Doric Greek
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Doric Greek
Doric Greek
RegionPeloponnese, Crete, Rhodes, Sicily, Italy
Erac. 800-100 BC; evolved into the Tsakonian language
Early form
Greek alphabet
Language codes
-
grc-dor
Glottologdori1248
Distribution of Greek dialects in Greece in the classical period.[1]
Distribution of Greek dialects in Magna Graecia (Southern Italy and Sicily) in the classical period.

Doric, or Dorian (Ancient Greek: , romanizedD?rismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC.[2]

It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus in northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state (Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos, Apollonia and Ambracia; there, it further added words to what would become the Albanian language,[3][4] probably via traders from a now-extinct Illyrian intermediary.[5] In the north, local epigraphical evidence includes the decrees of the Epirote League, the Pella curse tablet, three additional lesser known Macedonian inscriptions (all of them identifiable as Doric),[6] numerous inscriptions from a number of Greek colonies, etc.. Furthermore, we also have plenty of local coins and names that assist us in our study of the northern Doric dialects. Southern dialects, in addition to numerous inscriptions, coins, and names, have also provided much more literary evidence through authors such as Alcman, Pindar, Archimedes of Syracuse, and many others, all of whom wrote in Doric. Last, we also have ancient dictionaries, such as the one from Hesychius of Alexandria, whose work preserved many dialectal words from throughout the Greek-speaking world.

Variants

Doric proper

Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."

Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.

Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.

There are three dialects subsumed to the (southern) Doric Group.

Laconian

Laconia in Greece
Argolis in Greece

Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnese and also by its colonies, Taras and Herakleia in Magna Graecia. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia.

Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Taras was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic.

Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived. Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The seventh century Spartan poet Alcman used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.

Argolic

Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.

Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC.

Corinthian

Corinthia in Greece

Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; that is, the Isthmus of Corinth. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Sicyon, Archaies Kleones, Phlius, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse, Sicily and Ancona, and the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, and Apollonia. The earliest inscriptions at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under Attic Greek.)

Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.

Northwest Doric

The Northwest Doric (or "Northwest Greek", with "Northwest Doric" now considered more accurate so as not to distance the group from Doric proper) group is closely related to Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between Doric and the Northwest Doric.[7] Whether it is to be considered a part of the southern Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two considered subgroups of West Greek, the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Doric influence.

While Northwest Doric is generally seen as a dialectal group,[7] dissenting views exist, such as that of Méndez-Dosuna, who argues that Northwest Doric is not a proper dialectal group but rather merely a case of areal dialectal convergence.[8] Throughout the Northwest Doric area, most internal differences did not hinder mutual understanding, though Filos, citing Bubenik, notes that there were certain cases where a bit of accommodation may have been necessary.[9]

The earliest epigraphic texts for Northwest Doric date to the 6th-5th century BCE.[7] These are thought to provide evidence for Northwest Doric features, especially the phonology and morphophonology, but most of the features thus attributed to Northwest Doric are not exclusive to it.[7] The Northwest Doric dialects differ from the main Doric Group dialects in the below features:[10]

  1. Dative plural of the third declension in - (-ois) (instead of - (-si)): ? ? Akarnanois hippeois for Akarnasin hippeusin (to the Acarnanian knights).
  2. (en) + accusative (instead of (eis)): en Naupakton (into Naupactus).
  3. - (-st) for - (-sth): genestai for genesthai (to become), ? mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring).
  4. ar for er: amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day), Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work)
  5. Dative singular in -oi instead of -ôi: , Doric , Attic (to Asclepius)
  6. Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos

Four or five dialects of Northwestern Doric are recognised.

Phocian

This dialect was spoken in Phocis and in its main settlement, Delphi. Because of that it is also cited as Delphian.[]Plutarch says that Delphians pronounce b in the place of p ( for )[11]

Locrian

Locrian Greek is attested in two locations:

Elean

The dialect of Elis (earliest c. 600 BC)[13] is considered, after Aeolic Greek, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts.[14]

Epirote

Spoken at the Dodona oracle, (earliest c. 550-500 BC)[15] firstly under control of the Thesprotians;[16] later organized in the Epirote League (since c. 370 BC).[17]

Ancient Macedonian

Most scholars maintain that ancient Macedonian was a Greek dialect,[18] probably of the Northwestern Doric group in particular.[19][20][21]Olivier Masson, in his article for The Oxford Classical Dictionary, talks of "two schools of thought": one rejecting "the Greek affiliation of Macedonian" and preferring "to treat it as an Indo-European language of the Balkans" of contested affiliation (examples are Bonfante 1987, and Russu 1938); the other favouring "a purely Greek nature of Macedonian as a northern Greek dialect" with numerous adherents from the 19th century and on (Fick 1874; Hoffmann 1906; Hatzidakis 1897 etc.; Kalleris 1964 and 1976).[22]

Masson himself argues with the largely Greek character of the Macedonian onomastics and sees Macedonian as "a Greek dialect, characterised by its marginal position and by local pronunciations" and probably most closely related to the dialects of the Greek North-West (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote). Brian D. Joseph acknowledges the closeness of Macedonian to Greek (even contemplating to group them into a "Hellenic branch" of Indo-European), but retains that "[t]he slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible".[23] Johannes Engels has pointed to the Pella curse tablet, written in Doric Greek: "This has been judged to be the most important ancient testimony to substantiate that Macedonian was a north-western Greek and mainly a Doric dialect".[24] Hatzopoulos has suggested that the Macedonian dialect of the 4th century BC, as attested in the Pella curse tablet, was a sort of Macedonian 'koine' resulting from the encounter of the idiom of the 'Aeolic'-speaking populations around Mount Olympus and the Pierian Mountains with the Northwest Greek-speaking Argead Macedonians hailing from Argos Orestikon, who founded the kingdom of Lower Macedonia.[25] However, according to Hatzopoulos, B. Helly expanded and improved his own earlier suggestion and presented the hypothesis of a (North-)'Achaean' substratum extending as far north as the head of the Thermaic Gulf, which had a continuous relation, in prehistoric times both in Thessaly and Macedonia, with the Northwest Greek-speaking populations living on the other side of the Pindus mountain range, and contacts became cohabitation when the Argead Macedonians completed their wandering from Orestis to Lower Macedonia in the 7th c. BC.[25] According to this hypothesis, Hatzopoulos concludes that the Macedonian Greek dialect of the historical period, which is attested in inscriptions, is a sort of koine resulting from the interaction and the influences of various elements, the most important of which are the North-Achaean substratum, the Northwest Greek idiom of the Argead Macedonians, and the Thracian and Phrygian adstrata.[25]

Northwest Doric koina

Political situation in the Greek world around the time at which the Northwest Doric koina arose

The Northwest Doric koina refers to a supraregional North-West common variety that that emerged in the third and second centuries BCE, and was used in the official texts of the Aetolian League.[26][27] Such texts have been found in W. Locris, Phocis, and Phtiotis, among other sites.[28] It contained a mix of native Northwest Doric dialectal elements and Attic forms.[29] It was apparently based on the most general features of Northwest Doric, eschewing less common local traits.[27][30]

Its rise was driven by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors, with non-linguistic motivating factors including the spread of the rival Attic-Ionic koine after it was recruited by the Macedonian state for administration, and the political unification of a vast territories by the Aetolian League and the state of Epirus. The Northwest Doric koina was thus both a linguistic and a political rival of the Attic-Ionic koina.[27]

Phonology

Vowels

Long a

Proto-Greek long *? is retained as ?, in contrast to Attic developing a long open ? (eta) in at least some positions.

  • Doric g? m?t?r ~ Attic g? m?t?r 'earth mother'

Compensatory lengthening of e and o

In certain Doric dialects (Severe Doric), *e and *o lengthen by compensatory lengthening or contraction to eta or omega, in contrast to Attic ei and ou (spurious diphthongs).

  • Severe Doric -? ~ Attic -ou (second-declension genitive singular)
  • -?s ~ -ous (second-declension accusative plural)
  • -?n ~ -ein (present, second aorist infinitive active)

Contraction of a and e

Contraction: Proto-Greek *ae > Doric ? (eta) ~ Attic ?.

Synizesis

Proto-Greek *eo, *ea > some Doric dialects' io, ia.

Proto-Greek *a

Proto-Greek short *a > Doric short a ~ Attic e in certain words.

  • Doric hiaros, Artamis ~ Attic hieros 'holy', Artemis

Consonants

Proto-Greek *-ti

Proto-Greek *-ti is retained (assibilated to -si in Attic).

  • Doric ph?ti ~ Attic ph?si 'he says' (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb)
  • legonti ~ legousi 'they say' (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb)
  • w?kati ~ eikosi 'twenty'
  • tri?katioi ~ tri?kosioi 'three hundred'

Proto-Greek *ts

Proto-Greek *ts > -ss- between vowels. (Attic shares the same development, but further shortens the geminate to -s-.)

  • Proto-Greek *métsos > Doric messos ~ Attic mesos 'middle' (from Proto-Indo-Europan *méd?yos, compare Latin medius)

Digamma

Initial *w (?) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic).

  • Doric woikos ~ Attic oikos 'house' (from Proto-Indo-European *wey?-, *woy?-, compare Latin v?cus 'village')

Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.

Accentuation

For information on the peculiarities of Doric accentuation, see Ancient Greek accent#Dialect variation

Morphology

Numeral tetores ~ Attic tettares, Ionic tesseres "four".

Ordinal pr?tos ~ Attic-Ionic pr?tos "first".

Demonstrative pronoun t?nos "this" ~ Attic-Ionic (e)keinos

t for h (from Proto-Indo-European s) in article and demonstrative pronoun.

  • Doric toi, tai; toutoi, tautai
  • ~ Attic-Ionic hoi, hai; houtoi, hautai.

Third person plural, athematic or root aorist -n ~ Attic -san.

  • Doric edon ~ Attic-Ionic edosan

First person plural active -mes ~ Attic-Ionic -men.

Future -se-? ~ Attic -s-?.

  • pr?x?tai (pr?k-se-etai) ~ Attic-Ionic pr?xetai

Modal particle ka ~ Attic-Ionic an.

  • Doric ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka ~ ean, ean de, ean tis

Temporal adverbs in -ka ~ Attic-Ionic -te.

  • hoka, toka

Locative adverbs in -ei ~ Attic/Koine -ou.

  • teide, pei.

Future tense

The aorist and future of verbs in -iz?, -az? has x (versus Attic/Koine s).

  • Doric ag?nixato ~ Attic ag?nisato "he contended"

Similarly k before suffixes beginning with t.

Glossary

Common

  • ? aigades (Attic aiges) "goats"
  • aiges (Attic kymata) "waves"
  • ? halia (Attic ekkl?sia) "assembly" (Cf. Heliaia)
  • brykainai (Attic ? hiereiai) "priestesses"
  • bryketos (Attic ? brygmos, bryk?thmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth"
  • damiorgoi (Attic archontes) "high officials". Cf. Attic ? d?miourgos "public worker for the people (d?mos), craftsman, creator"; Hesychius "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean.
  • Elôos Hephaestus ?
  • karr?n (Attic kreitt?n) "stronger" (Ionic kreiss?n, Cretan kart?n )
  • ? koryg?s (Attic k?ryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
  • laios (Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek aristeros) "left".Cretan: ? laia, Attic aspis shield, Hesych. laipha laiba, because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin:laevus
  • ? laia (Attic, Modern Greek ? leia) "prey"
  • (?) le(i)? (Attic ethel?) "will"
  • oin?tros "vine pole" (: Greek oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
  • mogionti (Ionic ? pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic ? mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
  • ? myrm?dônes (Attic myrm?kes) "ants". Cf. Myrmidons
  • optillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) (Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)
  • paomai (Attic ? ktaomai) "acquire"
  • rhapidopoios poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker (rhapis needle for Attic rhaphis)
  • skana (Attic skênê) tent, stage, scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
  • tanthalyzein (Attic ? tremein) "to tremble"
  • ? tun? or toun? 'you nominative' (Attic ) dative teein (Attic soi)
  • chanaktion (Attic m?ron)(chan goose)

Doric proper

Argive

  • Ballacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree)[31]
  • Daulis mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means thicket)[32] (Hes.daulon fire log)
  • droon strong (Attic ischyron, dynaton)
  • kester youngman (Attic neanias)
  • ? kyllarabis discus and gymnasium at Argos
  • ? semalia ragged, tattered garments Attic rhak?, cf. himatia clothes)
  • ? ôbea eggs (Attic ôa )

Cretan

  • agela "group of boys in the Cretan ag?g?". Cf. Homeric Greek agel? "herd" (Cretan apagelos not yet received in agelê, boy under 17)
  • adnos holy, pure (Attic hagnos) (Ariadne)
  • aWtos (Attic autos) Hsch. aus - . ?
  • akaralegs (Attic skelê)
  • hamakis once (Attic hapax)
  • ? argetos juniper, cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
  • ? auka power (Attic alkê)
  • aphrattias strong
  • ? balikiôtai Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age hêlikia)
  • britu sweet (Attic glyku)
  • damioô, Cretan and Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage, punish, harm
  • dampon first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon, puriatê)
  • ? dôla ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentine ata)
  • Welchanos for Cretan Zeus and Welchanios, Belchanios, Gelchanos (Elchanios Cnossian month)
  • wergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
  • ? Wêma garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing)
  • ? ibên wine (Dialectal Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ibêna)
  • itton one (Attic hen )
  • karanô goat
  • kosmos and kormos archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic order, ornament, honour, world - kormos trunk of a tree)
  • ?, ? kypheron, kuphê head (Attic kephalê)
  • lakos rag, tattered garment (Attic rhakos) (Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
  • malkenis (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês.
  • othrun mountain (Attic oros) (Cf.Othrys)
  • rhyston spear
  • seipha darkness (Attic zophos, skotia) (Aeolic dnophos)
  • speusdos title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush)
  • tagana (Attic tauta) these things
  • tiros summer (Homeric, Attic theros)
  • tre you, accusative ( Attic se )

Laconian

  • ? abêr storeroom ?, ? ?
  • ? abôr dawn (Attic êôs) (Latin aurora)
  • ? adda need, deficiency (Attic endeia) Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
  • ? addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
  • ? aikouda (Attic aischun?) ?. ?
  • ? haimatia blood-broth, Spartan Melas Zomos Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
  • aïtas (Attic er?menos) "beloved boy (in a pederastic relationship)"
  • akkor tube, bag (Attic askos)
  • akchalibar bed (Attic skimpous)(Koine krabbatos)
  • ? ambrotixas having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas)
  • ampesai (Attic amphiesai) to dress
  • apaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs, aboidôr in tune
  • apella (Attic ekkl?sia) "assembly in Sparta" (verb apellazein)
  • ? arbylis (Attic aryballos) (Hesychius: ?. ?)
  • attasi wake up, get up (Attic anastêthi)
  • ? babalon imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
  • ? bagaron (Attic ? chliaron 'warm') (Cf. Attic ? ph?g? 'roast') (Laconian word)
  • ? bapha broth (Attic zômos) (Attic ? baphê dipping of red-hot iron in water (Koine and Modern Greek ? vafi dyeing)
  • ? weikati twenty (Attic eikosi)
  • ? bela sun and dawn Laconian (Attic helios Cretan abelios)
  • bernômetha Attic klêrôsômetha we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. berreai) (Cf.Attic meiresthai receive portion, Doric bebramena for heimarmenê, allotted by Moirai)
  • beskeros bread (Attic artos)
  • bêlêma hindrance, river dam (Laconian)
  • ? bêrichalkon fennel (Attic marathos) (chalkos bronze)
  • ? bibasis Spartan dance for boys and girls
  • bidyoi bideoi, bidiaioi also "officers in charge of the ephebes at Sparta"
  • ? biôr almost, maybe (Attic ? isôs, schedon) wihôr (?)
  • blagis spot (Attic kêlis)
  • ? boua "group of boys in the Spartan ag?g?"
  • (?)? bo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
  • bullichês Laconian dancer (Attic orchêstês)
  • bônêma speech (Homeric, Ionic eirêma eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech)
  • gabergor labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer)
  • ? gaiadas citizens, people (Attic dêmos)
  • gonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
  • ? dabelos torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusan daelos, dawelos)(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian ? dabêi (Attic kauthêi) it should be burnt)
  • ? diza goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta
  • eir?n (Attic eph?bos) "Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
  • eispn?las (Attic ? erast?s) one who inspires love, a lover (Attic eispneô inhale, breathe)
  • exôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
  • ephoroi (Attic archontes) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic ephoros "overseer, guardian"
  • ? Thoratês Apollon thoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
  • thrônax drone (Attic kêphên)
  • ? kapha washing, bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (Cf.skaphê basin, bowl)
  • keloia (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at Sparta"
  • ? kirafox (Attic alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos).
  • ? mesodma, messodoma woman and ? anthrôpô (Attic gunê)
  • myrtalis Butcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias)
  • pasor passion (Attic pathos)
  • por leg, foot (Attic pous)
  • pourdain restaurant (Koine mageirion) (Cf.purdalon, purodansion (from pyr fire hence pyre)
  • ? salabar cook (Common Doric/Attic mageiros)
  • ? sika 'pig' (Attic hus) and grôna female pig.
  • siria safeness (Attic asphaleia)
  • psithômias ill, sick (Attic asthenês) ?
  • ? psilaker first dancer
  • ôba (Attic ? k?m?) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"

Magna Graecian Doric

North-West

Aetolian-Acarnanian

  • agridion 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: * , vA [? ] dim. of agros countryside, field)
  • aeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch. , ? .)
  • kibba wallet, bag Aetolian (Attic ? pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic ? kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suid. cites kibos)
  • plêtomon Acarnanian old, ancient (Attic palaion,palaiotaton very old)

Delphic-Locrian

Elean

Epirotic

  • anchôrixantas[35] having transferred, postponed[36]Chaonian (Attic metapherô, anaballô) (anchôrizo anchi near +horizô define and Doric x instead of Attic s) (Cf. Ionic anchouros neighbouring) not to be confused with Doric anchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back, withdraw.
  • akathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
  • apotrachô run away (Attic/Doric apotrechô)[37]
  • ? aspaloi fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) (Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LSJ aspalia angling, aspalieus fisherman, aspalieuomai I angle metaph. of a lover, aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai. (hals sea)
  • ? Aspetos divine epithet of Achilles in Epirus (Homeric aspetos 'unspeakable, unspeakably great, endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)[38][39][40][41]
  • gnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin n?sco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref.Orion p. 42.17)
  • ? diaitos (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
  • ? eskichremen lend out (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use)
  • Weidus knowing (Doric ) weidôs) (Elean weizos) (Attic ) eidôs) (PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
  • kaston wood Athamanian (Attic xylon from xyô scrape, hence xyston); Sanskrit kham ("wood, timber, firewood") (Dialectical kalon wood, traditionally derived from kaiô burn kauston sth that can be burnt, kausimon fuel)
  • ? lêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text . (LSJ: lêitarchoi public priests ) (hence Leitourgia
  • ? manu small Athamanian (Attic mikron, brachu) (Cf. manon rare) (PIE *men- small, thin) (Hsch. banon thin) ( manosporos thinly sown manophullos with small leaves Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
  • Naios or Naos epithet of Dodonaean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeric naô flow, Attic nama spring) (PIE *sna-)
  • pagaomai 'wash in the spring' (of Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water, fountain)
  • pampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
  • Peliganes or Peligones (Epirotan, Macedonian senators)
  • prami do optative (Attic prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
  • ? tine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7)
  • ? trithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)

See also

References

  1. ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
  2. ^ Buck, Carl Darling (1900). "The Source of the So-Called Achaean-Doric ". American Journal of Philology. 21 (2): 193-196. doi:10.2307/287905. JSTOR 287905.
  3. ^ Çabej, E. (1961). "Die alteren Wohnsitze der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel im Lichte der Sprache und der Ortsnamen". VII Congresso Internaz. Di Sciense Onomastiche: 241-251.; Albanian version BUShT 1962:1.219-227
  4. ^ Eric Hamp. Birnbaum, Henrik; Puhvel, Jaan (eds.). The position of Albanian, Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25-27, 1963.
  5. ^ Huld, Martin E. (1986). "Accentual Stratification of Ancient Greek Loanwords in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 99 (2): 245-253.
  6. ^ O'Neil, James. 26th Conference of the Australasian Society for Classical Studies, 2005.
  7. ^ a b c d Panagiotis Filos (2017). "The Dialectal Variety of Epirus". In Georgios Giannakis; Emilio Crespo; Panagiotis Filos (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. p. 227. The North-West group together with Doric (proper) formed the so-called 'West Greek' major dialectal group (or simply 'Doric' [...]). However, the term 'North-West Doric' is considered more accurate nowadays [...] since there is more emphasis on the many features that are common to both groups rather than on their less numerous and largely secondary differences.
  8. ^ Los dialectos dorios del Noroeste. Gramática y estudio dialectal (in Spanish). Salamanca. 1985. p. 508.
  9. ^ Panagiotis Filos (2017). "The Dialectal Variety of Epirus". In Georgios Giannakis; Emilio Crespo; Panagiotis Filos (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. p. 230.
  10. ^ Mendez Dosuna, Doric dialects, p. 452 online at Google Books).
  11. ^ Goodwin, William Watson (1874). Plutarch's Morals, tr. by several hands. Corrected and revised by W.W. Goodwin. Greek questions 9.
  12. ^ IG IX,1² 3:609
  13. ^ Die Inschriften von Olympia, IvO 1.
  14. ^ Sophie Minon, Les Inscriptions Éléennes Dialectale, reviewed by Stephen Colvin (online).
  15. ^ Lamelles Oraculaires 77.
  16. ^ John Potter (1751). Archaeologia Graeca Or the Antiquities of Greece. C. Strahan.
  17. ^ Cabanes, L'Épire de la mort de Pyrrhos a la conquête romaine (272-167 av. J.C.). Paris 1976, p. 534,1.
  18. ^ Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. (2017). "Recent Research in the Ancient Macedonian Dialect: Consolidation and New Perspectives". In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. p. 299. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
  19. ^ Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1993) [1989]. The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814927-1.
  20. ^ Michael Meier-Brügger: Indo-European linguistics. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York 2003, p. 28 (online on Google books): "The Macedonian of the ancient kingdom of northern Greece is probably nothing other than a northern Greek dialect of Doric".
  21. ^ Crespo, Emilio (2017). "The Softening of Obstruent Consonants in the Macedonian Dialect". In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. p. 329. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
  22. ^ Olivier Masson (2003) [1996]. "Macedonian language". In Simon Hornblower; Antony Spawforth (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (revised 3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 905-906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
  23. ^ Brian D. Joseph: "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.): Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Online paper, 2001.
  24. ^ Johannes Engels: "Macedonians and Greeks", p. 95. In: Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington: A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Chapter 5. John Wiley & Sons, New York 2011.
  25. ^ a b c Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. (2017). "Recent Research in the Ancient Macedonian Dialect: Consolidation and New Perspectives". In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 321-322. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
  26. ^ Vit Bubenik (2000). "Variety of speech in Greek linguistics: The dialects and the koinè". In Sylvain Auroux; et al. (eds.). Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Entwicklung der Sprachforschung von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Band 1. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 441 f. ISBN 978-3-11-011103-3.
  27. ^ a b c Panagiotis Filos (2017). "The Dialectal Variety of Epirus". In Georgios Giannakis; Emilio Crespo; Panagiotis Filos (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 230-233.
  28. ^ Vit Bubenik (1989). Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a Sociolinguistic Area. Amsterdam. pp. 193-213.
  29. ^ Wojciech Sowa (2018). "The dialectology of Greek". In Matthias Fritz; Brian Joseph; Jared Klein (eds.). Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 715. ISBN 978-3-11-054036-9. In different regions of Greece, however, different sorts of koinai emerged, of which the best known was the Doric Koin?, preserving general Doric features, but without local differences, and with an admixture of Attic forms. As in the case of the Doric Koin?, the Northwest Koin? (connected with the so-called Aetolian League) displayed the same mixture of native dialectal elements with Attic elements.
  30. ^ S. Minon (2014). "Diffusion de l'attique et expansion des koinai dans le Pélopponèse et en Grèce centrale". Actes de la journée internationale de dialectologie grecque du 18 mars 2011, université Paris-Ouest Nanterre. Geneva. pp. 1-18.
  31. ^ Plutarch Greek question 51
  32. ^ Dionysism and Comedy [1] by Xavier Riu
  33. ^ Raphael Kühner, Friedrich Blass, Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache [2]
  34. ^ Elis -- Olympia -- bef. c. 500-450 BC IvO 7
  35. ^ Epeiros -- Dodona -- 4th c. BC SEG 15:397
  36. ^ The Oracles of Zeus: Dodona, Olympia, Ammon - Page 261 [3] by Herbert William Parke
  37. ^ Epeiros -- Dodona -- ~340 BC SEG 26.700 - Trans.
  38. ^ Alexander the Great: A Reader [4] by Ian Worthing
  39. ^ Greek Mythography in the Roman World [5] By Alan Cameron (Aspetides)[6]
  40. ^ (cf. Athenian secretary: Aspetos, son of Demostratos from Kytheros ~340 BC)[7]
  41. ^ Pokorny - aspetos

Further reading

  • Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Cassio, Albio Cesare. 2002. "The language of Doric comedy." In The language of Greek comedy. Edited by Anton Willi, 51-83. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.

External links


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