Dennis Kucinich
Get Dennis Kucinich essential facts below. View Videos or join the Dennis Kucinich discussion. Add Dennis Kucinich to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Dennis Kucinich

Dennis Kucinich
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 10th district

January 3, 1997 - January 3, 2013
Martin Hoke
Constituency abolished (Districts redrawn)
Member of the Ohio Senate
from the 23rd district

January 3, 1995 - January 2, 1997
Anthony Sinagra
Patrick Sweeney
53rd Mayor of Cleveland

November 14, 1977 - November 6, 1979
Ralph Perk
George Voinovich
Member of the Cleveland City Council
from Ward 12[2]

August 9, 1983[1] - December 31, 1985

January 1, 1970 - December 31, 1973
Personal details
Dennis John Kucinich

(1946-10-08) October 8, 1946 (age 74)
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Helen Kucinich (div.)
Sandra Lee McCarthy
(m. 1977; div. 1986)

(m. 2005)
EducationCase Western Reserve University (BA, MA)

Dennis John Kucinich (; born October 8, 1946) is an American politician. A U.S. Representative from Ohio from 1997 to 2013, he was also a candidate for the Democratic nomination for president of the United States in 2004 and 2008. He was a candidate for governor of Ohio in the 2018 election, losing in the primary to Richard Cordray.

From 1977 to 1979, Kucinich served as the 53rd mayor of Cleveland, a tumultuous term in which he survived a recall election and was successful in a battle against selling the municipal electric utility before being defeated for reelection by George Voinovich. Because of redistricting following the 2010 state elections, Kucinich faced Representative Marcy Kaptur in the 2012 race for the U.S. House, Ohio's 9th congressional district having absorbed part of Cuyahoga County. Kaptur defeated Kucinich. In January 2013, he became a contributor on the Fox News Channel, appearing on programs such as The O'Reilly Factor.

Early life and education

Kucinich was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 8, 1946, as the eldest of the seven children of Virginia (née Norris) and Frank J. Kucinich.[3][4] His father, a truck driver, was of Croat ancestry; his Irish American mother was a homemaker.[5] Growing up, his family moved 21 times and Dennis was often charged with the responsibility of finding apartments they could afford.[6]

Kucinich graduated from St. John Cantius High School in 1965.[7] He attended Cleveland State University from 1967 to 1970.[8] In 1973, he graduated from Case Western Reserve University with both a Bachelor and a Master of Arts degree in speech and communication.[9]

Early political career

Kucinich's political career began in 1967 when he ran unsuccessfully for office. In 1969, Kucinich was elected to the Cleveland City Council at the age of twenty-three.[5] In 1972, Kucinich ran for a US House of Representatives seat, losing narrowly to incumbent Republican William E. Minshall Jr. After Minshall's retirement in 1974 Kucinich sought the seat again, this time failing to get the Democratic nomination, which instead went to Ronald M. Mottl. Kucinich ran as an Independent candidate in the general election, placing third with about 30% of the vote. In 1975, Kucinich became clerk of the municipal court in Cleveland and served in that position for two years.[10]

Cleveland mayor

Kucinich with President Jimmy Carter in 1978

Kucinich was elected Mayor of Cleveland in 1977 and served in that position until 1979.[11] At thirty-one years of age, he was the youngest mayor of a major city in the United States,[5] earning him the nickname "the boy mayor of Cleveland".[12] Kucinich's tenure as mayor is often regarded as one of the most tumultuous in Cleveland's history.[12][13]

After Kucinich refused to sell Municipal Light (now Cleveland Public Power), Cleveland's publicly owned electric utility, the Cleveland mafia sought to murder him in a contract killing.[why?] A hit man from Maryland planned to shoot him in the head during the Columbus Day Parade, but the plot fell apart when Kucinich was hospitalized and missed the event. When the city fell into default shortly thereafter, the mafia leaders called off the contract killer.[14]

The Cleveland Trust Company suddenly required all of the city's debts be paid in full, which forced the city into default, after news of Kucinich's refusal to sell the city utility. For years, these debts were routinely rolled over, pending future payment, until Kucinich's announcement was made public. In 1998, the Cleveland City Council honored him for having had the "courage and foresight" to stand up to the banks, which saved the city an estimated $195 million between 1985 and 1995.[15]


After losing his re-election bid for Mayor to George Voinovich in 1979, Kucinich initially kept a low profile in Cleveland politics. He criticized a tax referendum proposed by Voinovich in 1980, which voters eventually approved. He also struggled to find employment and moved to Los Angeles, California, where he stayed with a friend, actress Shirley MacLaine.[16] During the next three years, Kucinich worked as a radio talk-show host, lecturer, and consultant.[8] It was a difficult period for Kucinich financially. Without a steady paycheck, Kucinich fell behind in his mortgage payments, nearly lost his house in Cleveland, and ended up borrowing money from friends, including MacLaine, to keep it.[16] On his 1982 income tax return, Kucinich reported an income of $38.[16] When discussing this period, Kucinich stated, "When I was growing up in Cleveland, my early experience conditioned me to hang in there and not to quit... It's one thing to experience that as a child, but when you have to as an adult, it has a way to remind you how difficult things can be. You understand what people go through."[16]

In 1982, Kucinich moved back to Cleveland and ran for Secretary of State; however, he lost the Democratic primary to Sherrod Brown.[16] In 1983, Kucinich won a special election to fill the seat of a Cleveland city councilman who had died. His brother, Gary Kucinich, was also a councilman at the time.

In 1985, there was some speculation that Kucinich might run for mayor again. Instead, his brother Gary ran against (and lost to) the incumbent Voinovich. Kucinich, meanwhile, gave up his council position to run for Governor of Ohio as an independent against Richard Celeste, but later withdrew from the race. After this, Kucinich, in his own words "on a quest for meaning," lived quietly in New Mexico until 1994, when he won a seat in the Ohio State Senate.

House of Representatives

Kucinich outside the Capitol in June 2007

In 1996, Kucinich was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, representing the 10th district of Ohio. He defeated two-term Republican incumbent Martin Hoke by three percentage points. He would never face another general election contest nearly that close, and would be re-elected seven times.[17]

Committee assignments

Kucinich served as chair of the Congressional Progressive Caucus from 1999 to 2003, after founding chair Bernie Sanders and was succeeded by Peter DeFazio.

Domestic policy voting record

In 2008, Kucinich introduced articles of impeachment in the House of Representatives against President George W. Bush for the invasion and occupation of Iraq.[18]

Although his voting record is not always in line with that of the Democratic Party, on March 17, 2010, after being courted by President Barack Obama, his wife and others, he reluctantly agreed to vote with his colleagues for the Healthcare Bill without a public option component.[19]

Kucinich criticized the flag-burning amendment and voted against the impeachment of President Bill Clinton. His congressional voting record has leaned strongly toward an anti-abortion stance, although he noted that he has never supported a constitutional amendment prohibiting abortion altogether. In 2003, however, he began describing himself as pro-abortion rights and said he had shifted away from his earlier position on the issue.[20]Press releases have indicated that he is pro-abortion rights and supports ending the abstinence-only policy of sex education and increasing the use of contraception to make abortion "less necessary" over time. His voting record since 2003 has reflected mixed ratings from abortion rights groups.[21]

Presidential campaigns


Kucinich speaks out against the occupation of Iraq at the 2004 Democratic National Convention.

Kucinich was criticized during his 2004 campaign for changing his stance on the issue of abortion.[20] His explanation was "I've always worked to make abortions less necessary, through sex education and birth control. But the direction that Congress has taken, increasingly, is to make it impossible for women to be able to have an abortion if they need to protect their health. So when I saw the direction taken, it finally came to the point where I understood that women will not be truly free unless they have the right to choose."[22]

On December 10, 2003, the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) announced the removal of its correspondents from the campaigns of Kucinich, Carol Moseley Braun and Al Sharpton.[23] Kucinich, previously critical of the limited coverage given his campaign, characterized ABC's decision as an example of media companies' power to shape campaigns by choosing which candidates to cover and questioned its timing, coming immediately after the debate.[23]ABC News, while stating its commitment to give coverage to a wide range of candidates, argued that focusing more of its "finite resources" on those candidates most likely to win would best serve the public debate.[24]

In the 2004 Democratic presidential nomination race, national polls consistently showed Kucinich's support in single digits.

In the Iowa caucuses, he finished fifth, receiving about 1% of the state delegates from Iowa; far below the 15% threshold for receiving national delegates. He performed similarly in the New Hampshire primary, placing sixth among the seven candidates with 1% of the vote. In the Mini-Tuesday primaries, he finished near the bottom in most states, with his best performance in New Mexico, where he received less than 6% of the vote, and still no delegates. Kucinich's best showing in any Democratic contest was in the February 24 Hawaii caucus, in which he won 31% of caucus participants, coming in second place to Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts and winning Maui County, the only county won by Kucinich in either of his presidential campaigns. He also saw a double-digit showing in Maine on February 8, where he received 16% percent in that state's caucus. On Super Tuesday, March 2, Kucinich gained another strong showing with the Minnesota caucus, where 17% of the ballots went to him. In his home state of Ohio, he received 9% in the primary. Kucinich campaigned heavily in Oregon, spending 30 days there during the two months leading up to the state's May 18 primary. He continued his campaign because "the future direction of the Democratic Party has not yet been determined"[25] and chose to focus on Oregon "because of its progressive tradition and its pioneering spirit."[26] He won 16% of the vote.

Even after Kerry won enough delegates to secure the nomination, Kucinich continued to campaign until just before the convention, citing an effort to help shape the agenda of the Democratic Party. He was the last candidate to end his campaign. He endorsed Kerry on July 22, four days before the start of the Democratic National Convention.[27]


Kucinich speaking on the campaign trail, January 2007.

On December 11, 2006, in a speech delivered at Cleveland City Hall, Kucinich announced he would seek the nomination of the Democratic Party for President in 2008.

Kucinich told his supporters in Iowa that if he did not appear on the second ballot in any caucus that they should back Barack Obama.[28][29]

At an October 2007 debate, NBC's Tim Russert cited a passage from a book by Shirley MacLaine in which the author writes that Kucinich had seen a UFO. Asked if it was true, Kucinich confirmed it.[30] In November 2007, Larry Flynt hosted a fundraiser for Kucinich which drew criticism from Flynt's detractors. Campaign representatives declined to comment.[31][32] Kucinich was endorsed by author Gore Vidal and actor Viggo Mortensen.[33][34] In January 2008, Kucinich asked for a New Hampshire recount based on alleged discrepancies between the machine-counted ballots and the hand-counted ballots. He stated that he wanted to make sure "100% of the voters had 100% of their votes counted."[35]

In January 2008, Kucinich was excluded from a Democratic presidential debate on MSNBC due to his poor showing in the Iowa and New Hampshire primaries. A ruling that the debate could not go ahead without Kucinich was overturned on appeal.[36] Later that month, Kucinich dropped out of the race, and did not endorse any other candidate. He later endorsed Barack Obama after he had won the nomination.[37][38]

Kucinich gestures to the audience during his speech on the second day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado.

On August 27, 2008, he delivered a speech at the Democratic National Convention.[39]

Congressional campaigns

Until 2012, Kucinich had always been reelected to Congress by sound margins in his strongly Democratic-leaning districts, and had up until this election far won primary challenges against him for the Democratic nomination convincingly.


Kucinich defeated another Democratic primary challenger by a wide margin and defeated Republican Mike Dovilla in the general election with 66% of the vote.


His opponents included Cleveland City Councilman Joe Cimperman and North Olmsted Mayor Thomas O'Grady. In February 2008 Kucinich raised around $50,000 compared to Cimperman's $228,000,[40] but through a YouTube money raising campaign he managed to raise $700,000, surpassing Cimperman's $487,000.[41][42]

Cimperman, who was endorsed by the Mayor of Cleveland and The Plain Dealer, criticized Kucinich for focusing too much on campaigning for president and not on the district. Kucinich accused Cimperman of representing corporate and real estate interests. Cimperman described Kucinich as an absentee congressman who failed to pass any major legislative initiatives in his 12-year House career. In an interview, Cimperman said he was tired of Kucinich and Cleveland being joke fodder for late-night talk-show hosts, saying: "It's time for him to go home."[43][44] An ad paid for by Cimperman's campaign stated that Kucinich has missed over 300 votes, but checking the ad's source revealed that the actual number was 139.[45] However, Kucinich is well known for his constituency service.[46] It was also suggested that Kucinich's calls for universal health care and an immediate withdrawal from Iraq made him a thorn in the side of the Democrats' congressional leadership, as well as his refusal to pledge to support the eventual presidential nominee, which he later reconsidered.[43]

Kucinich took part in a debate with the other primary challengers. Barbara Ferris criticized him for not bringing as much money back to the district as other area legislators and authoring just one bill that passed during his 12 years in Congress. Kucinich responded: "It was a Republican Congress and there weren't many Democrats passing meaningful legislation during a Republican Congress."[47]

Kucinich won the primary, receiving 68,156 votes out of 135,589 cast to beat Cimperman 52% to 33%.[48]

Kucinich defeated former State Representative Jim Trakas in the November 4, 2008, general election with 157,268 votes, 57.02% of those cast. Trakas received 107,918 votes, for 39.13%.[49]


Kucinich defeated Republican nominee Peter J. Corrigan and Libertarian nominee Jeff Goggins in the November 2, 2010 general election with 101,343 votes, 53.1% of those cast.[50]


Redistricting after the 2010 census eliminated Kucinich's district. The new map drew Kucinich's home into the Toledo-based 9th District, represented since 1983 by fellow Democrat Marcy Kaptur. Kucinich had been endorsed by another House member, Barney Frank of Massachusetts.[51] The two competed in the Democratic primary on March 6, 2012, with Graham Veysey, a small-business owner from Cleveland, also on that ballot. Kaptur won the primary with 56% of the vote, while Kucinich received 40%.[52][53] In the general election, with 73% of the vote, Kaptur won a 16th term against Republican Samuel "Joe the Plumber" Wurzelbacher and Libertarian Sean Stipe.[54]

Kucinich had been mentioned frequently as a possible 2012 candidate for Congress in the state of Washington in its newly created 10th district, but he ultimately decided to retire from Congress when his term ended in January 2013.[55][56][57]

2018 gubernatorial campaign

In January 2018, Kucinich announced he would run for Governor of Ohio in the 2018 election.[58] Kucinich was challenged for his support of the administration in his Fox News contributor role.[59][60] Tara Samples, an Akron city councilwoman, was his running mate.[61]Our Revolution, a grassroots progressive organization founded by Bernie Sanders, endorsed Kucinich, but Bernie Sanders opted not to endorse him.[62] Kucinich finished the primary race second to Democratic gubernatorial nominee Richard Cordray, 62.3 percent to 22.9 percent.[63]

Television pundit

In January 2013, Kucinich joined Fox News Channel as a regular contributor.[64][65] He appeared on The O'Reilly Factor and other Fox News shows.[66] Kucinich quit his Fox News role in January 2018 as he announced plans to run for governor.[67] After his failed run for governor, Kucinich has since reappeared on the network in 2019 discussing Democratic primary debates[68] and has appeared on Larry King's PoliticKING program, speaking in opposition to the Democrats' push for the impeachment of President Trump.[69]

Political positions

After being elected to Congress in 1996, Kucinich began to position himself on the far left wing.[70] Based on his voting record in Congress, the American Conservative Union (ACU) gave Kucinich a conservative rating of 9.73%,[71] and for 2008, the liberal Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) gave him a liberal rating of 95%.[72] Kucinich was often regarded as one of the most liberal members of the United States House of Representatives.[73][74][75] Describing his views in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries, he said, "I'm from the universal-health-care wing of the Democratic Party. I'm from the Roe v. Wade-litmus-test wing of the Democratic Party. I'm from the abolish-the-death-penalty wing of the Democratic Party."[76]


Prior to 2002, Kucinich's voting record was strongly anti-abortion, but he currently maintains a pro-abortion rights stance on abortion. In 1996, he was quoted as saying that "life begins at conception", and he has also voted in favor of banning partial birth abortion and preventing the transport of minors to undergo abortion procedures. However, since then he has been a strong supporter of abortion rights. He said in a 2003 interview that he had a "journey" regarding the abortion issue which "caused me to break from a voting record that had not been pro-choice".[77]

Attempted impeachment of George W. Bush

Kucinich with President George W. Bush in 2002

On June 10, 2008, Kucinich introduced 35 articles of impeachment against President George W. Bush on the floor of the House of Representatives.[78][79][80] On June 11, the resolution was referred to the House Judiciary Committee.

Calling it "a sworn duty" of Congress to act, co-sponsor Robert Wexler stated: "President Bush deliberately created a massive propaganda campaign to sell the war in Iraq to the American people and the charges detailed in this impeachment resolution indicate an unprecedented abuse of executive power."[81] On July 10, 2008, Kucinich introduced an additional article of impeachment accusing Bush of misleading Congress into war.[82][83] On July 14, 2008 Kucinich introduced a new resolution of impeachment against George W. Bush, charging him with manufacturing evidence to sway public opinion in favor of the war in Iraq. This resolution was also sent to the judiciary committee.

Attempted impeachment of Dick Cheney

On April 17, 2007, Kucinich sent a letter to his Democratic colleagues saying that he planned to file impeachment proceedings against Dick Cheney, then Vice President of the United States.[84] Kucinich planned to introduce the impeachment articles on April 24, 2007, but in light of Cheney's visit to his doctor for an inspection of a blood clot, Kucinich decided to postpone the scheduled press conference "until the vice president's condition is clarified."[85]

Kucinich held a press conference on the evening of April 24, 2007, revealing House Resolution 333 and the three articles of impeachment against Cheney. He charged Cheney with manipulating the evidence of Iraq's weapons program, deceiving the nation about Iraq's connection to al-Qaeda, and threatening aggression against Iran in violation of the United Nations charter. Kucinich opened his press conference by quoting from the Declaration of Independence, and stated: "I believe the Vice President's conduct of office has been destructive to the founding purposes of our nation. Today, I have introduced House Resolution 333, Articles of Impeachment Relating to Vice President Richard B. Cheney. I do so in defense of the rights of the American people to have a government that is honest and peaceful."[86]

On November 6, 2007, Kucinich used special parliamentary procedure and moved for a vote on impeaching the Vice President.[87]House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer and House Speaker Pelosi opposed the measure and stood by previous comments that "impeachment is not on our agenda," and they initially moved to table the bill. When that attempt failed, Mr. Hoyer quickly moved to refer the bill to the House Judiciary Committee. That motion succeeded.[87]

Barack Obama

In March 2011, Kucinich said that President Obama's decision to approve air strikes against Gaddafi's forces in the Libyan Civil War was an "impeachable offense."[88][89]


During his 2004 presidential campaign, Kucinich expressed support for a drug policy that "sets reasonable boundaries for marijuana use by establishing guidelines similar to those already in place for alcohol".[90] Said Kucinich: "Most marijuana users do so responsibly, in a safe, recreational context. These people lead normal, productive lives - pursuing careers, raising families and participating in civic life."[91] Kucinich also released a detailed plan for cannabis policy reform during his 2018 campaign for Ohio governor.[92]

Civil liberties

Kucinich has opposed the USA PATRIOT Act since its inception. He voted against the act in 2001, and against its renewal in 2006. He voted for an amendment to the constitution outlawing flag burning and desecration, however he has since taken up the opposite stance and voted against a similar amendment in 2005.[93]

In 2007, Kucinich voted to require the Department of Defense to present a detailed plan for transferring prisoners out of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.[93]

Donald Trump

Kucinich has praised and defended President Donald Trump in Fox News appearances.[62] Kucinich praised Trump's inaugural speech, saying it was "GREAT" and a "message of unity"; others had characterized the speech as dark[94][95] and "white nationalist".[95][89]

According to The Washington Post, Kucinich "was a rare left-wing voice attacking "the deep state" for undermining the president."[62] On Sean Hannity's show, Kucinich said that he believed that there was a deep state intelligence community working against President Trump and that it was "very dangerous to America", "a threat to our republic" and "a clear and present danger to our way of life."[89] In February 2017, Kucinich defended Michael Flynn, saying that he was treated unfairly by the intelligence community; in December 2017, Flynn pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI.[95][96] Kucinich defended Trump's claims that he was being wiretapped; Kucinich claimed that he himself had been wiretapped.[97]

Kucinich has defended Trump's efforts to improve relations with Russia.[95]

Kucinich, who attempted to impeach Bush and Cheney, and said that Barack Obama had committed impeachable offenses, criticized some House Democrats for attempting to start impeachment proceedings against President Trump.[98] He said, "The Democratic Party had best be identified with something more than impeachment."[98] He said that efforts to assess Trump's mental and physical fitness to be president was "destroying the party as an effective opposition."[89]

Environment and energy

Kucinich had a 100% rating during 2005 and 2006 from the League of Conservation Voters, indicating pro-environment votes.[99] He has stated that clean water is "a basic human right".[100]

As mayor of Cleveland in the 1970s, Kucinich favored the city's existing Municipal Light System and opposed construction of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Plant and Perry Nuclear Power Plant on Lake Erie. Kucinich opposed a planned regional radioactive waste dump, and has long advocated renewable energy and efficient energy use.[101]

Fairness Doctrine

Kucinich was involved in efforts to bring back the Fairness Doctrine, requiring radio stations to give liberal and conservative points of view equal time, which he and other critics of talk radio argue is not presently the case. Fellow Democrat Maurice Hichney, Vermont's independent Senator Bernie Sanders, and others have joined him in this effort.[102] Conservatives have criticized these plans, alleging that what they believe to be a liberal-dominated Hollywood, academia, new media, and mainstream media would not be subject to these regulations.[103][104][105]

Foreign policy

Kucinich is a supporter of a non-interventionist foreign policy and has referred to war as a profitable racket.[106]

Iraq War

Kucinich voted against the authorization of military force against Iraq in 2002. He has also voted consistently against funding the war.[107]

In a visit to the rest of the Middle East in September 2007, Kucinich said he did not visit Iraq because "I feel the United States is engaging in an illegal occupation."[108]

Military intervention in Libya

Dennis Kucinich speaking at the 2015 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in National Harbor, Maryland, on February 27, 2015.

Kucinich objected to the 2011 military intervention in Libya missile strikes and questioned whether they weren't impeachable offenses. Kucinich also questioned why Democratic leaders didn't object when President Barack Obama told them of his plan for US participation in enforcing the Libyan no-fly zone. He said Obama's action in Libya was "a grave decision that cannot be made by the president alone", and stated that failing to first seek approval of Congress was in violation of the Constitution.[109][110]

On August 31, Al Jazeera reported that a document had been found in the headquarters of the Libyan intelligence agency which according to the author appears to be a summary of a conversation between Kucinich and an intermediary for Saif al-Islam Gaddafi in which the congressman asked for information about the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council (NTC), possible links of it to al-Qaeda and corruption evidences, to lobby US lawmakers to put an end to NATO airstrikes and suspend their support for the NTC.[111] It also listed information necessary to defend Saif al-Islam against International Criminal Court war crimes charges.[111] Kucinich defended himself in a message to The Atlantic Wire, saying that the document in question is simply a summary of Kucinich's public positions on the Libyan campaign by a Libyan bureaucrat who never consulted with Kucinich himself. "Al Jazeera found a document written by a Libyan bureaucrat to other Libyan bureaucrats. All it proves is that the Libyans were reading The Washington Post... Any implication I was doing anything other than trying to bring an end to an unauthorised war is fiction."[111][112]

In March 2011, Kucinich criticized the Obama administration's decision to participate in the UN intervention in Libya without Congressional authorization. He also called it an "indisputable fact" that President Obama's decision is an impeachable offense since he believes the U.S. Constitution "does not provide for the president to wage war any times he pleases," although he has not yet introduced a resolution to impeach Obama.[113] In response, Libyan officials invited Kucinich to visit that country on a "peace mission", but he declined, stating that he "could not negotiate on behalf of the administration."[114]

Syria and Bashar al-Assad

Kucinich was criticized for his visit to Syria in 2007 and praise of the President Bashar al-Assad on Syria's national TV.[115] He praised Syria for taking in Iraqi refugees. "What most people are not aware of is that Syria has taken in more than 1.5 million Iraqi refugees," Kucinich said. "The Syrian government has actually shown a lot of compassion in keeping its doors open, and being a host for so many refugees."[116]

Kucinich has met with President Bashar al-Assad on a number of occasions and has defended him.[117][118][119] Kucinich defended Assad's actions in the Syrian Civil War.[118] Asked how he could defend a war criminal, Kucinich said that the choice was either between letting ISIS take over Syria or "try to stabilize the region and let the people of Syria make their own decisions about who their leaders are going to be".[118] He helped Fox News get an interview with Bashar al-Assad.[117]

In October 2016, Kucinich warned against a prospective United States military intervention against Russia in Syria.[120] He argued that "a concerted effort is being made through fearmongering, propaganda, and lies to prepare our country for a dangerous confrontation, with Russia in Syria."[121] He said that Russia was being demonized as part of a "calculated plan to resurrect a raison d'être for stone-cold warriors trying to escape from the dustbin of history by evoking the specter of Russian world domination."[121]


Kucinich is graded "F" by the National Rifle Association, indicating a pro-gun control voting record. He also received a 100% lifetime rating from the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence.[122]

Health care

Kucinich believes that health care is a "right in a democratic society".[123] He is a critic of the for-profit health insurance and pharmaceutical industries in the United States, and is concerned about the large number of uninsured and underinsured in the United States.[76] He contends that if the overhead related to the for-profit insurance system, such as "stock options, executive salaries, [and] advertising", were used for medically necessary care, he says, there would be enough money in the system to cover all people at no extra cost.[123]

In July 2009, the House Education and Labor Committee approved an amendment authored by Kucinich to its version of the unsuccessful America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009 by a vote of 27-19, with 14 Democrats and 13 Republicans voting for it.[124] The amendment empowers the Secretary of Health and Human Services to waive the federal law that pre-empts state law on employee-related health care, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, in response to state requests.[125] It has been speculated that the amendment's bipartisan support was for its appeal to states' rights in supporting progressive legislation.[124] In the past, states attempting to enact single-payer reforms have been successfully sued and stopped under ERISA.[125] It has also been speculated that this law's passage would open up vital new avenues for promoting, and actually implementing a single-payer system for the United States, as newly unbound states would show single-payer's success, just as Saskatchewan did for Canada.[124] However, the Kucinich Amendment was stripped from the merged House bill. Speaker Nancy Pelosi said that it would have violated President Obama's promise that Americans who liked their health insurance could keep it.[126]

In March 2010, Kucinich announced that he supported the Affordable Care Act after previously indicating opposition.[127]

LGBT rights

Kucinich supports same-sex marriage.[128] Kucinich voted for the expansion of hate crime laws in the United States and against banning LGBT adoption in Washington, D.C.[129]


Kucinich has consistently opposed free trade on the grounds that it costs American jobs and enables abusive working conditions in other countries.[130]

Youth rights

In a Democratic debate during the 2008 Presidential Election, Kucinich and Mike Gravel were the only two candidates who favored lowering the legal drinking age to 18 as it is in the vast majority of the world. Kucinich further said that the voting age should be lowered to 16.[131]

Electoral history


In 2003, Kucinich was the recipient of the Gandhi Peace Award, an annual award bestowed by the Religious Society of Friends-affiliated organization Promoting Enduring Peace.[3]

In 2010, he was awarded the US Peace Prize by the US Peace Memorial Foundation "in recognition of his national leadership to prevent and end wars."[132]

After Kucinich lost to Marcy Kaptur in the 2012 Democratic primary, Rep. Keith Ellison (D-Minn.) said of Kucinich, "At the end of the day, we're really going to miss Dennis. Dennis is a transformative leader. He stood up and spoke eloquently, passionately about Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran. He was a consistent voice for peace... He almost didn't vote for the health care bill because it wasn't good enough."[133]

Personal life

Dennis and Elizabeth Kucinich in 2008

Kucinich was baptized a Roman Catholic.[8] He married Sandra Lee McCarthy in 1977; they had a daughter, Jackie, in 1981 and divorced in 1986.[134] He married his third wife, Elizabeth Harper, a British citizen, on August 21, 2005. The two met while Harper was working as an assistant for the Chicago-based American Monetary Institute, which brought her to Kucinich's House of Representatives office for a meeting.[135] Kucinich, a vegan since 1995, is an advocate of this lifestyle, like his wife Elizabeth.[136][137]

Kucinich was raised with four brothers, Larry, Frank, Gary and Perry; and two sisters, Theresa and Beth Ann. Perry Kucinich, the youngest brother, died in December 2007.[138] His youngest sister, Beth Ann Kucinich died in November 2008.[139]

In 2011, he sued a Capitol Hill cafeteria for damages after a 2008 incident in which he claimed to have suffered a severe injury when he bit into a sandwich and broke a tooth on an olive pit. The broken tooth became infected, and complications led to three surgeries for dental work. The lawsuit, which had claimed $150,000 in punitive damages, was settled with the defendant agreeing to pay for the representative's costs.[140]

See also


  1. ^ Chung, Connie (August 10, 1983). "Dennis Kucinich wins election to Cleveland City Council". NBC Learn. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 11, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ "Mayoral administration of Dennis J. Kucinich | Encyclopedia of Cleveland History". Case Western Reserve University. May 11, 2018. Archived from the original on September 28, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ a b "About Dennis Kucinich." Dennis for President. July 24, 2007 Archived July 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Sandusky Register: Obituary".
  5. ^ a b c Okamoto, Lynn (2003-09-07). "Kucinich's hard childhood a 'gift' yielding strength, compassion". Des Moines Register. Archived from the original on 2004-02-09.
  6. ^ Ramer, Holly (2007-08-15). "Kucinich speaks from experience on homelessness". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved .
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ a b c "Presidency 2004 Dennis J. Kucinich (Democrat - Ohio)". Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  9. ^ "About Dennis." Congressman Dennis Kucinich. July 25, 2007 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-06-28. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Bartimole, Roldo (1992-07-18). "25 Years of Cleveland Mayors: Who Really Governs?" (PDF). Point of View. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-17. Retrieved .
  11. ^ The Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History by Cleveland Bicentennial Commission (Cleveland, Ohio), David D. Van Tassel (Editor), and John J. Grabowski (Editor) ISBN 978-0-253-33056-7
  12. ^ a b The Plain Dealer, August 1, 1999. Our Century: 'Boy Mayor' Leads Battle Into Default by Fred McGunagle.
  13. ^ The Crisis of Growth Politics: Cleveland, Kucinich, and the Challenge of Urban Populism by Todd Swanstrom ISBN 978-0-87722-366-5
  14. ^ Renner, James (2007-07-04). "The Mafia Plot To Kill Dennis Kucinich". The Cleveland Free Times. pp. Cover story. Archived from the original on July 8, 2007. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-11-22. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)'Boy Mayor' Kucinich Took Charge in Utility Debt Crisis, From LA Times, January 23, 2003
  16. ^ a b c d e Pilolla, Ed (2004). "He's always had a destiny". Concord Monitor. Archived from the original on 2005-03-09. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Archived from the original on 2007-12-26. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "Dennis Kucinich suffers defeat in Ohio primary race". The National Post. March 7, 2012.
  19. ^ "Michelle Obama Gets Backup From Scarlett Johansson on Healthful Eating - Washington Whispers". Retrieved .
  20. ^ a b Marc Sandalow, "Ohio Presidential Hopeful Pivots Over to Pro-Choice Camp Archived 2013-09-02 at the Wayback Machine", San Francisco Chronicle, February 23, 2003.
  21. ^ "Interest Group Ratings". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved 2009.
  22. ^ Democratic 2004 Primary Presidential Debate in Durham, New Hampshire, December 9, 2003.
  23. ^ a b "Kucinich & Braun Blast ABC For Reducing Campaign Coverage." Archived 2007-11-18 at the Wayback Machine Democracy Now! December 12, 2003. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
  24. ^ Robinson, Josh and Lorna Tychostup (February 2004). "How the Media Picks the Candidates". Z Magazine. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved 2011.
  25. ^ Rick Lyman, "Down But Not Out, Kucinich Keeps Fighting Archived 2013-09-02 at the Wayback Machine", The New York Times, May 17, 2004.
  26. ^ "Kerry visits spotlights Oregon's state primary". KGW news. May 18, 2004. Archived from the original on January 3, 2009. Retrieved 2011.
  27. ^ David Halbfinger, "The 2004 Campaign: Campaign Briefing - The Democrats; Kucinich Endorses Kerry", The New York Times, July 23, 2004.
  28. ^ "Kucinich Asks Supporters to Back Obama". Google News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved .
  29. ^ "Kucinich Urges Supporters to Back Obama on Second Iowa Ballot". Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. Retrieved .
  30. ^ Eaton, Sabrina. "Kucinich at debate: I did see a UFO". Retrieved .
  31. ^ Jones, Chris. "Larry Flynt Hosts Fundraiser For Dennis Kucinich". Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. Retrieved .
  32. ^ Katz, Jackson. "Dennis Kucinich Endorses Hustler". The Huffington Post. Retrieved .
  33. ^ "The Nation: Gore Vidal for Dennis Kucinich: A farsighted populist and pacifist. - Off The Bus on The Huffington Post". March 28, 2008. Retrieved .
  34. ^ "The Return of the King... for Kucinich". Retrieved .
  35. ^ "Asks for New Hampshire Recount". NBC News. 2008-01-11. Retrieved .
  36. ^ Ken Ritter (January 15, 2008). "Court: MSNBC Can Bar Kucinich". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  37. ^ Naymik, Mark and Kavanoaugh, Molly. Kucinich drops presidential bid. The Plain Dealer, January 24, 2008.
  38. ^ Cillizza, Chris. Why Kucinich Dropped Out Now Archived 2008-05-15 at the Wayback Machine. The Washington Post, January 24, 2008.
  39. ^ [2] Kucinich's Democratic National Convention Speech (VIDEO), From Huffington Post, August 26, 2008
  40. ^ "10th Congressional candidate Palmer raised $133,300 in '07 - Openers - Ohio Politics Blog by The Plain Dealer". Retrieved .
  41. ^ "Dennis Kucinich raised nearly $700,000 in six weeks in bid to keep seat in Congress". Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved .
  42. ^ Video on YouTube
  43. ^ a b "Is Dennis Kucinich Getting McKinney´d". American Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2013-09-01. Retrieved .
  44. ^ Davis, Susan (2008-02-22). "Long Shots Could Pay High Price -". Retrieved .[permanent dead link]
  45. ^ "House members who missed votes, 110th Congress (Congress votes database)". Archived from the original on 2010-05-01. Retrieved .
  46. ^ "Cleveland to Dennis Kucinich: Phone home". 2008-03-03. Archived from the original on 2010-01-21. Retrieved .
  47. ^ "U.S. Rep. Dennis Kucinich, 4 challengers debate". Archived from the original on 2010-05-09. Retrieved .
  48. ^ "Kucinich Wins Chance To Keep U.S. Rep. Seat". WEWS. March 5, 2008. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  49. ^ Representative to Congress Amended Results, Ohio Secretary of State, November 4, 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  50. ^ "Home". Archived from the original on 2010-12-27.
  51. ^ Frank, Barney. "Congressman Barney Frank for Dennis Kucinich in Ohio's New Ninth". Archived from the original on 2012-01-28. Retrieved .
  52. ^ "2016 Election Results: President Live Map by State, Real-Time Voting Updates".
  53. ^ "OH District 9 - D Primary Race". Our Campaigns. March 6, 2012. Retrieved .
  54. ^ Noga, Joe (November 7, 2012). "Marcy Kaptur coasts to win in 9th District congressional race". Sun News.
  55. ^ Northeast Ohio. "Dennis Kucinich holding back on future plans, but not on criticism for victorious rival Marcy Kaptur". Retrieved .
  56. ^ Sabrina Eaton/The Plain Dealer. "Rep. Dennis Kucinich won't run for Congress in Washington state". Retrieved .
  57. ^ Ken Lambert, Seattle Times. "Rep. Dennis Kucinich's Washington state supporters urge him to run, but party leadership says keep out". Retrieved .
  58. ^ Laura A. Bischoff (January 8, 2018). "Dennis Kucinich is running for Ohio governor against 6 other Democrats". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved 2018.
  59. ^ Vyse, Graham (2018-01-17). "Is Dennis Kucinich Serious?". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved .
  60. ^ Richardson, Seth A. (2018-01-17). "Dennis Kucinich officially announces run for Ohio governor". cleveland. Retrieved .
  61. ^ Richardson, Seth (January 19, 2018). "Dennis Kucinich chooses Akron city councilwoman as running mate".
  62. ^ a b c Weigel, David (2018-02-22). "Bernie Sanders kicks off 3 days of rallies for like-minded candidates". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved .
  63. ^ "Ohio Primary Election Results". The New York Times. May 9, 2018.
  64. ^ Daniel Strauss (16 January 2013). "Kucinich joins Fox News Channel". The Hill.
  65. ^ Brian Stelter, Dennis Kucinich Signs as Fox News Contributor, New York Times (January 16, 2013).
  66. ^ Ed Kilgore, The Eternal Recurrence of Dennis Kucinich, Candidate for Office, New York (January 30, 2018).
  67. ^ Pappas, Alex (2018-01-08). "Dennis Kucinich to formally announce campaign for Ohio governor next week". Fox News. Retrieved .
  68. ^ "Dennis Kucinich on 2020 Democratic debates". Fox News. 2019-06-29. Retrieved .
  69. ^ Democrat Dennis Kucinich; Impeachment Not Helping US: Let Voters Decide Trump's Fate, retrieved
  70. ^ Lisa Mascaro and Ian Duncan, Ohio Rep. Dennis Kucinich hailed by colleagues after primary loss, Los Angeles Times, 7 March 2012
  71. ^ "2007 U.S. House Votes". American Conservative Union. Archived from the original on October 28, 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  72. ^ "ADA Congressional Voting Record 2008" (PDF). ADA Today. Americans for Democratic Action. Retrieved .
  73. ^ Klein, Joe (2009-08-20). "The GOP Has Become a Party of Nihilists". Time magazine. Retrieved .
  74. ^ Hechtkopf, Kevin (2009-08-18). "Artist Behind Obama "Joker" Picture Revealed". CBS News. Retrieved .
  75. ^ March, William (2003-11-29). "Kucinich Hit Stage As Cleveland Mayor". The Tampa Tribune. p. 15.
  76. ^ a b Curry, Tom (2008-07-14). "Kucinich spices up the race". NBC News. Retrieved .
  77. ^ David Enrich, Kucinich's Continued Evolution National Review, June 9, 2003
  78. ^ "Rep. Kucinich introduces Bush impeachment resolution". AP/MSNBC. 2008-06-10. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. Retrieved .
  79. ^ "Rep. Kucinich introduces Bush impeachment resolution". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  80. ^ video[dead link]
  81. ^ ", U.S. Rep. Wexler calling for impeachment of President Bush". Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved .
  82. ^ "Kucinich to Introduce Sole Impeachment Resolution". Roll Call. July 10, 2008. Retrieved 2013.
  83. ^ rtsp://[permanent dead link]
  84. ^ Ann Akers, Mary (April 17, 2007). "Articles of Impeachment To Be Filed On Cheney". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 10, 2007. Retrieved .
  85. ^ "Cheney returns to work after leg check-up". Reuters. April 24, 2007. Retrieved .
  86. ^ "Kucinich Introduces Impeachment Articles Against Cheney". The Washington Post. April 24, 2007. Retrieved .
  87. ^ a b "Brady Supports Kucinich Move to Impeach Cheney". The Philadelphia Bulletin. November 7, 2007. Archived from the original on November 16, 2007.
  88. ^ "Kucinich: Libya action 'impeachable'". POLITICO. Retrieved .
  89. ^ a b c d "Is Dennis Kucinich Serious?". New Republic. Retrieved .
  90. ^ "Presidential Candidate Says Federal Law Should Treat Pot Like Alcohol". NORML. December 4, 2003. Retrieved 2019.
  91. ^ "Marijuana Decriminalization". Archived from the original on December 5, 2003.
  92. ^ Tobias, Andrew J. (March 7, 2018). "Dennis Kucinich, candidate for Ohio governor, says legalizing marijuana can help with opioid crisis". Retrieved 2019.
  93. ^ a b Representative Dennis J. Kucinich,
  94. ^ "Dennis Kucinich cheers President Donald Trump". Retrieved .
  95. ^ a b c d "Ohio governor's race: former U.S. Rep. Dennis Kucinich officially enters Democratic primary". Retrieved .
  96. ^ "Ex-Rep. Dennis Kucinich says intelligence community schemed against Michael Flynn". Retrieved .
  97. ^ Balluck, Kyle (2017-03-14). "Dennis Kucinich on Trump's wiretap charge: 'It happened to me'". TheHill. Retrieved .
  98. ^ a b Fandos, Nicholas (2017-10-12). "House Democrats Can't Impeach Trump, but They're Willing to Try". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved .
  99. ^ Representative Dennis J. Kucinich,
  100. ^ Dennis Kucinich: The Candidates in Print
  101. ^ "New Hampshire's Nuclear Primary". Retrieved .
  102. ^ Fred Lucas (January 17, 2007). "Democrats' New 'Fairness' Push May Silence Conservative Radio Hosts, Critics Say". CBS News. Archived from the original on March 29, 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  103. ^ "John Berlau: Is the Fairness Doctrine on its Way Back?, October 31, 2006". 2006-09-15. Archived from the original on October 13, 2009. Retrieved .
  104. ^ Hunter, Derek (2007-05-17). "'Fairness Doctrine' Anything but Fair". The Politico. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
  105. ^ Will, George F. (2007-05-07). "Fraudulent 'Fairness'". Newsweek.
  106. ^ Kucinich, Dennis (2016-10-25). "Why Is the Foreign Policy Establishment Spoiling for More War? Look at Their Donors". The Nation. Retrieved .
  107. ^ Use of Military Force Against Iraq
  108. ^ "US Democratic hopeful Kucinich meets Assad, blasts Bush". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved .[permanent dead link]
  109. ^ Liberal Democrats in uproar over Libya action; Politico; March 19, 2011
  110. ^ Dennis Kucinich: Obama's Libya Attack An Impeachable Offense; Talking Points Memo; March 21, 2011
  111. ^ a b c Elshayyal, Jamal (August 31, 2011). Secret files: US officials aided Gaddafi. Al Jazeera. Accessed August 31, 2011
  112. ^ Uri Friedman (August 31, 2011). Al Jazeera Says Kucinich Worked With Qaddafis, Kucinich Denies Archived September 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine The Atlantic Wire
  113. ^ Condon, Stephanie (21 March 2011). "Kucinich says Obama "crossed the line," calls attacks on Libya an "indisputable" impeachable offense". CBS News. Retrieved 2010.
  114. ^ Harding, Luke (25 August 2011). "Gaddafi's desperate bid to save regime revealed". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2011.
  115. ^ "Dennis Kucinich's Syria follies Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine", an editorial of The Plain Dealer, September 13, 2007.
  116. ^ US Democratic hopeful Kucinich meets Assad, blasts Bush, The Jerusalem Post, September 6, 2007
  117. ^ a b "Fox News interviews Assad with help of U.S. ex-lawmaker Kucinich". Reuters. September 18, 2013. Retrieved .
  118. ^ a b c "Former Rep. Dennis Kucinich again meets with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad". Retrieved .
  119. ^ "Bashar-al Assad tells Dennis Kucinich that jihadists used chemical weapons in Syria (video)". Retrieved .
  120. ^ Kucinich, Dennis (October 26, 2016). "Why Is the Foreign Policy Establishment Spoiling for More War? Look at Their Donors". The Nation. Retrieved 2016.
  121. ^ a b Kucinich, Dennis (2016-10-25). "Why Is the Foreign Policy Establishment Spoiling for More War? Look at Their Donors". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved .
  122. ^ Interest Group Ratings - Gun Issues
  123. ^ a b Martin, Michel (2009-05-12). "White House Looks For Ways To Lower Health Care Costs". National Public Radio. Retrieved .
  124. ^ a b c Nichols, John (2009-07-17). "A Real Win for Single-Payer Advocates". The Beat. The Nation. Retrieved .
  125. ^ a b "Kucinich Amendment Grants ERISA Waiver for Single Payer States". Center for Policy Analysis. Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved .
  126. ^ Grim, Ryan (2009-11-06). "Pelosi: Single-Payer Amendment Breaks Obama's Health Care Promise". The Huffington Post. Common Dreams NewsCenter.
  127. ^ "Rep. Dennis Kucinich's health care switch encourages Democrats". Retrieved .
  128. ^ Tom Diemer and Sabrina Eaton, Kucinich supports marriage for same-sex couples Archived 2016-01-20 at the Wayback Machine, Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 16, 2003
  129. ^ 2008 Presidential Candidates' Positions Archived 2012-02-08 at the Wayback Machine
  130. ^ The Candidates on Trade Archived 2010-05-19 at the Wayback Machine Council on Foreign Relations
  131. ^ Parker, Jennifer (2007-10-09). "Group Stirs Debate on Legal Drinking Age". ABC News. Retrieved . Of course, they should be able to drink at age 18, and they should be able to vote at age 16
  132. ^ "Congressman Dennis Kucinich Awarded US Peace Prize". US Peace Memorial Foundation. Retrieved 2020.
  133. ^ Jonathan Allen and Alex Isenstadt (March 7, 2012). "Dennis Kucinich loss is end of an era". Politico.
  134. ^ Ryzik, Melena. "Recommend E-Mail Dennis J. Kucinich". Times Topics. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2010.
  135. ^ Theiss, Evelyn (2005-10-30). "How Kucinich Found Love". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, Ohio. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09. Retrieved .
  136. ^ "Dennis Kucinich Wants To Give Vegan Chocolate Chip Brownies To The World". Ecorazzi. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 2018.
  137. ^ Gavin, Patrick (3 October 2012). "Kucinich wants D.C. to go vegan". Politico. Retrieved 2018.
  138. ^ Kucinich's brother found dead in home, CNN, December 19, 2007
  139. ^ McRae, Sarena (2008-11-11). "Beth Ann Kucinich, 48, musician, artist, sister of Congressman Dennis Kucinich". Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved .
  140. ^ Rucker, Philip (29 January 2011). "The tortured tale of Rep. Dennis Kucinich and his olive pit". Washington Post. Retrieved 2013.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Ralph Perk
Mayor of Cleveland
Succeeded by
George Voinovich
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Martin Hoke
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 10th congressional district

Succeeded by
Mike Turner
Party political offices
Preceded by
Bernie Sanders
Chair of the Congressional Progressive Caucus
Succeeded by
Peter DeFazio

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes