buzoianu and Maria Barbulescu, "Tomis," in Dimitrios V. Grammenos and Elias K. Petropoulos (eds), Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea, Vol. 1 (Oxford, Archaeopress, 2001) (BAR International Series; 1675 (1-2)), 287-336.

External links


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