Dinitrogen Difluoride
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Dinitrogen Difluoride
Dinitrogen difluoride[1]
Cistrans-Distickstoffdifluorid.png
cis-Dinitrogen difluoride (left) and trans-dinitrogen difluoride (right)
Cis-dinitrogen difluoride molecule
Trans-dinitrogen difluoride molecule
Names
IUPAC name
cis- or trans-dinitrogen difluoride
Other names
cis- or trans-difluorodiazene
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
Properties
N2F2
Molar mass 66.010 g/mol
Appearance colorless gas
Density 2.698 g/L
Melting point cis: < -195 °C (-319.0 °F; 78.1 K)
trans: -172 °C
Boiling point cis: -105.75 °C (-158.35 °F; 167.40 K)
trans: -111.45 °C
cis: 0.16 D
trans: 0 D
Thermochemistry
cis: 69.5 kJ/mol
trans: 82.0 kJ/mol
Related compounds
Other cations
azo compounds
diazene
Related Binary fluoro-azanes
nitrogen trifluoride
tetrafluorohydrazine
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Dinitrogen difluoride is a chemical compound with the formula N2F2. It is a gas at room temperature, and was first identified in 1952 as the thermal decomposition product of the azide N3F. It has the structure F-N=N-F and exists in both a cis- and trans-form.

Isomers

The cis configuration lies in a C2v symmetry and the trans-form has a symmetry of C2h. These isomers are thermally interconvertible but can be separated by low temperature fractionation. The trans-form is less thermodynamically stable but can be stored in glass vessels. The cis-form attacks glass over a time scale of about 2 weeks to form silicon tetrafluoride and nitrous oxide:[2]

2 N2F2 + SiO2 -> SiF4 + 2 N2O

Preparation

Most preparations of dinitrogen difluoride give mixtures of the two isomers, but they can be prepared independently.

An aqueous method involves N,N-difluorourea with concentrated potassium hydroxide. This gives a 40% yield with three times more of the trans isomer.[3]

Difluoramine forms a solid unstable compound with potassium fluoride (or rubidium fluoride or caesium fluoride) which decomposes to dinitrogen difluoride.[3]

It can also be prepared by photolysis of tetrafluorohydrazine and bromine:[4]

Reactions

The cis form of dinitrogen difluoride will react with strong fluoride ion acceptors such as antimony pentafluoride to form the N2F+ cation.

N2F2 + SbF5 -> N2F+[SbF6]-

In the solid phase, the observed N=N and N-F bond distances in the N2F+ cation are 1.089(9) and 1.257(8) Å respectively, among the shortest experimentally observed N-N and N-F bonds.

References

  1. ^ Lide, David R. (1998). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 4-73, 5-15, 9-46. ISBN 0-8493-0594-2.
  2. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  3. ^ a b Sykes, A. G. (1989-07-17). Advances in Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press. p. 171. ISBN 9780080578828. Retrieved 2014.
  4. ^ Leon M. Zaborowski; et al. (1973), Aaron Wold and John K. Ruff (ed.), "Chlorodifluoroamine and Difluorodiazene - B. Difluorodiazene (Dinitrogen difluoride)", Inorganic Syntheses (in German), McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 14, pp. 34-39

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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