Cundi (Buddhism)
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Cundi Buddhism
Lingyin temple 18 armed cundi.jpeg
(Zh?ntí Púsà)
(romaji: Jundei Kannon)
(RR: Junje Bosal)
Wylie: skul byed ma
VietnameseChu?n B? tát
Ph?t M?u Chu?n
Venerated byMahayana, Vajrayana
P religion world.svg Religion portal
Goddess Chunda bodhisattva
M@ff 05.JPG
Four-armed Chunda, Central Java, Vanasava, Dieng Plateau, 9th-10th century AD, bronze - Ethnological Museum, Berlin - DSC01926.JPG
Central Java, Vanasava, Dieng Plateau, 9th-10th century AD, bronze -Ethnological Museum of Berlin.
Ten-armed Tantric Goddess (perhaps Chunda), Central Java, Prambanan, 10th century AD, bronze - Ethnological Museum, Berlin - DSC01927.JPG
Central Java, Vanasava, Dieng Plateau, 9th-10th century AD, bronze - Ethnological Museum of Berlin.
Cundi Ming Dynasty Gold.png
Ming Chinese gold painting of Cundi. Hanging scroll, gold ink and colors on paper.

Cund? (Wylie: skul byed ma, Chinese: ?) is a bodhisattva and an incarnation of the Cund? Dh?ra.

Cund? appears with eighteen arms on a lotus flower and is sometimes referred to as the "Goddess of the Seventy Million [Buddhas]".[1]

In Buddhist traditions

While Cund? is less well known in Tibetan Buddhism, she is revered in Tángmì or East Asian esoteric Buddhism. In China, she is known as Zh?ntí Púsà (Chinese: ?, "Cundi Bodhisattva") or Zh?ntí Fóm? (Chinese: ?, "Cundi Buddha-Mother"), "Junje" in Korean, while in Japan she is known as Jundei Kannon (?, Cundi Avalokite?vara).

In late imperial China, early traditions of Tangmi were still thriving in Buddhist communities. Robert Gimello has also observed that in these communities, the esoteric practices of Cund? were extremely popular among both the populace and the elite.[2]

Source texts

The first textual source of Cund? and the Cund? Dh?ra is the K?raavy?has?tra, a s?tra centered around the bodhisattva Avalokite?vara that introduced the popular mantra o? ma?ipadme h.[3] This text is first dated to around the late 4th century CE to the early 5th century CE.[4] Cund? and the Cund? Dh?ra are also featured in the Cund? Dh?ra S?tra, which was translated three times from Sanskrit into Chinese in the late 7th century and early 8th century by the Indian esoteric masters Div?kara (685 CE), Vajrabodhi (723 CE), and Amoghavajra (8th century).[3]

Cund? Dh?ra

According to the Cund? Dh?ra S?tra, the dh?ra associated with Cund? is the following:[5]

nama? sapt?n samyaksa?buddha kon tadyath?
o? cale cule cund? sv?h?

In the s?tra, the Buddha speaks extensively about the various effects and benefits of reciting the Cund? dh?ra. Many of the effects are purifying and uplifting in nature. For example, after pronouncing the dh?ra, the Buddha then says:[5]

If there are bhik?us, bhik?us, up?sakas, or up?sik?s who memorize and recite this dh?ra 800,000 times, their deadly karma in every place, created over innumerable eons, will be completely annihilated. In every place where they are born or reside, they will always meet Buddhas and bodhisattvas. They will always have adequate resources and abilities to do as they wish. In any birth, they will always be able to leave the home life, and will have the ability to maintain the pure precepts of a bodhisattva. They will be born in human or heavenly realms, they will not fall into evil destinies, and they will always be protected by all the heavenly guardians.

The dh?ra is also closely associated with buddhahood and complete enlightenment (Skt. Anuttar? Samyaksa?bodhi). At the end of the s?tra, the Buddha closes the teaching by saying:[5]

This great dh?ra of Cund? is a great brilliant mantra teaching that is spoken by all Buddhas of the past, all Buddhas of the future, and all Buddhas of the present time. I also now speak it thusly to benefit all sentient beings, causing them to attain Anuttar? Samyaksa?bodhi. If there are sentient beings with little merit, who lack the roots of goodness, natural ability, and the Factors of Bodhi, if they obtain hearing of this dh?ra method, they will quickly realize the attainment of Anuttar? Samyaksa?bodhi. If there are people who are always able to remember, recite, and maintain this dh?ra, they will all obtain immeasurable roots of goodness.


Cund? is depicted with eighteen arms, each wielding implements that symbolize upaya. Her eighteen arms also represent the eighteen merits of attaining Buddhahood as described in an appendix to the Cund? Dh?ra S?tra.

See also


  1. ^ Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (eds.). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3.
  2. ^ Gimello, Robert (2004). ?Icon and Incantation: The Goddess Zhunti and the Role of Images in the Occult Buddhism of China." In Images in Asian Religions: Texts and Contexts ed. Phyllis Granoff and Koichi Shinohara: pp. 71-85.
  3. ^ a b Studholme, Alexander (2002) The origins of O? ma?ipadme h: a study of the K?raavy?ha s?tra: p. 175
  4. ^ Studholme, Alexander (2002) The origins of O? ma?ipadme h: a study of the K?raavy?ha s?tra: p. 17
  5. ^ a b c The Cund? Dh?ra S?tra

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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