Dicksonia Squarrosa
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Dicksonia Squarrosa

Dicksonia squarrosa
Wheki 2008.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Cyatheales
Family: Dicksoniaceae
Genus: Dicksonia
D. squarrosa
Binomial name
Dicksonia squarrosa
(G.Forst.) Sw.
  • Balantium squarrosum (G.Forst.) Kunze
  • Dicksonia gracilis Col.
  • Dicksonia squarrosa var. gracilis (Col.) C.Chr.
  • Trichomanes squarrosum G.Forst.

Dicksonia squarrosa, the New Zealand tree fern,[1]whek? or rough tree fern, is a common tree fern endemic to New Zealand. It has a slender black trunk that is usually surrounded by many dead brown fronds.[2]


This species has a fast growth rate of up to 10-80 cm (4-31 in) a year, growing to about 6 m (20 ft) tall.[3] It produces few fronds, all of which sprout in almost horizontal fashion. The fronds reach 1.5-3 m (4 ft 11 in-9 ft 10 in) in length, much smaller than Cyathea varieties, and are quite crisp to touch. They form a small "umbrella" on top of the trunk. They are sometimes found sprouting from apparently dead pieces of trunk. The trunks are often used for fencing or edging and fronds will sometimes sprout from the side if the top is dead. A feature of the whek? is the spreading underground rhizomes which can create dense groves, making it one of the most common tree ferns in New Zealand forests.[4]

The Latin specific epithet squarrosa means "with curving ends" (referring to the fronds).[5]

Human use

The whek? is quite hardy and tolerant to sun and some wind, but is best suited to a site with partial shade and minimal wind. It will tolerate some exposure to the elements - but can look quite scruffy in such a situation. Some protection should be considered over the winter months in climates with temperatures below 4-5 °C, e.g. shadecloth cover or straw packed in the crown. The fronds are small and compact, making this fern an ideal container or garden plant where space is limited. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[1][6]

The M?ori used to form fences of their fortified P? with the dead whek? trunks.[7]

Close-up of frond


  1. ^ a b "RHS Plant Selector - Dicksonia squarrosa". Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ "Dicksonia squarrosa description". Forest Ferns. Retrieved 2012.
  3. ^ "Dicksonia squarrosa height". Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ "Underground rhizomes reference". Retrieved 2012.
  5. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845337315.
  6. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 29. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ Andrew Crowe (1997). A Guide to the Identification of New Zealand Native Ferns. Auckland, New Zealand: Penguin Books. p. 12.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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