DIN 31635
Get DIN 31635 essential facts below. View Videos or join the DIN 31635 discussion. Add DIN 31635 to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
DIN 31635

DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) standard for the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet adopted in 1982. It is based on the rules of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG) as modified by the International Orientalist Congress 1935 in Rome. The most important differences from English-based systems were doing away with j, because it stood for in the English-speaking world and for in the German-speaking world and the entire absence of digraphs like th, dh, kh, gh, sh. Its acceptance relies less on its official status than on its elegance (one sign for each Arabic letter) and the Geschichte der arabischen Literatur manuscript catalogue of Carl Brockelmann and the dictionary of Hans Wehr. Today it is used in most German-language publications of Arabic and Islamic studies.

Table

The 28 letters:
Arabic letters ?‎ / ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? / ?[1]
DIN 31635 ? / ? b t ? ? ? ? d ? r z s ? ? ? ? ? ? ? f q k l m n h w / ? y / ?
ALA-LC ' / ? th j kh dh sh ? gh
IPA (MSA) ?, a: b t ? d?
?
?
? x d ð r z s ? s? d? t? ð?
z?
? ? f q k l m n h w, u: j, i:

Rules

The ?arak?t (fat?ah, kasrah and ?ammah) are transliterated as a, i and u. A ?addah results in a geminate (consonant written twice). The article is written with the sun letters assimilated.

An ?alif marking /a:/ is transliterated as ?. The letter (?) t marbah is transliterated as word-final -h normally, or -t in a word in the construct state.

Hamzah has many variants, ? ? ? ? ?; depending on its position, all of them are transliterated as ⟨?⟩. The initial ?alif (?) without a hamzah isn't transliterated using ? initially, only the initial vowel is transliterated (if pronounced): i-.

(?) ?alif maqrah appears as ?, transliterating it indistinguishable from ?alif.[2] Long vowels /i:/ and /u:/ are transliterated as ? and ?. The nisbah suffix /ij(j), ijja/ appears as -iyy, -iyyah although the former is normally transliterated as -?, and nunation is ignored in transliteration. A hyphen - is used to separate clitics (the article, the prepositions and the conjunction) from words to which they are attached.

The Eastern Arabic numerals ( ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ) are rendered as western Arabic numerals (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In Egypt, Sudan and sometimes other regions, the final form is always ? (without dots).
  2. ^ ? for final /-a:/ is also known as ? ?alif layyinah ['?ælef læj'jenæ] "flexible ?alif".

References

  • Brockelmann, Carl; Ronkel, Philippus Samuel van (1935). Die Transliteration der arabischen Schrift in ihrer Anwendung auf die Hauptliteratursprachen der islamischen Welt: Denkschrift dem 19. internationalen Orientalistenkongreß in Rom (PDF). Leipzig.Reprint (Wiesbaden, 1969)

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

DIN_31635
 



 



 
Music Scenes