Cronquist System
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Cronquist System

The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography).

Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998. The system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida.

The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants 1968 (monocots)

Class Liliatae (Monocotyledoneae)

An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants 1981

Class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons)

Cronquist system diagram
  1. Subclass Magnoliidae (mostly basal dicots)
    1. Order Magnoliales
      1. Winteraceae
      2. Degeneriaceae
      3. Himantandraceae
      4. Eupomatiaceae
      5. Austrobaileyaceae
      6. Magnoliaceae (magnolia family)
      7. Lactoridaceae
      8. Annonaceae
      9. Myristicaceae
      10. Canellaceae
    2. Order Laurales
      1. Amborellaceae
      2. Trimeniaceae
      3. Monimiaceae
      4. Gomortegaceae
      5. Calycanthaceae
      6. Idiospermaceae
      7. Lauraceae (laurel family)
      8. Hernandiaceae
    3. Order Piperales
      1. Chloranthaceae
      2. Saururaceae
      3. Piperaceae (pepper family)
    4. Order Aristolochiales
      1. Aristolochiaceae
    5. Order Illiciales
      1. Illiciaceae
      2. Schisandraceae
    6. Order Nymphaeales
      1. Nelumbonaceae (lotus family)
      2. Nymphaeaceae (waterlily family)
      3. Barclayaceae
      4. Cabombaceae
      5. Ceratophyllaceae
    7. Order Ranunculales
      1. Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)
      2. Circaeasteraceae
      3. Berberidaceae
      4. Sargentodoxaceae
      5. Lardizabalaceae
      6. Menispermaceae
      7. Coriariaceae
      8. Sabiaceae
    8. Order Papaverales
      1. Papaveraceae (poppy family)
      2. Fumariaceae
  2. Subclass Hamamelidae [sic: correctly Hamamelididae]
    1. Order Trochodendrales
      1. Tetracentraceae
      2. Trochodendraceae
    2. Order Hamamelidales
      1. Cercidiphyllaceae
      2. Eupteleaceae
      3. Platanaceae
      4. Hamamelidaceae
      5. Myrothamnaceae
    3. Order Daphniphyllales
      1. Daphniphyllaceae
    4. Order Didymelales
      1. Didymelaceae
    5. Order Eucommiales
      1. Eucommiaceae
    6. Order Urticales
      1. Barbeyaceae
      2. Ulmaceae
      3. Cannabaceae (cannabis family)
      4. Moraceae (mulberry family)
      5. Cecropiaceae
      6. Urticaceae
    7. Order Leitneriales
      1. Leitneriaceae
    8. Order Juglandales
      1. Rhoipteleaceae
      2. Juglandaceae
    9. Order Myricales
      1. Myricaceae
    10. Order Fagales
      1. Balanopaceae
      2. Ticodendraceae
      3. Fagaceae
      4. Nothofagaceae
      5. Betulaceae
    11. Order Casuarinales
      1. Casuarinaceae
  3. Subclass Caryophyllidae
    1. Order Caryophyllales
      1. Phytolaccaceae
      2. Achatocarpaceae
      3. Nyctaginaceae
      4. Aizoaceae
      5. Didiereaceae
      6. Cactaceae (cactus family)
      7. Chenopodiaceae
      8. Amaranthaceae
      9. Portulacaceae
      10. Basellaceae
      11. Molluginaceae
      12. Caryophyllaceae
    2. Order Polygonales
      1. Polygonaceae
    3. Order Plumbaginales
      1. Plumbaginaceae
  4. Subclass Dilleniidae
    1. Order Dilleniales
      1. Dilleniaceae
      2. Paeoniaceae
    2. Order Theales
      1. Ochnaceae
      2. Sphaerosepalaceae
      3. Sarcolaenaceae
      4. Dipterocarpaceae
      5. Caryocaraceae
      6. Theaceae (tea family)
      7. Actinidiaceae (kiwi family)
      8. Scytopetalaceae
      9. Pentaphylacaceae
      10. Tetrameristaceae
      11. Pellicieraceae
      12. Oncothecaceae
      13. Marcgraviaceae
      14. Quiinaceae
      15. Elatinaceae
      16. Paracryphiaceae
      17. Medusagynaceae
      18. Clusiaceae
    3. Order Malvales
      1. Elaeocarpaceae
      2. Tiliaceae
      3. Sterculiaceae
      4. Bombacaceae
      5. Malvaceae (mallow family)
    4. Order Lecythidales
      1. Lecythidaceae
    5. Order Nepenthales
      1. Sarraceniaceae
      2. Nepenthaceae
      3. Droseraceae
    6. Order Violales
      1. Flacourtiaceae
      2. Peridiscaceae
      3. Bixaceae
      4. Cistaceae (rock rose family)
      5. Huaceae
      6. Lacistemataceae
      7. Scyphostegiaceae
      8. Stachyuraceae
      9. Violaceae (violet family)
      10. Tamaricaceae (tamarix family)
      11. Frankeniaceae
      12. Dioncophyllaceae
      13. Ancistrocladaceae
      14. Turneraceae
      15. Malesherbiaceae
      16. Passifloraceae (passionflower family)
      17. Achariaceae
      18. Caricaceae (papaya family)
      19. Fouquieriaceae
      20. Hoplestigmataceae
      21. Cucurbitaceae (squash family)
      22. Datiscaceae
      23. Begoniaceae
      24. Loasaceae
    7. Order Salicales
      1. Salicaceae
    8. Order Capparales
      1. Tovariaceae
      2. Capparaceae
      3. Brassicaceae (mustard family)
      4. Moringaceae
      5. Resedaceae
    9. Order Batales
      1. Gyrostemonaceae
      2. Bataceae
    10. Order Ericales
      1. Cyrillaceae
      2. Clethraceae
      3. Grubbiaceae
      4. Empetraceae
      5. Epacridaceae
      6. Ericaceae
      7. Pyrolaceae
      8. Monotropaceae
    11. Order Diapensiales
      1. Diapensiaceae
    12. Order Ebenales
      1. Sapotaceae
      2. Ebenaceae
      3. Styracaceae
      4. Lissocarpaceae
      5. Symplocaceae
    13. Order Primulales
      1. Theophrastaceae
      2. Myrsinaceae
      3. Primulaceae (primula family)
  5. Subclass Rosidae
    1. Order Rosales
      1. Brunelliaceae
      2. Connaraceae
      3. Eucryphiaceae
      4. Cunoniaceae
      5. Davidsoniaceae
      6. Dialypetalanthaceae
      7. Pittosporaceae
      8. Byblidaceae
      9. Hydrangeaceae
      10. Columelliaceae
      11. Grossulariaceae
      12. Greyiaceae
      13. Bruniaceae
      14. Anisophylleaceae
      15. Alseuosmiaceae
      16. Crassulaceae
      17. Cephalotaceae
      18. Saxifragaceae
      19. Rosaceae (rose family)
      20. Neuradaceae
      21. Crossosomataceae
      22. Chrysobalanaceae
      23. Surianaceae
      24. Rhabdodendraceae
    2. Order Fabales
      1. Mimosaceae (mimosa family)
      2. Caesalpiniaceae
      3. Fabaceae (legume/pea family)
    3. Order Proteales
      1. Elaeagnaceae
      2. Proteaceae
    4. Order Podostemales
      1. Podostemaceae
    5. Order Haloragales
      1. Haloragaceae
      2. Gunneraceae
    6. Order Myrtales
      1. Sonneratiaceae
      2. Lythraceae
      3. Penaeaceae
      4. Crypteroniaceae
      5. Thymelaeaceae
      6. Trapaceae
      7. Myrtaceae (myrtle family)
      8. Punicaceae
      9. Onagraceae
      10. Oliniaceae
      11. Melastomataceae
      12. Combretaceae
      13. Alzateaceae
      14. Memecylaceae
      15. Rhyncocalycaceae
    7. Order Rhizophorales
      1. Rhizophoraceae
    8. Order Cornales
      1. Alangiaceae
      2. Nyssaceae
      3. Cornaceae
      4. Garryaceae
    9. Order Santalales
      1. Medusandraceae
      2. Dipentodontaceae
      3. Olacaceae
      4. Opiliaceae
      5. Santalaceae
      6. Misodendraceae
      7. Loranthaceae
      8. Viscaceae
      9. Eremolepidaceae
      10. Balanophoraceae
    10. Order Rafflesiales
      1. Hydnoraceae
      2. Mitrastemonaceae
      3. Rafflesiaceae (rafflesia family)
    11. Order Celastrales
      1. Geissolomataceae
      2. Celastraceae
      3. Hippocrateaceae
      4. Stackhousiaceae
      5. Salvadoraceae
      6. Aquifoliaceae
      7. Icacinaceae
      8. Aextoxicaceae
      9. Cardiopteridaceae
      10. Corynocarpaceae
      11. Dichapetalaceae
      12. Tepuianthaceae
    12. Order Euphorbiales
      1. Buxaceae (box family)
      2. Simmondsiaceae
      3. Pandaceae
      4. Euphorbiaceae
    13. Order Rhamnales
      1. Rhamnaceae
      2. Leeaceae
      3. Vitaceae (grape family)
    14. Order Linales
      1. Erythroxylaceae
      2. Humiriaceae
      3. Ixonanthaceae
      4. Hugoniaceae
      5. Linaceae
    15. Order Polygalales
      1. Malpighiaceae
      2. Vochysiaceae
      3. Trigoniaceae
      4. Tremandraceae
      5. Polygalaceae
      6. Xanthophyllaceae
      7. Krameriaceae
    16. Order Sapindales
      1. Staphyleaceae
      2. Melianthaceae
      3. Bretschneideraceae
      4. Akaniaceae
      5. Sapindaceae
      6. Hippocastanaceae
      7. Aceraceae
      8. Burseraceae
      9. Anacardiaceae (cashew family)
      10. Julianiaceae
      11. Simaroubaceae
      12. Cneoraceae
      13. Meliaceae
      14. Rutaceae (citrus family)
      15. Zygophyllaceae
    17. Order Geraniales
      1. Oxalidaceae
      2. Geraniaceae
      3. Limnanthaceae
      4. Tropaeolaceae
      5. Balsaminaceae
    18. Order Apiales
      1. Araliaceae
      2. Apiaceae (carrot family)
  6. Subclass Asteridae
    1. Order Gentianales
      1. Loganiaceae
      2. Retziaceae
      3. Gentianaceae
      4. Saccifoliaceae
      5. Apocynaceae
      6. Asclepiadaceae
    2. Order Solanales
      1. Duckeodendraceae
      2. Nolanaceae
      3. Solanaceae (nightshade/tomato family)
      4. Convolvulaceae
      5. Cuscutaceae
      6. Menyanthaceae
      7. Polemoniaceae
      8. Hydrophyllaceae
      9. Retziaceae
    3. Order Lamiales
      1. Lennoaceae
      2. Boraginaceae
      3. Verbenaceae
      4. Lamiaceae (mint family)
    4. Order Callitrichales
      1. Hippuridaceae
      2. Callitrichaceae
      3. Hydrostachyaceae
    5. Order Plantaginales
      1. Plantaginaceae
    6. Order Scrophulariales
      1. Buddlejaceae
      2. Oleaceae (olive family)
      3. Scrophulariaceae
      4. Globulariaceae
      5. Myoporaceae
      6. Orobanchaceae
      7. Gesneriaceae
      8. Acanthaceae
      9. Pedaliaceae
      10. Bignoniaceae
      11. Mendonciaceae
      12. Lentibulariaceae
    7. Order Campanulales
      1. Pentaphragmataceae
      2. Sphenocleaceae
      3. Campanulaceae (bell flower family)
      4. Stylidiaceae
      5. Donatiaceae
      6. Brunoniaceae
      7. Goodeniaceae
    8. Order Rubiales
      1. Rubiaceae (coffee family)
      2. Theligonaceae
    9. Order Dipsacales
      1. Caprifoliaceae
      2. Adoxaceae
      3. Valerianaceae
      4. Dipsacaceae
    10. Order Calycerales
      1. Calyceraceae
    11. Order Asterales
      1. Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)

  1. Subclass Alismatidae
    1. Order Alismatales
      1. Butomaceae
      2. Limnocharitaceae
      3. Alismataceae
    2. Order Hydrocharitales
      1. Hydrocharitaceae
    3. Order Najadales
      1. Aponogetonaceae
      2. Scheuchzeriaceae
      3. Juncaginaceae
      4. Potamogetonaceae
      5. Ruppiaceae
      6. Najadaceae
      7. Zannichelliaceae
      8. Posidoniaceae
      9. Cymodoceaceae
      10. Zosteraceae
    4. Order Triuridales
      1. Petrosaviaceae
      2. Triuridaceae
  2. Subclass Arecidae
    1. Order Arecales
      1. Arecaceae (palm family)
    2. Order Cyclanthales
      1. Cyclanthaceae
    3. Order Pandanales
      1. Pandanaceae (pandan family)
    4. Order Arales
      1. Acoraceae
      2. Araceae
      3. Lemnaceae
  3. Subclass Commelinidae
    1. Order Commelinales
      1. Rapateaceae
      2. Xyridaceae
      3. Mayacaceae
      4. Commelinaceae
    2. Order Eriocaulales
      1. Eriocaulaceae
    3. Order Restionales
      1. Flagellariaceae
      2. Joinvilleaceae
      3. Restionaceae
      4. Centrolepidaceae
    4. Order Juncales
      1. Juncaceae
      2. Thurniaceae
    5. Order Cyperales
      1. Cyperaceae
      2. Poaceae (grass family)
    6. Order Hydatellales
      1. Hydatellaceae
    7. Order Typhales
      1. Sparganiaceae
      2. Typhaceae
  4. Subclass Zingiberidae
    1. Order Bromeliales
      1. Bromeliaceae
    2. Order Zingiberales
      1. Strelitziaceae
      2. Heliconiaceae
      3. Musaceae
      4. Lowiaceae
      5. Zingiberaceae (ginger family)
      6. Costaceae
      7. Cannaceae
      8. Marantaceae
  5. Subclass Liliidae
    1. Order Liliales
      1. Philydraceae
      2. Pontederiaceae
      3. Haemodoraceae
      4. Cyanastraceae
      5. Liliaceae (lily family)
      6. Iridaceae (iris family)
      7. Velloziaceae
      8. Aloeaceae (aloe family)
      9. Agavaceae
      10. Xanthorrhoeaceae
      11. Hanguanaceae
      12. Taccaceae
      13. Stemonaceae
      14. Smilacaceae
      15. Dioscoreaceae
    2. Order Orchidales
      1. Geosiridaceae
      2. Burmanniaceae
      3. Corsiaceae
      4. Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Bibliography

  • Texas A and M University Bioinformatics Working Group : Cronquist System
  • Reveal, James (4 October 1998). "Cronquist Family Names and Synonymy". Indices Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Project. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 2016.
  • Reveal, James (22 November 1998). "Lists of the Flowering Plant Taxa Accepted by Cronquist, Dahlgren, Reveal, Takhtajan & Thorne". Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 2016.

Work by Cronquist


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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