|45th Dean of the United States House of Representatives|
December 5, 2017
|Chair of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee|
January 3, 2001 - January 3, 2007
|Chair of the House Resources Committee|
January 3, 1995 - January 3, 2001
|James V. Hansen|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Alaska's at-large district
March 6, 1973
|Member of the Alaska Senate|
from the I district
January 11, 1971 - March 6, 1973
|Member of the Alaska House of Representatives|
from the 16th district
January 3, 1967 - January 3, 1971
|Mayor of Fort Yukon|
Donald Edwin Young
June 9, 1933
Meridian, California, U.S.
(m. 1963; died 2009)
Anne Garland Walton (m. 2015)
California State University, Chico (BA)
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1955-1957|
|Unit||41st Tank Battalion|
Donald Edwin Young (born June 9, 1933) is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Alaska's at-large congressional district, currently serving in his 24th term in the House, having served since 1973. A member of the Republican Party, he is the longest-serving member of the United States House of Representatives from the Republican Party and from State of Alaska, the longest currently serving member of Congress, and the last remaining member of Congress who has been in office since the Nixon Administration. He is also the oldest current member of either chamber of the U.S. Congress. He became Dean of the House of Representatives on December 5, 2017, after the resignation of John Conyers from Michigan.
Young was born in Meridian, Sutter County, California. He earned an associate's degree in education from Yuba College in 1952 and a bachelor's degree from Chico State College in 1958. He served in the Army from 1955 to 1957.
Young moved to Alaska in 1959, not long after it became a state. He eventually settled in Fort Yukon, then a 700-person city on the Yukon River, seven miles above the Arctic Circle in Alaska's central interior region. He made a living in construction, fishing, trapping and gold mining. He captained a tugboat and ran a barge operation to deliver products and supplies to villages along the Yukon River. He still holds his mariner's license. During the winter, he taught fifth grade at the local Bureau of Indian Affairs elementary school.
Young began his political career in 1964 when he was elected mayor of Fort Yukon, serving from 1964 to 1968. He also ran for the Alaska House of Representatives in 1964, but finished tenth, with the top seven candidates being elected for the multi-member district. He was elected to the State House in 1966 and re-elected in 1968.
He served in the Alaska House of Representatives from 1967 to 1971. He "loved" the job before he "got ambitious" and ran for the Alaska Senate in 1970. He served in the Alaska Senate from 1971 to 1973. He was elected to the two-member District I alongside long-serving Republican State Senator John Butrovich. He "hated" the State Senate and, after encouragement from his wife, ran for Congress in 1972.
Young first ran for Congress in 1972, but lost to incumbent Democrat Nick Begich, who disappeared in a plane crash days before the election. Begich was declared legally dead in December 1972 and Young won the resulting special election in March 1973. Young has been reelected 21 times, usually without significant opposition, although he did face strong challenges in the 2008 primary election and the 1974, 1990, 1992 and 2008 general elections. He won his 2016 primary with over 70% of the vote and faced Democrat Steve Lindbeck and Libertarian Jim McDermott in the general election, where he captured 50% of the vote to win his 23rd term in office.
Young is the most senior U.S. Representative and, along with Jim Sensenbrenner, one of only two members who have been in office since the 1970's. He is the second-highest ranking Republican on the Natural Resources and Transportation and Infrastructure committees. He chaired the former committee from 1995 to 2001 and the latter from 2001 to 2007. Young has twice faced federal investigations but never been charged with wrongdoing.
Democratic State Senator Nick Begich was elected to the House of Representatives in 1970, to succeed Republican Howard Wallace Pollock, who ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for Governor of Alaska. Young ran against Begich in 1972 and placed second in the August 22 open primary with 13,958 votes (25.60%) to Begich's 37,873 (69.45%). Begich disappeared in a plane crash on October 16, 1972, 22 days before the November 7 general election. Begich won the general election with 53,651 votes (56.24%) to Young's 41,750 (43.76%) but was declared dead on December 29.
Young ran in the special election on March 6, 1973, and defeated Democrat Emil Notti by 35,044 votes (51.41%) to 33,123 (48.59%). He won a full term in 1974 with 51,641 votes (53.84%) to Democratic State Senator Willie Hensley's 44,280 (46.16%). He credits his victory to his leadership of the fight for the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System.
Young was reelected with at least 55% of the vote in all of the subsequent seven elections. He defeated former State Senator Eben Hopson with 71% of the vote in 1976, State Senator Patrick Rodey with 55.41% of the vote in 1978, Kevin "Pat" Parnell with 73.79% of the vote in 1980 and Dave Carlson with 70.84% of the vote in 1982.
In 1984 and 1986, he defeated Nick Begich's wife, Pegge Begich, by 113,582 votes (55.02%) to 86,052 (41.68%) and by 101,799 votes (56.47%) to 74,053 (41.08%), respectively. He defeated Peter Gruenstein with 62.5% of the vote in 1988 and then faced John Devens, the Mayor of Valdez, in 1990 and 1992. Young defeated him by 99,003 votes (51.66%) to 91,677 (47.84%) in 1990 and then faced a serious challenge in 1992. He was challenged in the Republican primary by State Senator Virginia M. Collins and defeated her by 24,869 votes (52.98%) to 19,774 (42.12%). In the general election, he was reelected against Devens by 111,849 votes (46.78%) to 102,378 (42.82%). This is both the lowest winning percentage of his career and the only time he has won without a majority of the vote.
He defeated former Alaska Commissioner of Economic Development and 1992 Democratic U.S. Senate nominee Tony Smith with 56.92% of the vote in 1994, State Senator Georgianna Lincoln with 59.41% of the vote in 1996 and State Senator and former Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives Jim Duncan with 62.55% of the vote in 1998. He defeated attorney Clifford Mark Greene with 69.56% of the vote in 2000 and with 74.66% of the vote in 2002, the largest winning percentage of his career. He received 213,216 votes (71.34%) against Thomas Higgins in 2004, the most votes he has ever received in a single election. In 2006, he defeated writer, dramatist and video production consultant Diane E. Benson with 56.57% of the vote.
In light of many of the controversies, incumbent Lt. Gov. Sean Parnell announced he would run against Young in the August 26, 2008, Republican primary. Parnell was strongly supported by Gov. Sarah Palin and the Club for Growth. Other organizations opposed Young because of what they considered his corrupt behavior. This was the first primary since he was first elected in which Young faced a strong challenge.
Young received the endorsement of Mike Huckabee's political action committee, Huck PAC, in June 2008. After a storm of negative reaction, Huckabee explained on the Huck PAC blog that the endorsement was due in part to Young's endorsement and steadfast support of Huckabee during the 2008 Republican presidential primaries.
Final results on show of September 18ed Young winning by 304 votes (0.28%), and Parnell announced that he would not seek a recount. Prior to the announcement of the unofficial results, both candidates had said that they would request a recount if they lost. The state of Alaska pays the costs of recounts when the difference is within a half percent, as it was in this primary election.
Young faced a strong challenge from Democrat Ethan Berkowitz, the 46-year-old former minority leader in the Alaska House of Representatives. Don Wright, the Alaskan Independence Party nominee, also challenged Young.
Young ran for a 20th term in 2010. He was challenged in the Republican primary by John R. Cox and Sheldon Fisher, a former telecommunications executive, winning with 74,117 votes (70.36%). He defeated Democratic State Representative Harry Crawford in the general election by 175,384 votes (68.96%) to 77,606 (30.51%).
In 2012, Young drew two challengers in the Republican party, but easily defeated them with 58,789 votes (78.59%). In the general election, he defeated State Representative Sharon Cissna by 185,296 votes (63.94%) to 82,927 (28.62%).
In 2014, Young received 79,393 votes (74.29%) in the Republican primary against three challengers. In the general election, he defeated Democrat Forrest Dunbar by 142,572 votes (50.97%) to 114,602 (40.97%). Young was the only statewide incumbent in Alaska to win reelection that year, as Republican Governor Sean Parnell was defeated by Independent Bill Walker, and Democratic U.S. Senator Mark Begich was defeated by Republican Dan Sullivan. Young won reelection in 2016 with 50% of the vote in a four-way race.
At the start of the 115th Congress, Young was the second longest-serving current House member and the most senior Republican. Due to his long tenure in the House and that of former Senator Ted Stevens, Alaska is considered to have clout in national politics far beyond its small population (it has long been one of the smallest states in population and is currently 47th, ahead of only North Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming). He is often called "Alaska's third senator."
After the 1995 Republican takeover of the House, Young chaired the Committee on Natural Resources, which he renamed the "Committee on Resources". The name was changed back by Democrats in 2006 and has since been retained by Republican chairmen. He chaired the Committee until 2001, then chairing the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure from 2001 to 2007. He is currently the second-highest ranking Republican on both committees.
During a 1994 House debate touching on the question of Alaska Natives' right to sell sex organs of endangered animals for the purpose of aphrodisiacs, he pulled out an 18-inch penis bone of a walrus, better known as an "oosik", and brandished it like a sword on the House floor at the face of the head of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
In March 1998, Young brought a bill to the House floor allowing voters in Puerto Rico to vote on continuing its commonwealth status or becoming either a state or independent, the legislation passing by a single vote.
In July 2007, fellow Republican Congressman Scott Garrett of New Jersey proposed an amendment to strike money in a spending bill for native Alaskan and Hawaiian educational programs. Young defended the funds on the floor of the House, saying, "You want my money, my money." He also said, "Those who bite me will be bitten back." Young went on to suggest that conservative Republicans such as Garrett lost the Republicans their majority in the 2006 election by challenging spending earmarks, and made several critical remarks about the state of New Jersey. While Garrett did not ask for an official reprimand, other conservative Republicans took exception to Young's claim that the funds in question represented "his" money. Members of the conservative Republican Study Committee gave Garrett a standing ovation later in the day during the group's weekly meeting and Virginia Foxx of North Carolina compared Young's earmarks to "legal theft."
On May 4, 2017, though he had indicated two months earlier that he would oppose repeal of the Affordable Care Act, he ultimately voted for its repeal. Governor Bill Walker said Alaska, "would be the most negatively affected if the proposed legislation is signed into law as is. Alaskans already pay the highest health care premiums in the country." His state delegation colleague, the senior U.S. Senator Lisa Murkowski, opposed the removal of the provision in the current Act that eliminated discrimination against those with pre-existing conditions, saying it wasn't "what Alaskans are telling me they think is an acceptable response." It was estimated that annual policy costs for coverage under the state's exchange would rise by $12,599.
On July 24, 2007, the Wall Street Journal reported that Young was under federal investigation for possibly taking bribes, illegal gratuities or unreported gifts from VECO Corporation, an Anchorage-based company. The company's top two executives had already pleaded guilty to bribing members of the Alaska legislature. The Journal said a VECO executive held fundraisers called "the Pig Roast" for Young every August for ten years. Between 1996 and 2006, Young received $157,000 from VECO employees and its political action committee. In the first half of 2007, he spent more than $250,000 of his campaign contributions on legal fees.
A confession signed by Bill Allen, the former chief of VECO, was released in October 2009. Allen swore that from 1993 to August 2006, both he and his deputy at VECO, Rick Smith, "provided things of value to United States Representative A," a reference to Young. For example, in June 2006, Smith obtained a set of golf clubs, costing approximately $1,000, that Smith gave to Young. Although Young was obligated in 2006 to report gifts with a value of more than $335, he didn't report receiving any gifts on the personal financial disclosure form he filed with the House of Representatives for that year.
In Bob Woodward's book Fear: Trump in the White House, published in 2018, the author recounted an impromptu conversation FBI Director Robert Mueller, who led the agency from 2001 through 2013, had with attorney John Dowd, who represented Young in the ethics violation case and other matters. He asked Dowd, "What are you up to?" Dowd responded, "I'm representing Congressman Don Young." Mueller responded, "That crook? How could you do that?"
In August 2010, following the reversal of the seven felony guilty verdicts in U.S. Senator Ted Stevens's case, the investigation launched by the FBI was closed. The Department of Justice's Public Integrity Section concluded it could not obtain a conviction. The office noted that the evidentiary findings of their investigation were being forwarded to the House Ethics Committee. The committee, composed of five Republicans and five Democrats, subsequently made no official findings.
In March 2013, the House Ethics Committee created another special committee to investigate allegations that Young improperly accepted gifts, used campaign funds for personal expenses, failed to report gifts in financial disclosure documents, and made false statements to federal officials. Young said, "it will go forever. I've been under a cloud all my life. I'm sort of like living in Juneau. It rains on you all the time. You don't even notice it."
The Ethics Committee formed a subcommittee charged with determining whether Young broke the law. In 2014, the Committee issued a rebuke to Young after finding he had failed to disclose gifts totaling over $60,000 between 2001 and 2013.
In 2016, Young was once again under scrutiny for failing to report inherited property assets for 25 years, as well as the value of oil and gas leases consummated only seven months after he left his six-year chairmanship of the United States House Committee on Natural Resources.
For three years in a row, Young was included in the annual listing of the most corrupt members of Congress compiled by Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington. CREW said he had been investigated for using campaign funds for personal expenses and for a $10 million 2005 earmark to build the Coconut Road Interchange on the I-75 in southwest Florida, which benefitted a campaign donor. No charges have been brought for any criminal wrongdoing after investigations by the FBI. After protests, the funding was reallocated for the Bonita Beach Road interchange.
On March 28, 2013, Young caused some controversy when he used the ethnic slur "wetbacks" during a radio interview to describe Latino migrant farm workers who worked at his father's ranch when he was growing up. Young issued a statement later that day saying that he "meant no disrespect" and that he "used a term that was commonly used during my days growing up on a farm in central California". The Associated Press said that while Young explained his statement, he "did not apologize". Prominent figures in the Republican Party, including House Speaker John Boehner and Senator John Cornyn, condemned the remarks as "offensive" and "derogatory".
On March 29, 2013, a Latino advocacy group, Presente.org, called for Young's resignation in reaction to his use of the slur. On March 29, 2013, Young issued a formal apology for his remarks, stating, "I apologize for the insensitive term", and that "it was a poor choice of words."
Young believes that abortion should be legal only when the pregnancy is a result of incest or rape, or in the case that a woman's life is endangered by her pregnancy. He has addressed the issue of the time-period in which abortions should be legal, saying he does not think abortions should be limited to the first trimester of a pregnancy, and also disagrees with the idea of federal subsidies prohibiting abortions.
When President Trump signed an executive order that rolled back Obama-era restrictions on Arctic oil drilling, Young commended Trump for "recognizing the importance of development in the Arctic OCS."
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The Arctic Refuge drilling controversy has repeatedly brought Young into the national spotlight. Young has been a longstanding supporter of opening lands within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil exploration. He has included provisions to that effect in 12 bills that have passed the House of Representatives, but environmentalists concerned with the impact of road-building, pipelines and other development on the Arctic tundra landscape have thus far successfully defeated such legislation in the Senate.
On November 18, 2011, Young got into an argument during a Congressional hearing with Douglas Brinkley, a historian who teaches at Rice University in Texas, over the idea of drilling in the Artic National Wildlife Refuge. During Brinkley's testimony Young was not present in the room, yet still responded to the speech Brinkley had made. Young himself commented that his absence during Brinkley's testimony was attributable to a pre-scheduled vote on the House floor. Young not only referred to Brinkley's argument as "garbage", but also addressed Brinkley as "Mr. Rice," (rather than Dr. Brinkley). Brinkley responded with remarks about Young's own education, stating, "I know you went to Yuba College and couldn't graduate." Young's reaction, "I'll say anything I want to say! You just be quiet!", was met with Brinkley's refusal, and response that Young, "didn't own [him]" and quipping that as a taxpayer, he pays Young's salary. The two continued arguing intermittently throughout the hearing, with the committee chairman ultimately threatening Brinkley with removal.
Young questions funding to the arts because it results in "photographs of people doing offensive things." In recent years however, Young has supported legislation increasing funding for the National Endowment for the Arts.
At an assembly at Fairbanks' West Valley High School in 1995, Young was answering questions about cutting federal funding for the arts. He said that such funding had "photographs of people doing offensive things," and "things that are absolutely ridiculous." When asked for an example, Young quickly replied "buttfucking", in reference to Robert Mapplethorpe's photographic exhibition The Perfect Moment. After receiving criticism for the use of that obscenity, Young explained his choice of words by saying he had tried 'to educate' teens.
In 2005, Young and Stevens earmarked $223 million for building the enormous Gravina Island Bridge from Ketchikan to Gravina Island, which also contains Ketchikan's airport. The bridge would be used for access by emergency vehicles, as well as passengers. Currently there is a small car and passenger ferry that travels the 1/4 mile (400 m) crossing in 3 to 7 minutes and runs every half-hour. Critics assailed this as pork barrel spending at taxpayers' expense and dubbed it the "Bridge to Nowhere." The Gravinia Island Bridge was awarded a Golden Fleece by the federal budget watchdog organization Taxpayers for Common Sense in 2003. After criticism from citizens and others in Congress, lawmakers de-funded the bridge and instead funneled the money to Alaska's Department of Transportation, allowing the Governor of Alaska to start road construction after the Alaska Legislature funded the project with the directed monies.
The Knik Arm Bridge was earmarked in the bill connects Anchorage to Pt. Mackenzie, a lightly populated area in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough that is situated less than four miles (6 km) across Cook Inlet from downtown Anchorage.
Currently, Anchorage is accessible from Point Mackenzie only by an 80-mile (130 km) route around Knik Arm, much of which is an unimproved road. The demise of this second bridge project has been suggested for years.
Part of the concern for the Bridge is that if it were built, it would significantly enhance the value of property in which Young's son-in-law owns an interest.
Young has a "B+" rating from NORML for his voting history regarding cannabis-related matters. He has co-sponsored three bills regarding cannabis. He supports hemp farming and favors for allowing veterans access to medical marijuana, if legal in their state, per their Veterans Health Administration doctor's recommendation. He is adamant that legalization of medical marijuana is "an issue of states' rights." He also supports the removal of marijuana as a Schedule I controlled substance. He is in favor also of "responsible restrictions" regarding advertising. Personally, he is "not a big fan of marijuana."
Young has stated that he does not believe in climate changes and believes the idea of global warming is "the biggest scam since the Teapot Dome." Despite these public statements, Young did however vote in support of the FY 2019 National Defense Authorization Act which identifies climate change as a national security threat. 
During the 2016 Republican presidential primary, Young originally supported Jeb Bush, and later John Kasich. In April 2016 he said, "I'm not supporting Donald Trump," and when asked about Trump's success in the primaries, Young said that Trump's popularity was due to "a bunch of idiots following a pied piper over the edge of the cliff!" and that he blamed the people who voted for Trump. However, by the December before the 2017 inauguration, he was more supportive of Trump's accomplishments and proposed policies.
Young has stated he believes the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) should not regulate greenhouse gases, and that the EPA kills jobs. Young has been quoted as saying that "Environmentalists are a self-centered bunch of waffle-stomping, Harvard-graduating, intellectual idiots" who "are not Americans, never have been Americans, never will be Americans." However, Young has supported Omnibus spending bills that maintain current EPA funding levels despite calls from the Trump Administration to cut such funding.
In late 2010, Obama administration officials stated that the Deepwater Horizon spill exceeded the Exxon Valdez spill, as they estimated that the gusher had spewed between 15 million US gallons (57,000 m3) and 40 million US gallons (150,000 m3) of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Young claimed that the oil pumping into the Gulf was not an "environmental disaster", stating that it was a "natural phenomena" as "oil has seeped into this ocean for centuries, will continue to do it. During World War II there was over ten million barrels of oil spilt from ships, and no natural catastrophe. We will lose some birds, we will lose some fixed sealife, but overall it will recover." According to the Flow Rate Technical Group, the Deepwater Horizon blowout amounted to about 4.9 million barrels (210 million US gal; 780,000 m3) of oil, exceeding the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill as the largest ever to originate in U.S.-controlled waters and the 1979 Ixtoc I oil spill as the largest spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
Young has said he wants to see a clean repeal of the Affordable Care Act, more commonly known as Obamacare.
Although Young supports repealing the ACA, he said in March 2017 he wouldn't vote on an earlier version of the AHCA (a healthcare plan to repeal and revise parts of the ACA) because it would have too much of a negative impact on healthcare costs in Alaska.
According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the AHCA would raise healthcare costs for Alaska more than any other state, and by 2020, on average Alaskans would receive $10,243 less per year under the AHCA compared to Obamacare for the same coverage; almost double the healthcare cost increase of any other state (the next state being North Carolina with consumers receiving $5,360 less per year). Young noted, "Nothing in this new bill addressed the real problems of health care."
The AHCA would also stop the Medicaid expansion that was provided by Obamacare, which gives healthcare coverage to more than 27,000 of Young's constituents, or about 3.7% of the Alaska population.
For those reasons, Young was a key House member preventing the AHCA from going to vote in March. When the AHCA didn't pass, Young said it was a "victory for Alaska."
However, despite those statements, and being officially "undecided" because of the disproportionate impact on Alaskans, Young voted yes for the AHCA on May 4, 2017, without any significant changes to improving Alaska subsidies.
An organization called Save My Care spent $500,000 to release a series of attack ads against 24 House members who voted for the AHCA, including one about Young that decries his vote claiming it will raise healthcare costs for Alaskans.
Young believes marriage should be between a man and a woman. He has compared gay relations to bulls having sex. He voted against protections for gay and lesbian people in the workplace. He has stated that, "I've hired a person of a different orientation," continuing with, "That's personal. ... I do believe in the Bible. Always have and always will. But hiring is different." He's voted for making gay adoptions illegal, and in 2009 voted against sexual orientation being enforced as a protected status against hate crimes.
Young has been given a 3% score on gay rights in the 115th Congress by the HRC.
When asked about the fact that the state of Alaska has the highest suicide rate in America per capita, Young has stated that he believes the high suicide rates are at least partially the result of government handouts, and that "this suicide problem didn't exist until we got largesse from the government." He believes Alaska needs to cut public assistance programs.
On October 21, 2014, Young addressed an assembly of students at Wasilla High School, shortly after a student there committed suicide. During a question and answer session, he said that the student's suicide had been caused by a lack of support from family and friends. During the assembly, Young also recalled a story about drinking alcohol in Paris, and used profanity several times, officials from the school reported.
When Young was criticized by a student for his comments on suicide, Young called him an "asshole." Young apologized for these comments on October 24, stating, "I am profoundly and genuinely sorry for the pain it has caused the Alaskan people."
Young has stated he does not believe in conducting town halls (district meetings for officials to meet and speak with constituents in a town hall setting). When asked for a face-to-face meeting with his constituents in April 2017, in his refusal an aide stated, "The modern town hall has taken an unfortunate turn as a 'show' for the media and are unproductive for meaningful dialogue." Young's meetings in Alaska are primarily made with elected officials, business groups, service clubs, and gatherings of Republicans. On April 20, 2017, residents started a town hall meeting by themselves, speaking to Young through a video camera with a color photo of Young to represent him in person. When speaking to the Alaska Municipal League in Juneau in February 2018, National Rifle Association Board member Young asked "How many millions of people were shot and killed because they were unarmed? Fifty million in Russia."
Young was married to the former Lula Fredson, an indigenous Gwich'in. She volunteered her time serving as the manager of her husband's Washington, D.C. congressional office. They had two daughters and were members of the Episcopal Church. Lula died on August 1, 2009, at the age of 67.
|Year||Republican||Votes||Pct||Democratic||Votes||Pct||Third Party||Votes||Pct||Third Party||Votes||Pct||Third Party||Votes||Pct||Write-in votes||Write-in %|
To state Board of Fisheries chairman Art Nelson, Don Young's Way, the proposed Knik Arm crossing named after his father-in-law, is hardly a bridge to nowhere.
For Nelson and his well-connected partners in Point Bluff LLC, Rep. Don Young's span is in fact a bridge to somewhere: their 60 acres of unobstructed view property on the Point MacKenzie side of Cook Inlet.
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Alaska's at-large congressional district
| Chair of the House Natural Resources Committee
James V. Hansen
| Chair of the House Transportation Committee
| Dean of the United States House of Representatives|
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
as former Vice President
|Order of Precedence of the United States||Succeeded by|
United States Representatives by seniority
|First|| Seniority in the U.S. House of Representatives