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Lummis is one of four children born in Cheyenne to Doran Lummis and the former Enid Bennett (1928-2013), a native of Denver, Colorado, who was reared in Cheyenne and was highly active in Cheyenne Frontier Days and the Republican Party. Lummis' maternal grandparents were Clarence "Buck" Bennett, the head mechanic at the Greyhound Bus Lines in Cheyenne, and Eda Erickson Bennett. In a statement upon her mother's death, Lummis said, "I carry with me so many lessons my mother taught me; chief among them is the quiet grit she displayed in the face of pain and adversity."
In the general election, Lummis faced DemocraticTeton County School Board Trustee Gary Trauner of Wilson, who had run against Cubin in 2006 and nearly won. Trauner criticized Lummis because she has supported privatization of Social Security and has also suggested raising the retirement age for receiving such benefits; Trauner has called instead for consideration of imposing the FICA tax on income over $100,000, which is currently exempt.
Lummis won re-election, with 71% against Democratic challenger David Wendt.
Lummis again won re-election, with 69% of the vote against Democratic challenger Chris Henrichsen.
In October 2013, corrections officer Jason Adam Senteney announced that he would challenge Lummis in the 2014 Republican primary. Senteney opposed the 2013 government shutdown: "You should never shut down essential programs for people. ... Whether it's a negotiation tactic or not, you shouldn't punish the American people for your own failure to work together in Washington."
Open Book on Equal Access to Justice Act (H.R. 2919; 113th Congress) - a bill that would require the Administrative Conference of the United States (ACUS) to prepare a report each year on the amount of fees and other expenses awarded by federal courts to nonfederal entities when they prevail in a case against the United States. Lummis introduced this bill on August 1, 2013. Lummis said that "requiring agencies to keep track of what they pay attorneys will help Congress determine if EAJA is working well or not." According to Lummis, the EAJA was meant to the help the "little guy" but "was later co-opted by large environmental groups so their litigation shops could get reimbursed for filing expansive litigation on environmental issues."
Wyoming's at-large congressional district, 2010 - general election:
Cynthia Lummis, Republican - 131,661 (70.42%)
David Wendt, Democrat - 45,768 (24.48%)
John V. Love, Libertarian - 9,253 (4.95%)
Write-in candidates - 287 (0.15%)
Wyoming's At-Large Congressional District, 2012 - General Election:
Cynthia M. Lummis, Republican - 166,452 (68.89%)
Chris Henrichsen, Democrat - 57,573 (23.83%)
Richard P. Brubaker, Libertarian - 8,442 (3.49%)
Don Wills, Country Party - 3,775 (1.56%)
Daniel Clyde Cummings, Constitution - 4,963 (2.05%)
Write-in Candidates - 416 (0.17%)
After her retirement from congress in 2016, Lummis was speculated to be considering a run for governor of Wyoming in 2018. However, in late 2017, Lummis ruled out a run for governor, citing that she was enjoying her time outside of public life. However, she stated that she is still likely to run for office again, just not for governor in 2018. Lummis was actively being considered to be United States Secretary of the Interior in the Trump administration after the resignation of Ryan Zinke, however David Bernhardt was eventually appointed to the position instead of her. On May 4, 2019, Sen. Mike Enzi announced his retirement, leading to speculation that she might run for his seat. On July 11, 2019, she announced her intention to run for the United States Senate in 2020.
In 2008, Lummis reported her wealth as ranging from $20 million to $75 million. She ranked in 2010 as the twenty-ninth wealthiest member of Congress. Most of Lummis' wealth is derived from her family-owned Arp and Hammond Company, Lummis Livestock Company, and Old Horse Pasture, Inc. Lummis was inducted into the Cheyenne Frontier Days Hall of Fame in 2016.