Constitution Party (US)
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Constitution Party US

Constitution Party
ChairmanJim Clymer
Presidential nomineeDon Blankenship (WV)
Vice Presidential nomineeWilliam Mohr (MI)
Founded1990; 30 years ago (1990) (as )
1999 (1999) (as Constitution Party)
Headquarters408 West Chestnut Street, Lancaster, Pennsylvania 17603
Membership (Early 2020)Increase 118,088 (0.10%)[1]
IdeologyChristian right[2]
Conservatism[3]
Fiscal conservatism[2]
Paleoconservatism[4][5]
Social conservatism[2]
Political positionRight wing[6][7] to
far-right[8][9][10][11][12]
Colors      Red, white and blue (national colors)
  Purple (de facto)
Seats in the Senate
Seats in the House
Governorships
State Upper House Seats
State Lower House Seats
Other elected offices26[13]
Website
constitutionparty.com

The Constitution Party, formerly the U.S. Taxpayers' Party until 1999, is a political party in the United States that promotes a right-to-far-right view of the principles and intents of the United States Constitution. The party platform is based on originalist interpretations of the Constitution and shaped by principles which it believes were set forth in the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, the Constitution and the Bible.

The party was founded by Howard Phillips, a conservative activist, after President George H. W. Bush violated his pledge of "read my lips: no new taxes". During the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections the party sought to give its presidential nomination to prominent politicians including Pat Buchanan and Ross Perot, but was unsuccessful and instead selected Phillips as its presidential nominee thrice. Michael Peroutka was given the presidential in 2004, Chuck Baldwin was given the presidential nomination in 2008 although he faced opposition from multiple state affiliates, Virgil Goode was given the presidential nomination in 2012, Darrell Castle was given the presidential nomination in 2016, and Don Blankenship was given the presidential nomination in 2020.

In 2000, Rick Jore became the first member of the party to hold a seat in a state legislature and was later the first member to win election to a state legislature in 2006. In 2002, Greg Moeller became the first member of the party to win a partisan election. The Constitution parties of Minnesota and Colorado have both achieved major party status once.

As of July 2020, the Constitution Party has 26 members who have been elected to city council seats and other municipal offices across the United States. In terms of registered members, the party ranks fifth among national parties in the United States.[14]

History

Formation

During the 1988 presidential election Republican nominee George H. W. Bush stated "read my lips: no new taxes" at the 1988 Republican National Convention. However, Bush violated that pledge during his presidency. Following the breaking of the no new taxes pledge Howard Phillips announced that he would form a third political party called the U.S. Taxpayers' Party.[15]

Phillips formed his new party through the U.S. Taxpayers Alliance, an organization he had founded and which had affiliates in twenty-five states, using its mailing list to announce the formation of a new party.[16][17] Phillips also attempted to create a coalition with state affilates of the American Party, but was rejected.[18] The party was accepted into the Coalition for Free and Open Elections alongside the Freedom Socialist Party.[19] The party launched its first petition drive when Jack Perry started a campaign to appear on the 1991 United States special election ballot in Pennsylvania.[20]

1990s

From January 25 to 26, 1997, the national committee of the U.S. Taxpayers' Party convened in Miami, Florida. During their meeting it was proposed to change the name of the party to either "Constitutional" or "Independent American", but the vote was tied 27 to 27 so U.S. Taxpayers' was retained as the party's name.[21] In March 1999, another name change was proposed, with American Independent, American Heritage, Constitutional, Independent American, and American Constitution as possible names, but it was unsuccessful.[22][23] On September 3, 1999, the national convention of the U.S. Taxpayers' Party was held and during it the name of the party was successfully changed to Constitution.[24] Every state affiliate of the party, except for Nevada and California, changed their names except for in Michigan where the Michigan Secretary of State denied the request.[25]

In 1998, Patricia Becker, the U.S. Taxpayer's nominee for Minnesota state auditor, received over 5% of the popular vote giving the U.S Taxpayers' Party major party status in Minnesota. The party would later hold caucuses during the 2000 presidential election.[26]

1992 presidential election

Members of the party sought to give its presidential nomination to Ross Perot or Pat Buchanan during the 1992 presidential election, but were unsuccessful.[27][28] In January 1992, Phillips was selected to serve as a tentative presidential candidate for the party until a more prominent candidate wanted the party's presidential nomination.[29]Albion W. Knight Jr. was later selected to serve as the party's tentative vice-presidential nominee.[30]

On April 15, Phillips announced that he would run for the presidency.[31] Phillips accepted the U.S. Taxpayers' Party's presidential nomination at its national convention in New Orleans, Louisiana, which was held from September 4 to 5.[32][33] In the general election Phillips and Knight placed seventh with 43,400 votes.[34]

Following the 1992 presidential election the U.S. Taxpayers' Party's had ballot qualified state affiliates in California, New Mexico, and South Carolina.[35]

1996 presidential election

In 1996, Phillips sent a memo to conservative Christian leaders including James Dobson, the head of Focus on the Family, stating that anti-abortion candidates like Pat Buchanan, Alan Keyes, or Bob Dornan were unlikely to become the Republican presidential nominee and that they should instead support an anti-abortion third party candidate.[36]

Phillips supported giving the presidential nomination of the U.S. Taxpayers' Party to Buchanan.[37] Tom Staley, Buchanan's campaign chairman in northern Texas, stated that Buchanan would consider accepting the party's nomination if it had ballot access in all fifty states.[38] Phillips was given the party's presidential nomination again at its national convention in San Diego, California, on August 17, 1996, and Herbert Titus was selected to serve as the vice-presidential nominee.[39] In the general election Phillips and Titus placed sixth with 184,820 votes.[40]

2000s

In 2000, a schism occurred within the party, with those who advocated an explicitly religious party leaving to form the Christian Liberty Party, then known as the American Heritage Party.[41][42]

On February 15, 2000, Rick Jore, a member of the Montana House of Representatives who had attended the 1999 Constitution Party National Convention, announced that he was leaving the Republican Party and joining the Constitution Party.[43] Jore unsuccessfully sought reelection in 2000, and unsuccessfully attempted to win election to the Montana House of Representatives in 2002, and 2004, before winning election to the state house in 2006.[44][45]

On November 5, 2002, Greg Moeller became the first member of the Constitution Party to win a partisan election when he won election as a Scott Township Trustee in Hamilton County, Iowa, with only a write-in opponent.[46]

In 2006, the Constitution Party of Oregon disaffiliated with the national Constitution Party over disagreements regarding abortion policy. However, despite disaffiliating the Constitution Party of Oregon gave its presidential nomination to Baldwin during the 2008 presidential election. During the 2012 presidential election the party attempted to give its presidential nomination to Ron Paul, but he rejected it and Will Christensen was given the nomination instead. In 2013, the Constitution Party of Oregon affiliated with the Independent American Party.[47]

2000 presidential election

Unlike the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections the U.S. Taxpayers' Party did not seek a prominent politician to give its presidential nomination to.[48] New Hampshire Senator Bob Smith announced that he was leaving the Republican Party on July 13, 1999, and briefly sought the presidential nomination of the Constitution Party before dropping out.[49][50]

On September 4, 1999, the party selected to give its presidential nomination to Phillips and its vice-presidential nomination to Joseph Sobran.[51] However, on March 31, 2000, Sobran resigned from the ticket due to conflicts between him being a columnist and vice-presidential nominee.[52] On September 2, Curtis Frazier was selected to replace Sobran as the party's vice-presidential nominee.[53] In the general election Phillips and Frazier placed sixth with 98,027 votes.[54]

2004 presidential election

On November 7, 2003, Michael Peroutka announced that he would seek the Constitution Party's presidential nomination and on the same day the party selected him to serve as the stand-in presidential candidate.[55] He won the presidential nominations of the American Independent and Alaskan Independence parties.[56] Peroutka was given the party's presidential nomination and Chuck Baldwin was given the party's vice-presidential nomination.[57]

2008 presidential election

Chuck Baldwin and Alan Keyes sought the Constitution Party's presidential nomination during the 2008 presidential election. At the party's national convention Baldwin defeated Keyes winning the party's presidential nomination and Darrell Castle was selected to serve as the vice-presidential nominee.[58][59] Baldwin also received the presidential nomination of the Reform Party of Kansas.[60] In the general election they placed sixth with 199,880 votes.[61]

However, the American Independent Party, which had been affiliated with the Constitution since 1991, split into two factions between supports of Baldwin and Keyes.[62][63] The Secretary of State of California ruled that the presidential ticket of Keyes and Wiley Drake had the nomination of the American Independent Party.[64][65] In the general election they placed ninth with 47,941 votes.[61]

On September 5, the Constitution Party of Montana submitted a list of presidential electors pledged to Ron Paul for president and Michael Peroutka for vice-president. Paul was aware and that he would not object as long as he did not need to sign any declaration of candidacy.[66] However, Paul later wrote a letter to the Secretary of State of Montana asking for his name to be removed from the ballot as he was nominated without permission, but it was too late to remove his name from the ballot.[67] Paul also appeared on the ballot in Louisiana under the name "Louisiana Taxpayers Party" with Barry Goldwater Jr. as his vice-presidential running mate.[68] Paul later endorsed Baldwin for president.[69] In the general election he placed tenth with 47,512 votes.[61]

2010s

During the 2010 Colorado gubernatorial election the American Constitution Party, the Constitution Party's affiliate in Colorado, gave its gubernatorial nomination to Tom Tancredo. In the general election Tancredo received over 36% of the popular vote, more than the 10% required for major party status in Colorado.[70] During the campaign the American Constitution Party's voter registration doubled from 1,271 to 2,731 voters.[71] Major party status in Colorado gave the party the ability to appoint seventeen members to Colorado state boards and commissions, but the party suffered from complicated campaign finance reports and fines from errors and omissions in the reports which led to a negative bank account balance.[72][73]

2012 presidential election

On February 21, 2012, Virgil Goode, a former member of the United States House of Representatives who had served as a Democrat, independent, and Republican, announced that he would seek the Constitution Party's presidential nomination.[74] Goode won the nomination at the party's national convention which was held from April 18 to 21, 2012, in Nashville, Tennessee, and Jim Clymer was selected to serve as his vice-presidential running mate.[75] Goode was the first Constitution Party presidential nominee to have held elected federal or state office.[76] In the general election Goode and Clymer placed sixth with 122,417 votes.[77]

The Reform Party of Kansas gave its presidential nomination to Chuck Baldwin and its vice-presidential nomination to Joseph Martin as his vice-presidential running mate.[78] However, the party attempted to give its presidential nomination to Goode, but the attempt to change the nomination was rejected by the Kansas State Objections Board.[79][80]

2020s

In 2020, the Virginia, Idaho, South Dakota, and Alaska Constitution parties disaffiliated with the national Constitution Party and the Montana Constitution Party disbanded.[81] On April 14, the Constitution Party of Virginia's state committee voted to reaffilate with the national Constitution Party, but was rejected by the national party on May 2.[82]

2020 presidential election

From October 18 to 19, 2019, a meeting of the Constitution Party's national committee was held. Don Blankenship served as a speaker at the meeting and announced his intention to run for the party's presidential nomination.[83] On May 2, 2020, Blankenship won the party's nomination at its virtual convention and William Mohr was selected to serve as the vice-presidential nominee.[84]

However, the Constitution parties of Virginia and New Mexico instead gave their presidential nominations to Sheila Tittle and the Virginia Constitution Party gave its vice-presidential nomination to Matthew Hehl.[85][86] The South Carolina Constitution Party chose to not run a presidential candidate during the 2020 presidential election.[87]

Voter registration and notable members

CPWV symbol

Multiple Republicans, including Virgil Goode, Tom Tancredo, Ellen Craswell, Rick Jore, and Cynthia Davis, have joined the Constitution Party.[88][89]

On April 2, 2002, Ezola Foster, who had served as the Reform Party of the United States of America's vice-presidential nominee during the 2000 presidential election, left the Reform Party to join the Constitution Party. From 2002 to 2004, she served on the party's national committee.[90][91]

Jim Gilchrist, the founder of the Minuteman Project, ran for a seat in the United States House of Representatives from California's 48th congressional district in a 2005 special election. He was the nominee of the American Independent Party, when it was affiliated with the Constitution Party, and placed third with 26,507 votes (25.5%).[92][93] During the campaign Gilchrist had raised more money than all of the Democratic candidates.[94] Gilchrist's 25.5% was the highest percentage of the vote received for a third party candidate in an United States House of Representatives election where both major parties participated since the A Connecticut Party received 26.3% in Connecticut's 1st congressional district in 1994.[95]

Jerome Corsi, who co-authored books with Gilchrist and Ohio Secretary of State Ken Blackwell, considered running for the Constitution Party's presidential nomination during the 2008 presidential election, but declined to seek the nomination.[96][97]Joe Miller, who ran as the Republican nominee in Alaska's 2010 Senate election, considered running for the Constitution Party's presidential nomination during the 2016 presidential election, but later declined.[98][99]John Hostettler, who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1994 to 2006 as a Republican, also considered running for the party's presidential nomination in 2016.[100]

On November 18, 2010, Virgil Goode joined the national committee of the Constitution Party. Goode served as a speaker at the Constitution Party's national committee meetings in 2009 and 2012.[101] Goode later served as the party's presidential nominee during the 2012 presidential election.

Year RV.[102][103][104][105][106] % Change
1992 247,995 (0.33%) Steady
1994 246,951 (0.34%) Increase 0.01%
1996 306,900 (0.38%) Increase 0.04%
1998 317,510 (0.38%) Increase 0.00%
2000 348,977 (0.40%) Increase 0.02%
2002 325,828 (0.37%) Decrease 0.03%
2004 367,521 (0.38%) Increase 0.01%
2008 438,222 (0.44%) Increase 0.06%
2010 476,669 (0.47%) Increase 0.03%
2012 77,918 (0.07%) Decrease 0.40%
2016 92,483 (0.08%) Increase 0.01%
2018 105,668 (0.09%) Increase 0.01%
2020 118,088 (0.10%) Increase 0.01%

Platform

Domestic

Electoral College

The Constitution Party, in the 2016 platform, supported retaining the Electoral College and was opposed to establishing a popular vote system to elect the president and vice president of the United States.[107]

Environmental policy

The party believes that "it is our responsibility to be prudent, productive, and efficient stewards of God's natural resources".[108]

The party rejects the scientific consensus on climate change, saying that "globalists are using the global warming threat to gain more control via worldwide sustainable development". According to the party, eminent domain is unlawful because "under no circumstances may the federal government take private property, by means of rules and regulations which preclude or substantially reduce the productive use of the property, even with just compensation".[108]

In regards to energy, the party calls attention to "the continuing need of the United States for a sufficient supply of energy for national security and for the immediate adoption of a policy of free market solutions to achieve energy independence for the United States," and calls for the abolition of the Department of Energy.[109]

Federalism

The party supports the repeal of the Sixteenth Amendment, which allows Congress to tax income derived from interest, dividends, and capital gains, and the Seventeenth Amendment, which requires the direct (popular) election of Senators.[110] The party holds that each state's membership in the Union is voluntary,[111] a stance known as the compact theory.

Fiscal policy

The Constitution Party's 2012 platform called for phasing out social security, and the 2016 platform states that "Social Security is a form of individual welfare not authorized in the Constitution".[112][107]

The 2012 platform supports reducing the role of the United States federal government through cutting bureaucratic regulation, reducing spending, and replacing the income tax with a tariff-based revenue system supplemented by excise taxes. The party also takes the position that the "imposition [...] of Federal income, payroll, and estate taxes [...] is an unconstitutional Federal assumption of direct taxing authority".[113] The party also supports the prohibition of Fractional-reserve banking[114] and the return to the Gold standard saying quote "The Constitution forbade the States from accepting or using anything other than a Gold and Silver based currency"[115] as stated in the 2016-2020 platform.

Social policy

The party opposes euthanasia, suicide, and abortion, including in cases of rape and incest.[116] The party supports the right of states to administer the death penalty:[117]

The party opposes any government legislation to authorize or define marriage contrary to the Bible, and states that "The law of our Creator defines marriage as the union between one man and one woman".[118] It supports the right for local and state governments to "proscribe offensive sexual behavior" and rejects "the notion that homosexuals, transgenders or those who are sexually deviant are deserving of legal favor or special protection".[119] The party strongly opposes "adoption by homosexual singles or couples". The party also opposes pornography, believing that it is "a destructive element of society resulting in significant and real emotional, physical, spiritual and financial costs to individuals, families and communities," and distinguishable from the US citizen's "cherished First Amendment right to free speech." While expressing its belief in the individual responsibility of citizens and corporations, the party maintains that government plays a "vital role" in establishing and maintaining the highest level of decency in America's community standards.[120] The party opposes all government sponsorship, involvement in, or promotion of gambling.[121] Citing Article 1 Section 8 and Amendment 10, the party opposes federal anti-drug laws, while conceding that the federal government may have a role in limiting the import of drugs.[122]

The Constitution Party believes that charitable giving is most effective when conducted by private parties. Because the authority to administer charity has not been granted to the government in the Constitution, the party maintains that the government has no business being involved in such endeavors.[123] The party opposes federal restrictions on, or subsidization of, medical treatments.[124]

The party supports English as the official language for all governmental business, opposes bilingual ballots, and insists that those who wish to take part in the electoral process and governance of the U.S. be required to read and comprehend basic English as a precondition for citizenship.[125]

In 2009, the Southern Poverty Law Center described the party as a "Patriot Group" a category of parties that "advocate or adhere to extreme anti-government doctrines".[126]

Religion

R. J. Rushdoony, a main figure in Christian reconstructionism, helped write the party's 1992 platform. The 1992 platform stated that "the U.S. Constitution established a republic under God, not a democracy". Christian reconstructionism has been influential in the Constitution Party and calls for the remaking of government and society according to Old Testament Biblical law.[127]

The preamble of the 2004 platform states that the Lordship of Christ Jesus and the Bible are the final authority of law. It also stated that the purpose of the party was to restore American jurisprudence to its biblical and constitutional roots.[128]

Foreign

Trade

The Constitution Party's 2012 platform supports a non-interventionist foreign policy. It advocates reduction and eventual elimination of the role the United States plays in multinational and international organizations such as the United Nations and favors withdrawal of the United States from most treaties, such as NATO, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The party takes mercantilist positions in supporting protectionist policies on international trade.

The party also believes in exercising a tariff system to counteract the United States' increasingly negative balance of trade.[129]

Immigration policy

The party in 2012 opposed illegal immigration and sought stricter controls on legal immigration. It demanded that the federal government implement an immigration policy disqualifying potential immigrants on grounds of ill health, criminality, low morals, or financial dependence, claiming that they would impose an improper burden on the United States. The party favored a moratorium on future immigration, with exceptions only for extreme cases of necessity, until federal welfare programs have been phased out and a better vetting program is in place.[125]

The party opposes welfare subsidies and other benefits to undocumented immigrants. It rejects the practice of bestowing U.S. citizenship on children born to illegal immigrant parents while in this country (jus soli), and flatly rejects any extension of amnesty to undocumented immigrants. The Constitution Party calls for the use of the United States military to enforce the strict immigration policy.

Electoral results

President

Year Presidential nominee Home state Previous positions Vice presidential nominee Home state Previous positions Votes Notes
1992 Howard Phillips -v2.JPG
Howard Phillips
 Virginia Chairman of The Conservative Caucus
Candidate for Massachusetts's 6th congressional district
(1970)
Candidate for United States Senator from Massachusetts
(1978)

Albion W. Knight
 Florida Presiding Bishop of the United Episcopal Church of North America
(1989-1992)
43,369 (0.04%)
0 EV
1996 Howard Phillips -v2.JPG
Howard Phillips
 Virginia (see above for previous positions)
Nominee for President of the United States
(1992)
Herbert Titus  Oregon Lawyer, writer 184,656 (0.19%)
0 EV
2000 Howard Phillips -v2.JPG
Howard Phillips
 Virginia (see above for previous positions)
Nominee for President of the United States
(1992; 1996)
Curtis Frazier  Missouri Nominee for United States Senator from Missouri
(1998)
98,020 (0.09%)
0 EV
[130]
2004 Michael Peroutka  Maryland Lawyer
Founder of the Institute on the Constitution
CBaldwin08 (cropped).jpg
Chuck Baldwin
 Florida Pastor, radio host 143,630 (0.12%)
0 EV
2008 CBaldwin08 (cropped).jpg
Chuck Baldwin
(campaign)
 Florida Nominee for Vice President of the United States
(2004)
DCastle08.jpg
Darrell Castle
 Tennessee Lawyer 199,750 (0.15%)
0 EV
[131]
2012 Virgil Goode, official 109th Congress photo.jpg
Virgil Goode
(campaign)
 Virginia Member of the Virginia Senate
(1973-1997)
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Virginia's 5th district
(1997-2009)
Jim Clymer  Pennsylvania Nominee for Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
(1994; 1998)
Chair of the Constitution Party
(1999-2012)
Nominee for Attorney General of Pennsylvania
(2000)
Nominee for United States Senator from Pennsylvania
(2004)
122,388 (0.09%)
0 EV
2016 DCastle08.jpg
Darrell Castle
(campaign)
 Tennessee[132] Nominee for Vice President of the United States
(2008)
Scott Bradley  Utah Nominee for United States Senator from Utah
(2006; 2010)
203,069 (0.15%)
0 EV
[133][132]
2020 Don Blankenship Image (cropped).jpeg
Don Blankenship
 West Virginia Former CEO of Massey Energy
Republican candidate for U.S. Senate from West Virginia (2018)
William Mohr.jpg
William Mohr
 Michigan Chairman of the U.S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan [134]

House of Representatives

Election year No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of representatives +/-
2000 122,936 0.1%
2002 99,306 0.1%
Steady 0
2004 132,613 0.2%
Steady 0
2006 68,031 0.1%
Steady 0
2008 136,021 0.1%
Steady 0
2010 123,841 0.1%
Steady 0
2012 118,102 0.1%
Steady 0
2016 127,376 0.1%
Steady 0
2018 74,956
Steady 0
General election results source:[135]

Senate

United States Senate
Election year No. of total votes % of vote No. of seats won
1998 183,588 0.3% 0
2000 286,816 0.4% 0
2002 60,456 0.1% 0
2004 404,853 0.5% 0
2006 133,037 0.2% 0
2008 240,729 0.4% 0
2010 338,593 0.5% 0
2012 140,636 0.2% 0
2014 100,395 0.2% 0
2016 93,315 0.1% 0
2018 57,932 0
General election results source:[136]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Winger, Richard (March 27, 2020). "EARLY 2020 VOTER REGISTRATION TOTALS". ballot-access.org. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "Ideological Third Parties and Splinter Parties". Archived from the original on January 16, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  3. ^ Cox, Vicki (2007). The History of Third Parties. Infobase Publishing. p. 79.
  4. ^ Kleefeld, Eric (July 26, 2010). "Tancredo's New Home In The Constitution Party: A Religious, Paleoconservative Group Without Much Electoral Success". Talking Points Memo. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  5. ^ "Constitutionally Contentious". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ "Meet the Constitution Party's Candidate". Reason.com. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  7. ^ "Tancredo's New Home In The Constitution Party: A Religious, Paleoconservative Group Without Much Electoral Success". TPM. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  8. ^ Rudin, Ken. "Election 2010 Scorecard". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  9. ^ Joyce, Kathryn (2010). Quiverfull: Inside the Christian Patriarchy Movement. Beacon Press. pp. 7, 28. ISBN 978-0807010730.
  10. ^ Cohen, Nancy L. (2012). Delirium: The Politics of Sex in America. Counterpoint. p. 321. ISBN 1582438013.
  11. ^ Lovell, Jarret S. (2009). Crimes of Dissent: Civil Disobedience, Criminal Justice, and the Politics of Conscience. New York University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0814752272.
  12. ^ Smith, Ben (May 4, 2010). "Goode joins Constitution Party". Politico. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ "Current Office Holders". Constitution Party. July 29, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ Winger, Richard (November 21, 2016). "New Voter Registration Nation Totals". ballot-access.org Archived November 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  15. ^ "Riled GOP right wing putting Bush on notice". The Atlanta Constitution. November 11, 1990. p. 31. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  16. ^ "Integrity of Principles". Park Record. September 5, 1991. p. 14. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  17. ^ "Phillips Calls For New Party" (PDF). Ballot Access News. February 9, 1991. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 14, 2020.
  18. ^ "Religious right agenda is basis of new party". Tampa Bay Times. July 20, 1991. p. 55. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  19. ^ "COFOE Grows" (PDF). Ballot Access News. April 3, 1991. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2020.
  20. ^ "First petition campaign" (PDF). Ballot Access News. July 22, 1991. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 18, 2020.
  21. ^ "U.S. Taxpayers Party To Keep Name". Ballot Access News. February 10, 1997. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  22. ^ "U.S. Taxpayers' Party Name Change?". Ballot Access News. February 6, 1999. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  23. ^ "U.S. Taxpayers To Keep Name". Ballot Access News. April 3, 1999. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  24. ^ "Taxpayers' Party". Ballot Access News. October 1, 1999. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  25. ^ "Constitution Party of Michigan Asks Secretary of State to Let it Update its Name". Ballot Access News. March 27, 2019. Archived from the original on September 7, 2020.
  26. ^ "Major status in hand, Constitution Party holds its first caucuses". Star Tribune. March 8, 2000. p. 12. Archived from the original on September 12, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  27. ^ "Rumors boost Rose Perot for the presidency". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. November 24, 1991. p. 7. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  28. ^ "Clymer forms the U.S. Taxpayer Party in Pa". Intelligencer Journal. November 25, 1991. p. 8. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  29. ^ "Taxpayers Party To Run Phillips" (PDF). Ballot Access News. February 2, 1992. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 7, 2020.
  30. ^ "Taxpayers Party Chooses VP" (PDF). Ballot Access News. March 1, 1992. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 18, 2020.
  31. ^ "Phillips Wins Massachusetts Race" (PDF). Ballot Access News. March 30, 1992. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 14, 2020.
  32. ^ "1992 national convention". The Alliance Times-Herald. September 14, 1992. p. 4. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  33. ^ "National Conventions" (PDF). Ballot Access News. September 9, 1992. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2020.
  34. ^ "1992 Presidential General Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020.
  35. ^ "Changes In Ballot Status" (PDF). Ballot Access News. November 6, 1992. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2020.
  36. ^ "Memo to Christians: Be ready to abandon GOP". The Washington Post. July 6, 1995. p. 3. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  37. ^ "Can Buchanan take center stage?". Chicago Tribune. September 1, 1995. p. 139. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  38. ^ "Independent party wants Buchanan". Billings Gazette. March 21, 1996. p. 7. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  39. ^ "U.S. Taxpayers Party Convention". Ballot Access News. September 9, 1996.
  40. ^ "1996 Presidential General Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  41. ^ Blevins, Dave (2006). American Political Parties in the 21st Century. McFarland & Company. p. 15-17. ISBN 978-0-7864-2480-1.
  42. ^ Day, Alan John (2002). Political Parties of the World. John Harper. p. 508. ISBN 978-0-9536278-7-5.
  43. ^ "Constitution Party Has A State Legislator". Ballot Access News. March 1, 2000. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  44. ^ "Constitution Party". Ballot Access News. March 1, 2000. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  45. ^ "Montana Supreme Court Unseats Jore". Ballot Access News. January 1, 2005. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  46. ^ "Constitution Party Wins Its First Partisan Election". Ballot Access News. January 1, 2003. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  47. ^ "Constitution Party of Oregon Affiliates Itself with the National Alliance of Independent American Parties". Ballot Access News. September 7, 2013. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
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  49. ^ "Senator Smith Quits Republicans". Ballot Access News. August 3, 1999. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
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  59. ^ "Darrell Castle is Constitution Party Vice-Presidential Nominee". Ballot Access News. April 26, 2008. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  60. ^ "Kansas Secretary of State Accepts Reform Party Paperwork for President". Ballot Access News. July 8, 2008. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
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  64. ^ "Alan Keyes Faction of the American Independent Party of California". Ballot Access News. July 7, 2008. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  65. ^ "Alan Keyes Faction of American Independent Party Tentatively Wins Intra-Party Dispute on Procedural Issues". Ballot Access News. March 10, 2011. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  66. ^ "Montana Constitution Party Submits Presidential Electors Pledged to Ron Paul and Michael Peroutka". Ballot Access News. September 5, 2008. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  67. ^ "Ron Paul Wants Off Montana Ballot". Flathead Beacon. September 11, 2008. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  68. ^ "Louisiana Asked to Print Ron Paul on Ballot as Presidential Candidate". Ballot Access News. September 4, 2008. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  69. ^ "Republican Congressman Ron Paul endorses Constitution Party nominee Chuck Baldwin for President of the United States". Wikinews. September 23, 2008. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020.
  70. ^ "American Constitution Party faces major headaches as a major Colorado party". West World. March 6, 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020.
  71. ^ "Colorado Constitution Party Registration More than Doubles in Last Five Months". Ballot Access News. November 16, 2010. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020.
  72. ^ "Constitution Party Now Entitled to Appoint Members to 17 Colorado State Boards". Ballot Access News. November 19, 2010. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020.
  73. ^ "Colorado Constitution Party Suffers from Being a Qualified Major Party". Ballot Access News. August 27, 2013. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020.
  74. ^ "Virgil Goode Seeks Constitution Party Nomination". Ballot Access News. March 1, 2012. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  75. ^ "Constitution Party Presidential Convention Vote". Ballot Access News. March 1, 2012. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  76. ^ "Virgil Goode to Declare Presidency Candidacy in Front of Federal Hall, in New York City, on February 21". Ballot Access News. February 17, 2012. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
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  79. ^ "Kansas Reform Party Chooses Virgil Goode for President in Place of Chuck Baldwin". Ballot Access News. September 12, 2012. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  80. ^ "Kansas State Officials Reject Attempt to Place Andre Barnett on the Ballot as the Reform Party Nominee". Ballot Access News. September 13, 2012. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  81. ^ "Virginia Constitution Party Disaffiliates From National CP". Independent Political Report. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  82. ^ "CPV Appeal to Reassociate with National Constitution Party Rejected". Constitution Party of Virginia. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  83. ^ "Don Blankenship Declares for Constitution Party Presidential Nomination". Ballot Access News. October 20, 2019. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  84. ^ "Constitution Party Nominates Don Blankenship for President on Second Ballot". Ballot Access News. May 2, 2020. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  85. ^ "Virginia Constitution Party Nominates Sheila Tittle for President". Ballot Access News. July 26, 2020. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  86. ^ "Constitution Party of New Mexico Nominates Sheila "Samm" Tittle for President". Ballot Access News. May 19, 2020. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  87. ^ "South Carolina Constitution Party Will Not Have a Presidential Candidate". Ballot Access News. August 26, 2020. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  88. ^ "Former Missouri Legislator Joins Constitution Party". Ballot Access News. September 1, 2011. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
  89. ^ "US Taxpayers Gain A Convert". Ballot Access News. September 1, 2011. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  90. ^ "Ezola Foster". Join California. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
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  92. ^ "Constitution Party to contest special congressional election". Ballot Access News. August 20, 2005. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  93. ^ "2005 Special Election Results" (PDF). Secretary of State of California. December 6, 2005.
  94. ^ "Constitution Candidate Raises More Money than Democrat". Ballot Access News. September 25, 2005. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  95. ^ "Calif. Congressional Election". Ballot Access News. December 6, 2005. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  96. ^ "Jerome Corsi Considers Seeking Constitution Party Presidential Nomination". Ballot Access News. May 21, 2007. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  97. ^ "Jerome Corsi Won't Seek Constitution Party Presidential Nomination". Ballot Access News. July 14, 2007. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  98. ^ "Joe Miller, Republican U.S. Senate Nominee in Alaska in 2010, Reportedly will Seek Constitution Party Presidential Nomination". Ballot Access News. April 7, 2016. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  99. ^ "Joe Miller Decides Not to Seek Constitution Party Presidential Nomination". Ballot Access News. April 12, 2016. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  100. ^ "Former Congressman Seems Likely To Seek Constitution Nomination". Ballot Access News. September 1, 2015. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020.
  101. ^ "Former Congressman Virgil Goode Gets Closer To Constitution Party". Ballot Access News. March 1, 2011. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020.
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  109. ^ Party Platform (Energy) Archived April 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Constitutionparty.org, Retrieved April 2, 2014
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  111. ^ "Party Platform (Statehood)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
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  114. ^ https://www.constitutionparty.com/assets/2016-2010_National_Platform.pdf
  115. ^ https://www.constitutionparty.com/assets/2016-2010_National_Platform.pdf
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  117. ^ "Party Platform (Crime)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  118. ^ "Party Platform (Family)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  119. ^ "Constitution Party on Civil Rights". OnTheIssues,org. Retrieved 2020.
  120. ^ "Party Platform (Pornography, Obscenity, and Sexually Oriented Businesses)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  121. ^ "Party Platform (Gambling)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  122. ^ "Party Platform (Drug Abuse)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  123. ^ "Party Platform (Welfare)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  124. ^ "Party Platform (Health Care and Government)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
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  126. ^ "'Patriot' Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Spring 2009. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved 2009. Generally, Patriot groups define themselves as opposed to the 'New World Order' or advocate or adhere to extreme anti-government doctrines. ... Listing here does not imply that the groups themselves advocate or engage in violence or other criminal activities, or are racist.
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  129. ^ "Party Platform (Tariffs and Trade)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  130. ^ Joseph Sobran was the original vice presidential nominee, but he withdrew from the ticket and was replaced by Frazier.
  131. ^ In Montana, Baldwin and Castle did not appear on the ballot; instead, Ron Paul and Michael Peroutka appeared as the Constitution presidential and vice presidential nominees, respectively. Paul and Peroutka received an additional 10,638 votes.
  132. ^ a b Nelson, Steven (August 9, 2016). "Bible Says No to Trump-Clinton Choice, Third-Party Candidate Says". US News. Retrieved 2020.
  133. ^ In Idaho, Castle and Bradley did not appear on the ballot under the Constitution Party; instead, Scott Copeland and J. R. Myers appeared as the Constitution presidential and vice presidential nominees, respectively. Copeland and Myers received an additional 2,356 votes. Castle and Bradley ran in the state as independents and received 4,411 votes.
  134. ^ "William Mohr". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2020.
  135. ^ "Constitution Party General Election Results - 2018". ConstitutionParty.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  136. ^ "Constitution Party General Election Results - 2018". Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved 2019.

References

External links


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