Crispin Gardiner
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Crispin Gardiner

Crispin Gardiner
Crispin Gardiner (2000)
Crispin William Gardiner

(1942-10-18) 18 October 1942 (age 77)
Alma mater
Known forStochastic methods
Quantum noise
Quantum optics
Scientific career
ThesisTopics in Elementary Particle Physics (1968)
Doctoral advisorRichard Dalitz
Doctoral studentsPeter Drummond (physicist)
InfluencesNico van Kampen Dan Walls

Crispin Gardiner (born 18 October 1942 in Hastings New Zealand) is a New Zealand physicist, who has worked in the fields of Quantum Optics, Ultracold Atoms and Stochastic Processes. He has written about 120 journal articles and several books in the fields of quantum optics, stochastic processes and ultracold atoms [1]


Crispin Gardiner completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Auckland (B. Sc. 1964, M. Sc. 1965) and received his D Phil in 1968 from the Oxford University for research in elementary particle physics.


Following his D Phil, Gardiner completed postdoctoral research in the group of George Sudarshan at the Syracuse University.

University of Waikato 1970-1995

He was appointed to the faculty of the Physics Department of the University of Waikato in 1970, and was awarded a personal chair in physics in 1992, a position held until 1995. When Gardiner arrived, the University of Waikato was only 5 years old, while the School of Science, which covered Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and Earth Science, had only commenced teaching at the beginning of 1970, and no research facilities had been established.[2]

Dan Walls took up a position at Waikato in 1972[3], and, working together, he and Gardiner established a major research centre for theoretical quantum optics at Waikato, building active and productive collaborations with groups throughout the world[3].

During this period

  • He wrote the first (1985) edition of the book Stochastic Methods [7], now seen as a standard text in the field of applied stochastic processes [8].
  • In 1986 he predicted the inhibition of atomic phase decays for a two-level atom coupled to a squeezed optical reservoir [9]. While challenging to realise in optical systems, the phenomenon was eventually observed in a superconducting cubit system affording sufficient reservoir control [10].
  • In 1993 he developed (at the same time as a separate formulation by Howard Carmichael) the theory and application of cascaded quantum systems, in which the optical output of one quantum system becomes the optical input for another quantum system.[13][14]

Independent Researcher at Victoria University of Wellington 1995-2005

In 1995 he left the University of Waikato and for the next nine years worked as an independently funded researcher affiliated to Victoria University of Wellington. This was funded by the New Zealand R&D system, which was willing to fund individuals outside established institutions, and was motivated by the opportunity to leave the increasingly bureaucratic New Zealand University system.[15] During this period his work concentrated on the physics of Ultracold atoms, developing a collaboration with Rob Ballagh of the University of Otago. They produced number of influential scientific publications, mainly concentrating on kinetic processes in Bose-Einstein condensates, funded by successive research contracts with the Marsden Fund [16][17][18][19][20][21] and in particular seven papers on quantum kinetic theory [22][23][24][25][26][27][28].

Gardiner characterised this period as "In terms of productivity, it has been the best 10 years research of my life."[15]

University of Otago 2005-2013

In 2005 he was appointed as a Research Professor at the University of Otago. In this period he was active in developing the University of Otago as a major research centre in ultracold atoms, photonics and quantum optics, which was named the Jack Dodd Centre, after former Otago professor Jack Dodd. During this period there was a major reorganisation of government research funding, commencing in 2006, which he and Rob Ballagh strongly criticised[29], on the grounds that this would exclude university research from any major funding. Ultimately this aspect of the funding reform was not implemented, and in 2007 the Jack Dodd Centre was awarded a $6.4 million research contract[30] by the Foundation for Research Science and Technology.

From that time on, as director of the Jack Dodd Centre, his role developed more into that of a research leader until his retirement in early 2013.


On retirement he became an honorary professor at the University of Otago and in 2016 he accepted a position as visiting fellow at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI) in Innsbruck.

During this period he and Peter Zoller wrote the three books of The Quantum World of Ultra-Cold Atoms and Light[31]


Stochastic Methods

  • C W Gardiner: A Handbook of Stochastic Methods; Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 1st ed. 1983; 2nd ed. 1985, 1989, 1998, 2001; 3rd Ed 2004, Russian Edition 1986 (Mir, Moscow)
  • Crispin Gardiner: Stochastic Methods; Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2009 (A rewritten and updated 4th edition of A Handbook of Stochastic Methods)

Quantum Noise

  • C W Gardiner: Quantum Noise; Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 1st ed. 1991
  • C W Gardiner and Peter Zoller: Quantum Noise; Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2nd ed. 1999, 3rd ed. 2004

The Quantum World of Ultra-Cold Atoms and Light

  • Crispin Gardiner and Peter Zoller: The Quantum World of Ultra-Cold Atoms and Light Book I: Foundations of Quantum Optics, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore 2014.
  • Crispin Gardiner and Peter Zoller: The Quantum World of Ultra-Cold Atoms and Light Book II: Physics of Quantum Optical Devices, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore 2015.
  • Crispin Gardiner and Peter Zoller: The Quantum World of Ultra-Cold Atoms and Light Book III: Ultra-Cold Atoms, World Scientific, London and Singapore 2014.

Awards and Honours

  • 1983 Fellow of the New Zealand Institute of Physics
  • 1984 Fellow of the American Physical Society
  • 1990 Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand (Until 2011)
  • 2000 Honorary Dr. Rer. Nat. from the University of Innsbruck: In recognition of his outstanding scientific merit in the field of theoretical quantum optics


  1. ^
  2. ^ Celebrating 40 years of Science & Engineering. University of Waikato. 2009.
  3. ^ a b Knight, Peter; Milburn, Gerard J. (2015). "Daniel Frank Walls FRSNZ. 13 September 1942 -- 12 May 1999". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Royal Society publishing. 61. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2014.0019. ISSN 0080-4606.
  4. ^ Drummond, P D; Gardiner, C W (1980). "Generalised P-Representations in Quantum Optics". J Phys A (13): 2353..
  5. ^ Gardiner, C W; Collett, M J. "Input and Output in Damped Quantum Systems--Quantum stochastic Differential equations and the master equation". Phys Rev A (31): 3761.
  6. ^ Collett, M J; Gardiner, C W (1984). "Squeezing of Intracavity and Travelling Wave Light Fields Produced in Parametric Amplification". Phys Rev A (30): 1386.
  7. ^ Stochastic Methods. Springer, (Berlin, Heidelberg and New York) 4th ed. 2004, ISBN 978-3-540-70712-7 .
  8. ^ R P P P Grasman, E-J Wagenmakers, Rescue the Gardiner Book, J Math Psychology 50 (2006) 431-435
  9. ^ Gardiner, C W (1986). "Inhibition of Atomic Phase Decays by Squeezed Light: A Direct Effect of Squeezing". Phys Rev Lett. 56 (18): 1917-1920. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.1917.
  10. ^ Murch, K W; Weber, S J; Beck, K M; Ginossar, E; Sidiqi, I (2013). "Reduction of the radiative decay of atomic coherence in squeezed vacuum". Nature. 499: 62-65. doi:10.1038/nature12264.
  11. ^ Quantum Noise . Springer, (Berlin, Heidelberg and New York) 3rd ed. 2004, ISBN 3-540-22301-0 .
  12. ^ C W J Beenakker, Quantum Noise, J Phys A 38 (2005), p7595
  13. ^ Carmichael, H J (1993). "Quantum trajectory theory for cascaded open systems". Physical Review Letters. 70 (15): 2273--2276. Bibcode:1993PhRvL..70.2273C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2273.
  14. ^ Gardiner, C W (1993). "Driving a quantum system with the output field from another driven quantum system". Physical Review Letters. 70 (15): 2269--2272. Bibcode:1993PhRvL..70.2269G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2269.
  15. ^ a b "The Insider New Zealand-Time to go it alone?". New Scientist: 57. 16 July 2005.
  16. ^ Gardiner, C W (1997). "Particle-number-conserving Bogoliubov method which demonstrates the validity of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a highly condensed Bose gas". Physical Review A. 56: 1414. arXiv:quant-ph/9703005. Bibcode:1997PhRvA..56.1414G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.56.1414.
  17. ^ Gardiner, C W; Zoller, P; Ballagh, R J; Davis, M J (1997). "Kinetics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a trap". Physical Review Letters. 79: 1793. arXiv:quant-ph/9707037. Bibcode:1997PhRvL..79.1793G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.1793.
  18. ^ Jaksch, D; Bruder, C; Cirac, J I; Gardiner, C W; Zoller, P (1998). "Cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices". 81: 3108. arXiv:cond-mat/9805329. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.3108. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ Penckwitt, A A; Ballagh, R J; Gardiner, C W (2002). "Nucleation, growth, and stabilization of Bose-Einstein condensate vortex lattices". Physical Review Letters. 89: 260402. arXiv:cond-mat/0205037. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.89.260402.
  20. ^ Gardiner, CW; Anglin, J R; Fudge, T I A (2002). "The stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation". J Phys B. 35: 1555.
  21. ^ Gardiner, CW; Davis, M J (2003). "The stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation: II". J Phys B. 36: 4731. arXiv:cond-mat/0308044. doi:10.1088/0953-4075/36/23/010.
  22. ^ Gardiner, C W; Zoller, P (1997). "Quantum kinetic theory: A quantum kinetic master equation for condensation of a weakly interacting Bose gas without a trapping potential". Physical Review A. 55: 2902. arXiv:quant-ph/9611043. Bibcode:1997PhRvA..55.2902G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.55.2902.
  23. ^ Jaksch, D; Gardiner, C W; Zoller, P (1997). "Quantum kinetic theory II:". Physical Review A. 56: 1414.
  24. ^ Gardiner, C W; Zoller, P (1998). "Quantum kinetic theory III: Quantum kinetic master equation for strongly condensed trapped systems". Physical Review A. 58: 536. arXiv:cond-mat/9712002. Bibcode:1998PhRvA..58..536G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.58.536.
  25. ^ Jaksch, D; Gardiner, C W; Gheri, K M; Zoller, P. "Quantum kinetic theory IV: Intensity and amplitude fluctuations of a Bose-Einstein condensate at finite temperature including trap loss". Physical Review A. 58: 1450. arXiv:cond-mat/9712206. doi:10.1103/physreva.58.1450.
  26. ^ Gardiner, C W; Zoller, P (2000). "Quantum kinetic theory V: Quantum kinetic master equation for mutual interaction of condensate and noncondensate". Physical Review A. 61: 033601. arXiv:cond-mat/9905087. doi:10.1103/physreva.61.033601.
  27. ^ Lee, M D; Gardiner, C W (2000). "Quantum kinetic theory VI: The growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate". Physical Review A. 62: 033606. arXiv:cond-mat/9912420. doi:10.1103/physreva.62.033606.
  28. ^ Davis, M J; Gardiner, C W; Ballagh, R J (2000). "Quantum kinetic theory VII: The influence of vapor dynamics on condensate growth". Physical Review A. 62: 063608. doi:10.1103/physreva.62.063608.
  29. ^ Gardiner, Crispin; Ballagh, Rob (31 May 2006). "Science short-changed". Dominion Post. Wellington.
  30. ^ "Otago Physicists Get a Cool $7m". Otago Daily Times. 19 July 2006.
  31. ^ See Quantum World Webpage.

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