Crown (heraldry)
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Crown Heraldry
The coat of arms of Norway, with the royal crown displayed atop the escutcheon

A crown is often an emblem of a sovereign state, usually a monarchy (see The Crown), but also used by some republics.

A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium.

Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees.

A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the coat of arms of Norway.

Physical and heraldic crowns

Sometimes, the crown commonly depicted and used in heraldry differs significantly from any specific physical crown that may be used by a monarchy.

As a display of rank

If the bearer of a coat of arms has the title of baron or higher (or hereditary knight in some countries), he or she may display a coronet of rank above the shield, usually below the helm in British heraldry, and often above the crest (if any) in Continental heraldry.

In this case, the appearance of the crown or coronet follows a strict set of rules. A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown, such as that of Norway. A princely coat of arms may display a princely crown, and so on.

Naval, civic, mural and similar crowns

A mural crown is commonly displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics. Other republics may use a so-called people's crown or omit the use of a crown altogether. The heraldic forms of crowns are often inspired by the physical appearance of the respective country's actual royal or princely crowns.

Ships and other units of some navies have a naval crown, composed of the sails and sterns of ships, above the shield of their coats of arms. Squadrons of some air forces have an astral crown, composed of wings and stars. There is also the Eastern crown, made up of spikes, and when each spike is topped with a star, it becomes a celestial crown.[1]

Whereas most county councils in England use mural crowns, there is a special type of crown that was used by Scottish county councils. It was composed of spikes, was normally shown vert (green) and had golden wheat sheaves between the spikes.[2] Today, most of the Scottish unitary authorities still use this "wheat sheaf crown", but it is now the usual gold.

Commonwealth usage

The coat of arms of the Barons Hawke displays a baronial coronet

In formal English, the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch, whereas the word coronet is used for all other crowns used by members of the British royal family and peers of the realm.

In the British peerage, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German, French and various other heraldic traditions. The coronet of a duke has eight strawberry leaves, that of a marquess has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls (known as "pearls", but not actually pearls), that of an earl has eight strawberry leaves and eight "pearls" raised on stalks, that of a viscount has sixteen "pearls", and that of a peerage baron or (in Scotland) lord of parliament has six "pearls". Between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia.[] This is placed between the shield and helmet in the same manner as a peer's coronet. Since a person entitled to heraldic headgear customarily displays it above the shield and below the helm and crest, this can provide a useful clue as to the owner of a given coat of arms.

Members of the British royal family have coronets on their coats of arms, and they may wear physical versions at coronations. They are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661, shortly after his return from exile in France (getting a taste for its lavish court style; Louis XIV started monumental work at Versailles that year) and Restoration, and they vary depending upon the holder's relationship to the monarch. Occasionally, additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals.

In Canadian heraldry, special coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, while a civil coronet is used by all others. The loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn.

[4]

Continental usages

Precisely because there are many traditions and more variation within some of these, there are a plethora of continental coronet types. Indeed, there are also some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, in the Commonwealth tradition.

Such a case in French heraldry of the Ancien Régime, where coronets of rank did not come into use before the 16th century, is the vidame, whose coronet (illustrated) is a metal circle mounted with three visible crosses. (No physical headgear of this type is known.)

Helmets are often substitutes for coronets, and some coronets are worn only on a helmet.

Andorra

Bulgaria

France

Mural Crown of a French Capital.svg Capital Mural Crown of a French City.svg Department Capital[b] Mural Crown of a French Commune.svg Commune[b]

Ancien Régime

Royal Crown of France.svg King (after the 1500s) Crown of the Dauphin of France (variant).svg Heir to the throne (Dauphin) Crown of a Royal Prince of the Blood of France (variant).svgChildren of the sovereign
(fils de France )
Crown of a Prince of the Blood of France (variant).svg Prince of the Blood
Crown of a Duke of France.svg Duke and Peer of France Crown of a Duke of France (variant).svg Duke Crown of a Marquis of France.svg Marquis and Peer of France Crown of a Marquis of France (variant).svg Marquis
Crown of a Count of France.svg Count and Peer of France Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg Count Old Crown of a Count (France & Belgium).svg Count (older) Crown of a Viscount of France (variant).svg Viscount
Crown of a Vidame of France.svg Vidame Crown of a Baron of France.svg Baron Crown of a Chevalier of France.svg Knight's crown Torse of a Chevalier of France.svg Knight's tortillon

Napoleonic Empire

Heraldic Crown of the First French Empire.svg
Emperor
(1st Empire)
Imperial Crown of Napoleon Bonaparte.png
Emperor
(2nd Empire)
Crown of a Napoleonic Prince Souverain.svg
Sovereign
Prince
Biret prince.png Prince Biret duc.png Duke
Biret comte.png Count Biret baron.png Baron Biret Chevalier.png Knight Bonnet d`honneur.png
Bonnet
d'honneur

July Monarchy

Georgia

Iberian-Georgian crown.png Georgian Royal Crown, also known as the "Iberian Crown"

German-speaking countries

Holy Roman Empire

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Oldest design).svg Older Imperial Crown Heraldic Imperial Crown (Gules Mitre).svg Newer Imperial Crown Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (c.1433-1486).svg Oldest Crown of the King of the Romans Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg Older Crown of the King of the Romans
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (18th Century).svg Newer Crown of the King of the Romans Crown of Saint Wenceslas.svg Crown of the King of Bohemia Archducal Coronet.svg Archducal hat Oldest Electoral hat.svg Oldest Electoral hat
Older Electoral hat.svg Older Electoral hat Ducal Hat.svg New Electoral hat & new Ducal hat Ducal Hat of Styria.svg Ducal hat of Styria T09 Herzog.svg Ducal crown
Princely Hat.svg Princely hat T12 Fürst.svg Princely crown T10 Landgraf.svg Crown of a Landgrave T11 Erbherzog.svg Crown of an heir to a duchy
Rangkronen-Fig. 15.svg Older crown of a Count Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg Newer crown of a Count Rangkronen-Fig. 50.svg Older crown of a Baron/Freiherr Rangkronen-Fig. 27.svg Newer crown of a Baron/Freiherr
Rangkronen-Fig. 38.svg Older Crown of Nobility Rangkronen-Fig. 37.svg Newer Crown of Nobility

Liechtenstein

Austria

Mural crown (Bundesadler).svg Mural crown of the coat of arms of Austria Mural crown (Lower Austria).svg Mural crown of the State of Lower Austria

Austrian Empire

Germany

People's Crown (Germany).svg Volkskrone (People's Crown) Mural crown of the coat of arms of the Berlin boroughs.svg Mural crown of the arms of the Berlin boroughs

German Empire

Greece

Crown of the Kingdom of Greece.svg Crown of the King of the Hellenes Royal Crown of Denmark.svg The Crown as it appears on the Royal Coat of Arms of Greece

Hungary

Croatia

Italy

Crown of Italian Province.svg Province Mural Crown of Italian City.svg City Mural Crown of Italian Comune.svg Municipality

Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

Crown of Savoy.svg King (crown of Savoy) Crown of the crownprince of iItaly (1890).svg Heir to the throne (Prince of Piedmont) Crown of the royal princes of iItaly (1890).svg Royal prince[c] Crown of the princes of the Blood of iItaly (1890).svg Prince of the blood
Crown of italian duke (corona normale).svg Duke Crown of italian marquess (corona normale).svg Marquess Crown of italian count (corona normale).svg Count Crown of italian viscount (corona normale).svg Viscount
Crown of italian baron (corona normale).svg Baron Crown of italian Nobile (corona normale).svg Noble Crown of italian cavaliere ereditario (corona normale).svg Hereditary Knight Crown of italian patrician (corona normale).svg Patrician
Crown of Italian Province (Variant).svg Province Mural Crown of Italian City.svg City Mural Crown of Italian Comune.svg Municipality

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, Two Sicilies

Heraldic Royal Crown of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.svg King of Naples Heraldic Crown of Heir to the Throne of the Two Sicilies.svg Heir to the throne (Duke of Calabria) Heraldic Coronet of Princes and Princesses of the Two Sicilies.svg Prince and princess

Grand Duchy of Tuscany

Other Italian states before 1861

Low Countries

Netherlands

Rangkroon keizer.svg Holy Roman Emperor
Rangkroon Koning.svg King Rangkroon Koning.svg Prince
(Members of the Royal House,
children of the Monarch)
Rangkroon Kleinkinderen van Koning.svg Prince
(Members of the Royal House,
grandchildren of the Monarch)
Rangkroon Prins.svg Prince
(nobility, for titles granted after 1815)
Rangkroon Hertog.svg Duke Rangkroon Markies.svg Marquess Rangkroon Graaf.svg Count Antieke Gravenkroon.svg Count
(alternative style)
Rangkroon Burggraaf.svg Viscount Rangkroon Baron.svg Baron Rangkroon Ridder.svg Hereditary Knight
(Erfridder)
Rangkroon Ridder.svg Jonkheer

Belgium

The older crowns are often still seen in the heraldry of older families.

Royal Crown of Belgium (Heraldic).svg King Princely Crown of Belgium (Heraldic).svgPrince of the Royal house Crown of a Prince (Netherlands and Belgium).svg Prince
(nobility, for titles granted after 1815)
Princely Hat.svg Prince
(nobility, for titles granted during the Ancien Régime)
Rangkronen-Fig. 04.png Duke Rangkronen-Fig. 15.png Marquess Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg Count Old Crown of a Count (France & Belgium).svg Count (older)
Crown of a Count of the Low Countries (Ancien Regime).svg Count (oldest) Rangkronen-Fig. 25.png Viscount Crown of a Baron (Low Countries, Holy Roman Empire, Russia).svg Baron Old Crown of a Baron of the Low Countries.svg Baron (older)
Rangkronen-Fig. 34.png Hereditary Knight
(Chevalier/Erfridder)

Luxembourg

Crown of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg.svg Grand Duke

Monaco

Crown of Monaco (Heraldic).svg Prince

Poland and Lithuania

Koronamala.png King Knize.png Grand Duke Fuerst.png Prince Szlachecka korona.jpg Nobleman

Portuguese-speaking countries

Portugal

Portuguese Mural Crown - Capital.svg Capital (Lisbon) Mural Crown of City - Portugal.svg City Mural Crown of Town - Portugal.svg Town Mural Crown of Civil Parish - Portugal.svg Civil Parish
Mural Crown of Administrative Regions of Portugal.svg Administrative Region
(1930-1999)

Kingdom of Portugal (until 1910)

Heraldic Royal Crown of Portugal - Eight Arches.svg King Crown of the Heir Apparent of the Kingdom of Portugal.svg Heir to the throne (Prince Royal) Crown of the Prince of Beira.svg Prince of Beira Coronet of an Infante - Kingdom of Portugal.svg Infante Coronet of a Duke - Kingdom of Portugal.svg Duke
Coronet of a Marquess - Kingdom of Portugal.svg Marquess Coronet of Count - Portugal.svg Count Coronet of a Viscount - Kingdom of Portugal.svg Viscount Coronet of Baron - Portugal.svg Baron Coronet of Knight - Portugal.svg Knight / Fidalgo

Brazil

Brasilian Mural Crown - Capital.svg Brasilian Mural Crown - City.svg Brasilian Mural Crown - Town.svg Brasilian Mural Crown - Village.svg
Capital of State of the Federation[b] City[b] Town[b] Village[b]

Empire of Brazil

Imperial Crown Brazil.svg Emperor Coronet of the Imperial Prince of Brazil.svg Heir to the throne (Prince Imperial) Coronet of a Prince of Brazil.svg Prince Coronet of a Duke of Brazil.svg Duke
Coronet of a Marquess of Brazil.svg Marquess Coronet of a Count of Brazil.svg Count Coronet of a Viscount of Brazil.svg Viscount Coronet of a Baron of Brazil.svg Baron

Romania

Romanian Mural Crown - Capital.svg Romanian Mural Crown - City.svg Romanian Mural Crown - Town.svg Romanian Mural Crown - Village.svg
Capital City Town Village

Kingdom of Romania

Russia

Heraldic Imperial Crown of Russia.svg Emperor Finnish grand ducal crown.svg Crown of the Grand Duchy of Finland Monomakh hat.svg Monomakh's Cap Russian Princely hat.svg Prince
Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg Count Rangkronen-Fig. 27.svg Baron Rangkronen-Fig. 30.svg Baron (alternative style) Rangkronen-Fig. 38.svg Crown of Nobility

Nordic countries

Denmark

Royal Crown of Denmark.svg King Crown of the Crown Prince of Denmark.svg Crown Prince Crown of a Prince of Denmark.svg Prince (royal family) T02 Danish Duke.svg Duke
T03 Danish Marquis.svg Marquess T04 Danish Count.svg Count T05 Danish Baron.svg Baron T06 Danish Nobility.svg Crown of Nobility

Finland

During the Swedish reign, Swedish coronets were used. Crowns were used in the coats of arms of the historical provinces of Finland. For Finland Proper, Satakunta, Tavastia and Karelia, it was a ducal coronet, for others, a comital coronet. In 1917 with independence, the coat of arms of Finland was introduced with a Grand Ducal coronet, but it was soon removed, in 1920. Today, some cities use coronets, e.g. Pori has a mural crown and Vaasa a Crown of Nobility.

Satakunta.vaakuna.svg Ducal coronet
Satakunta
Savo.vaakuna.svg Comital coronet
Savo

Norway

Corona Norvegica.svg
Heraldic crown of the King
Crown of the King of Norway.svg
Physical crown of the King
Crown of the Queen of Norway.svg
Physical crown of the Queen
Crown of the Crown Prince of Norway.svg Crown Prince Crown of Princes and of Princesses of Norway.svg Prince or Princess T02 Danish Duke.svg Duke T03 Danish Marquis.svg Marquess
T04 Danish Count.svg Count T05 Danish Baron.svg Baron T06 Danish Nobility.svg Crown of Nobility

Sweden

Svenska kunglig krona (korrekt).svg King Heraldique Suede Couronne Prince Héritier.svg Crown Prince Heraldique Suede Couronne Prince.svgDuke
Grevlig rangkrona.svg Count Friherrlig rangkrona.svg Baron Obetitlad adel.svg Crown of Nobility

Serbia

Serbian medieval crown.svg King (medieval) Crown of Serbia.svg King (after 1903)

Spanish-speaking countries

Spain

Heraldic Royal Crown of Spain.svg King (National arms design) Heraldic Royal Crown of Spain (Version of the Royal Arms).svg King (Monarch's arms design) Royal Crown for the Aragonese Terriories.svg King (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia) Heraldic Crown of the Prince of Asturias.svg Heir to the throne (Prince of Asturias)
Heraldic Crown of the Spanish Heir Apparent as Prince of Girona.svg Heir to the throne (Prince of Girona) (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia) Heraldic Crown of Spanish Infantes.svg Infante Crown of Spanish Infantes for the Aragonese Terriories.svg Infante (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia) Heraldic Crown of Spanish Grandee.svg Grandee of Spain
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Dukes (Variant 1).svg Duke Heraldic Crown of Spanish Marqueses (Variant 1).svg Marquess Heraldic Crown of Spanish Count.svg Count Heraldic Crown of the Spanish Viscounts.svg Viscount
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Barons.svg Baron Heraldic Crown of Spanish Lords.svg Señor/Don (Lord) Heraldic Crown of Hispanic Hidalgos.svg Hidalgo (Nobleman) Torse of a Chevalier of France.svg Knight's burelete

Mexico

Crown of Mexico (I).svg Emperor (1st Empire)
Crown of Mexico (II).svg Emperor (2nd Empire)
Prince Crown 1.svg Prince (1st Empire and 2nd Empire)

Chile

Non-European usages

Bahrain

Bhutan

Raven Crown.svg 'Raven Crown' of the Kingdom of Bhutan

Cambodia

Royal Crown of Cambodia (heraldry).svg Crown of the Kingdom of Cambodia

Central African Empire



Egypt before 1953

Crown of the Khedive of Egypt.svg Khedive (-1914) and Sultan (1914-22)
Heraldic Royal Crown of Egypt.svg King (1922-53)

Jordan

Royal Crown of Jordan.svg Crown of Jordan

Morocco

Crown of Morocco 1.svg Heraldic Crown of Morocco

Oman

Crown of Oman.svg Crown of Oman

Saudi Arabia

Royal Crown of Saudi Arabia.svg Heraldic Crown of Saudi Arabia

Siam and Thailand

Great Crown of Victory (heraldry).svg Great Crown of Victory of the Kings of Siam and Thailand
Phra Kiao Colored.svg Phra Kiao (princely coronet, also the emblem of King Chulalongkorn)

Tonga

Royal Crown of Tonga.svg Crown of Tonga

Other examples

Imperial Crown of Ethiopia.svg Imperial Crown of Ethiopia Crown of Tahiti.svg Royal Crown of Tahiti Royal Crown of Hawaii.svg Royal Crown of Hawaii Crown of Hawaii (Heraldic).svg Royal Crown of Hawaii
American Coronet.svg American Coronet Kiani Crown of Imperial Iran (heraldry).svg Crown of the Shah of Persia Pahlavi Crown of Imperial Iran (heraldry).svg Crown of the Shah of Iran Congo crown.svg
Twig crown of the
Republic of the Congo

[5]

Catholic Church

Multinational

As a charge

In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field of a coat of arms. Many coats of arms incorporate crowns as charges. One notable example of this lies in the Three Crowns of the arms of Sweden.

Additionally, many animal charges (frequently lions and eagles) and sometimes human heads also appear crowned. Animal charges gorged (collared) of an open coronet also occur, though far less frequently.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Currently, besides the grandchildren of the present Queen Elizabeth II, the current Duke of Gloucester and Duke of Kent, along with Princess Alexandra, are granted the privilege to use the crown of a Sovereign's Grandchild as they are the grandchildren of a former sovereign, George V.
  2. ^ a b c d e f This standard has many exceptions.
  3. ^ The dukes of Genoa were granted the privilege to use the crown of a royal prince though they were only princes of the blood

References

  1. ^ Mackinnon of Dunakin, Charles (1968). The Observer's Book of Heraldry. Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. p. 73.
  2. ^ Moncreiffe, Iain; Pottinger, Don (1953). Simple Heraldry Cheerfully Illustrated. Thomas Nelson and Sons. p. 58.
  3. ^ Cox, Noel The Coronets of Members of the Royal Family and of the Peerage. Archived 2018-01-04 at the Wayback Machine Originally published in (1999) 22 The Double Tressure, the Journal of The Heraldry Society of Scotland 8-13. Acceded 8 April 2017
  4. ^ Boutell, Charles (1914). Fox-Davies, A.C. (ed.). Handbook to English Heraldry, The (11th ed.). London: Reeves & Turner. pp. 104-156.
  5. ^ Ströhl, Hugo Gerard (1899). Heraldischer Atlas. Stuttgart.



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