Defterdar
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Defterdar

This is a list of the top officials in charge of the finances of the Ottoman Empire, called Defterdar (Turkish for bookkeepers; from the Persian ? daftardâr, ? daftar + dâr) between the 14th and 19th centuries and Maliye Naziri (Minister of Finance) between 19th and 20th centuries. They were originally in charge of the defters (tax registers) in the Ottoman Empire, hence the name "defterdar."

History of the office

Depiction of a defterdar, anonymous Greek artist, ca. 1809

The exact date of the formal establishment of the office is unknown.[1] According to some sources, the first defterdar was the Kad? (judge) of Mihaliç, Çelebi bin Mehmed, appointed in 1359 or 1360, during the reign of Murad I.[1] During the reign of Bayezid I (1389-1402), the poet Zahiri is mentioned as the defterdar.[1]

In the classical period, the finances of the Empire were organized under a single Defterdar, literally the main bookkeeper, in charge of a single imperial treasury (Hazine-i Amire). Starting in 1793, smaller treasuries independent of the imperial treasury were organized, each with a separate defterdar in charge. In 1837, a modern ministry was founded under the name of Maliye Nezareti, merging most of the independent treasuries back to the Imperial Treasury. In 1840, the merging of the remaining independent treasuries was completed.[2]

Rank and title

Ministers of Finance in the classical period were called Defterdar, were members of the Divan-? Hümayun and held rank higher than agha (military commander of the central organization, situated in Istanbul) and bey (provincial governor), and lower than vizier and kazasker (chief judge).[3] Starting from 1837, Ministers of Finance were called Maliye Naz?r?, held the rank of vizier, and were titled Pasha.[2]

List of Defterdars (until 1837)

The office of the Defterdar continued until 1837.[2]

Reign of Sultan Mehmed II

  • Titrek Sinan Çelebi (1452-1459)
  • Hekim Yakup Pasha (1459)
  • Osman Çelebi (1461)
  • Fenar?-zade Ahmed Çelebi (1474-1479)
  • Nureddin Hamza Ibn-i Ali Efendi (Leys Çelebi) (1479-1482), 1st term

Reign of Sultan Bayezid II

  • Feylezof-zade Ahmed Çelebi (1482-1485)
  • Isa Fakih (1485-1486)
  • Nureddin Hamza Ibn-i Ali Efendi (Leys Çelebi) (1486-1492), 2nd term
  • Cendereci-zade/Çandarl? ?emseddin (1492-1495)
  • Nureddin Hamza Ibn-i Ali Efendi (Leys Çelebi) (1495-1499), 3rd term
  • Ahmed Çelebi (1499-1501), 1st term
  • Hüseyin Çelebi (1501-1502)
  • Taci Bey (1502)
  • Nureddin Hamza Ibn-i Ali Efendi (Leys Çelebi) (1502-1504), 4th term
  • Cezeri-zade Koca Kas?m Saf? Pasha (1504), 1st term
  • Hüsameddin Çelebi (1511)
  • Piri Mehmed Pasha (1511)

Reign of Sultan Selim I

  • Piri Mehmed Çelebi (1512-1520), continued from previous reign
  • ?emsi Bey/Pasha (1514-1516)
  • Iskender Çelebi (1516-1517)
  • Çömlekçi-zade Kemalettin Çelebi (1517-1518)
  • Hoca-zade Mehmed Çelebi (1518-1519)
  • Abdülkerim-zade Abdülvehhab Hayali Çelebi (1519)
  • Cezeri-zade Koca Kas?m Saf? Pasha (1519), 2nd term
  • Ahmed Çelebi (1519-1520), 2nd term

Reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent

  • Ahmed Çelebi (1520-1521), continued from previous reign
  • Mehmed Çelebi (1521-1525)
  • Abdülselam Çelebi (1525)
  • Iskender Çelebi (1525 - March 1535)[4]
  • Mustafa Çelebi (1534-1536)
  • Ramazan-zade Ye?ilce Mehmed Çelebi (1536-1537)
  • Nazl? Mahmud Çelebi (1537-1542), 1st term
  • Ibrahim Çelebi/Pasha (1542-1544)
  • Nazl? Mahmud Çelebi (1544-1546), 2nd term
  • Sinan Çelebi Pasha (1546-1548)
  • Çivi-zade Abdullah/Abdi Çelebi (1548-1553)
  • Lütfi Bey/Çelebi (1553-1556)
  • Hasan Çelebi (1556-1557)
  • Muytab-zade Ahmed Çelebi (1557)
  • E?ri Abdi-zade Mehmed Bey/Çelebi (1557-1561)
  • Baba Nakka?-zade Dervi? Çelebi (1561-1562), 1st term
  • Murad Çelebi (1562-1566)

Reign of Sultan Selim II

  • Murad Çelebi (1566), continued from previous reign
  • Ebu'l-fazl Mehmed Çelebi (1566-1569)
  • Baba Nakka?-zade Dervi? Çelebi (1569-1573), 2nd term
  • Lale-i izar/Lalezar-zade/Laleli-zade Mehmed Çelebi (1573-1575), 1st term

Reign of Murad III

Reign of Sultan Mehmed III

  • Ba?-Hasan Efendi/Pasha (1595)
  • Emir Mehmed Pasha (1595), 2nd term
  • Mezbeleturpu Mahmud Efendi/Pasha (1595-1596)
  • Maktul Hac? Ibrahim Pasha (1596), 4th term
  • Ali Çavu?/Efendi (1596-1597)
  • Tophaneli Mahmud Efendi/Pasha (1597), 1st term
  • Ali Çavu?/Efendi (1597)
  • Tophaneli Mahmud Efendi/Pasha (1597-1598), 2nd term
  • Tezkireci-zade Mahmud Pasha (1598-1599)
  • Burhaneddin Pasha (1599-1600), 2nd term
  • Tophaneli Mahmud Efendi/Pasha (1600-1603), 3rd term

Reign of Sultan Ahmed I

  • Tophaneli Mahmud Efendi/Pasha (1603), continued from previous reign
  • Musa Çelebi-zade Mehmed Pasha (1603-1604)
  • Haf?z Mahmud Efendi (1604-1605)
  • Tophaneli Mahmud Efendi/Pasha (1605-1606), 4th term
  • Etmekçi/Ekmekçi-zade Ahmed Pasha (1606-1613)
  • Lanka-zade Mustafa Efendi (1614-1615), 1st term
  • Abdülbaki/Baki Efendi/Pasha (1614-1615), 1st term
  • Lanka-zade Mustafa Efendi (1615-1616), 2nd term
  • Rizeli Hasan Pasha (1617), 1st term

1st Reign of Sultan Mustafa I

  • Rizeli Hasan Pasha (1618), continued from previous reign
  • Yahnikapan Abdulkerim Efendi/Pasha (1618), 1st term

Reign of Sultan Osman II

  • Yahnikapan Abdulkerim Efendi/Pasha (1619), continued from previous reign
  • Rizeli Hasan Pasha (1620-1621), 2nd term
  • Abdulbaki/Baki Pasha (1621-1622), 2nd term

2nd Reign of Sultan Mustafa I

  • Rizeli Hasan Pasha (1622-1624), 3rd term

Reign of Sultan Murad IV

  • Abdulbaki/Baki Pasha (1624-1625), 3rd term
  • Yahnikapan Abdulkerim Pasha (1625), 2nd term
  • Ebubekir Efendi/Pasha (1625), 1st term
  • Ömer Pasha (1625-1626)
  • Ebubekir Efendi/Pasha (1626-1629), 2nd term
  • Softa Mustafa Pasha (1629-1632)
  • Hüseyin Efendi (1632)
  • Prevezeli Mustafa Pasha (1632-1633)
  • Mostarl? Ibrahim Pasha (1633-1636)
  • Sofu Mehmet Pasha (1636-1639)
  • Defterdarzade Ibrahim Pasha (1639)

Reign of Sultan Ibrahim

Reign of Sultan Mehmed IV

List of Ministers of Finance (1837 and later)

In 1837, a modern ministry was founded under the name of Maliye Nezareti (Ministry of Finance).[5][6]

Reign of Sultan Mahmud II

Reign of Sultan Abdülmecid I

Reign of Abdülaziz

Reign of Murad V

Reign of Abdulhamid II

Reign of Sultan Mehmed V

Reign of Sultan Mehmed VI

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Maliye Te?kilat? Tarihçesi ve Mevzuat?. Ankara: T.C. Maliye Bakanl (Turkish Ministry of Finance). 1994. p. 5. 1994/3.
  2. ^ a b c Maliye Te?kilat? Tarihçesi ve Mevzuat?. Ankara: T.C. Maliye Bakanl (Turkish Ministry of Finance). 1994. pp. 5-44, 131-142. 1994/3.
  3. ^ "Tarihçe-i Defterdarl?k". T.C. Maliye Bakanl (Turkish Ministry of Finance). Archived from the original on 2007-02-17. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Great Ottoman History by Ord. Prof. I. Hakki Uzun Carsi
  5. ^ Sicil-i Osmani, Mehmet Süreyya Bey
  6. ^ Son Dönem Osmanl? Erkan ve Ricali (1839 - 1922) Prosopografik Rehber, Sinan Kuneralp, ISIS Press, ?stanbul, ISBN 978-975-428-118-7, 1999
  7. ^ Balta, Evangelia; Ay?e Kavak (2018-02-28). "Publisher of the newspaper Konstantinoupolis for half a century. Following the trail of Dimitris Nikolaidis in the Ottoman archives". In Sagaster, Börte; Theoharis Stavrides; Birgitt Hoffmann (eds.). Press and Mass Communication in the Middle East: Festschrift for Martin Strohmeier. University of Bamberg Press. pp. 33-. ISBN 9783863095277. - Volume 12 of Bamberger Orientstudien - Old ISBN: 3863095278 // cited: p. 44.

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Defterdar
 



 



 
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