|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia|
|Main source||Bosnia and Herzegovina, between the slopes of the Magli? and Pivska planina mountains|
Sava, at the Serbian-Bosnian border between Crna Bara and Bosanska Ra?a|
|Length||346 km (215 mi) |
|Progression||Sava-> Danube-> Black Sea|
|Basin size||20,320 km2 (7,850 sq mi) |
The Drina (Serbian Cyrillic?, pronounced [dr?:na]) is a 346 km (215 mi) long international river, which forms a large portion of the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. It is the longest tributary of the Sava River and the longest karst river in the Dinaric Alps which belongs to the Danube river watershed. Its name is derived from the Latin name of the river (Latin: Drinus) which in turn is derived from Greek (Ancient Greek: Dreinos).
The Drina is formed by the confluence of the Tara and the Piva rivers, both of which flow from Montenegro and converge on the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, at Hum and epan Polje villages. The total length of the Tara river is 144 km (89 mi), of which 104 km (65 mi) are in Montenegro, while the final 40 km (25 mi) are in Bosnia and Herzegovina along which form the border between the two countries in several places. The Drina flows through Bosnia and Herzegovina northward for 346 km (215 mi), of which 206 km (128 mi) is along the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, and finally spills out into the Sava river near Bosanska Ra?a village in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measured from the source of the Tara, its longer headwater, the Drina is 487 kilometers (303 miles) long.
However, during history, the small boats' traffic on the Drina was quite developed. Earliest written sources of the Drina boats date from the early 17th century. Traversing through this area in the second half of the 17th century, Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi noted that people in the Drina valley cut 40 m (130 ft) tall oak trees and use their trunks to make boats, by hollowing them with primitive tools and controlled fire. This type of boat is called monoxyl or dugout canoe. He writes that there were thousands of such boats at Zvornik, which navigated all the way to Belgrade, downstream the Drina and the Sava. Upstream from Zvornik, the boats didn't navigate.
In September 2011, after local floods, an ancient boat was discovered, buried under the gravel in the Drina river, near Jelav, some 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Loznica. It is the first one in the Drina valley which was discovered in one piece and in such a good shape. The boat is 7.1 m (23 ft) long, 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) wide and with the circumference of the back section of 4 m (13 ft). When dug out, it weighted 2 tons, but after drying out for two years in natural conditions, it was reduced to 1.3 tons. After being dried, it went through the conservation process in 2013. As the local museum in Loznica had no space to exhibit such a big item, a special annex was built especially for the monoxyl. It is estimated that it was made between 1740 and 1760 from the trunk of an oak that was 230 to 300 years old when cut. Based on the marks on it, this particular boat was most likely used for the transportation of the bulk cargo from one side of the river to another, as it seems to be too massive to be operated by the oars. Cuts and marks on it indicate that it was probably pulled over the river by the horses. It is possible that later, when it went out of service, it was used as the foundation of a watermill.
The Drina originates between the slopes of the Magli? and Pivska planina mountains, between the villages of epan Polje (in Montenegro) and Hum (Bosnia and Herzegovina). At its origin, it flows west, then makes a large curve to the northeast, around the Malu?a mountains. Next, it flows through the villages of Kosman, Prijedjel, Du?eli, ?elikovo Polje, Kopilovi, Trbue, Brod and the town of Fo?a. It receives the Sutjeska, Bjelava and Bistrica rivers from the left and the ?ehotina at Fo?a from the right.
Here the Drina carved the longest one of the several gorges on its course, the 45 km (28 mi)-long Suhi Dol-Biserovina gorge between the southernmost slopes of the Jahorina mountains from the north and the Kova? mountains from the south. The villages of Zlatari, Jo?anica, Ustikolina, Cvilin, Zebina ?uma, Osanica, Kolovarice, Vrani?i, Mravinjac, Biljin, Vitkovi?i and Zup?i?i are located in the gorge, as well as the town of Gora?de. The river receives the Kolunska rijeka and the Osanica as tributaries from the left.
The Drina continues to the northeast, flowing close to the villages of ?u?elo, Od?ak, Kopa?i and Ustipra?a, entering the 26 km (16 mi) long Me?e?a gorge carved between the Vu?evica mountains from the south and the southern slopes of the Devetak mountains from the north. The narrowest part of the Me?e?a gorge is Tijesno, the 8 km (5.0 mi)-long section of the gorge where the river is at its narrowest (only 12 m (39 ft) wide), but also at its deepest (12 m). Here it receives the Pra?a river from the left and the Janjina and Lim rivers from the right. The villages of Trbosilje, Me?e?a and Orahovci are located in the gorge, which is for the most part flooded by the artificial Vi?egrad lake, created by the Vi?egrad hydroelectric power plant.
At the town of Vi?egrad, the Drina receives the Rzav River from the right and turns northwest at the Suva Gora mountain into the Klotijevac gorge. The gorge is 38 km (24 mi) long and up to 1 km (3,200 ft) deep, carved between the mountains of Bok?anica (from the west) and Zvijezda (from the east). The villages of Sase, Resnik, ?urevi?i and Gornje ?titarevo lie in the gorge and the Kukal river flows into the Drina from the right. At the Slap village, the Drina receives the ?epa river from the right and turns sharply to the west, becoming a border river between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia near the village of Jago?tica.
The Drina flows between the mountains of Zvijezda and Su?ica and it is flooded by the artificial Lake Peru?ac on the northern slopes of the Tara mountain, created by the Bajina Ba?ta power plant. The villages of Prohi?i and Osatica (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) are located on the lake, as well as the ruins of the medieval town of ?ur?evac. The river is dammed at the village of Peru?ac, where a strong well springs out from the Tara mountain, flowing into the Drina as a waterfall. In addition, the waters of Drina are used for several fish ponds for the rainbow trout spawning.
The river continues to the villages of Pe?i, Dobrak, Skelani (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Zaguline (in Serbia), reaching the town of Bajina Ba?ta. At the villages of Donja Crvica and Roga?ica, the Drina makes a large turn, completely changing its direction from the northeast to the northwest. This distinct geographical feature forms the Osat and Ludmer regions of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, which are separated by the river from the Azbukovica part of the Podrinje region of Serbia.
Flowing on the western slopes of the Bukovica mountain, the Drina passes next to the villages of Gvozdac, Okletac, Strmovo, Ba?evci, Donje Ko?lje, Drla?e, Vrhpolje, Donja Bukovica (in Serbia), Boljevi?i, Fakovi?i, Tegare, Sikiri?i and Voljevica (in Bosnia and Herzegovina), before it reaches the towns of Ljubovija in Serbia, the centre of the Azbukovica (or Upper Podrinje) region, and Bratunac, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Ludmer region. Here the Drina receives the right tributary of Ljubovi?a and continues between the mountains of Jagodnja and Boranja (in Serbia), and Glogova (in Bosnia and Herzegovina). After the ruins of the medieval town of Mikuljak and the villages of Mi?i?i, Uzovnica, Crn?a, Voljevci (in Serbia), Krasanovi?i, Dubravice, Polom and Zelinje (in Bosnia and Herzegovina), the Drina is flooded again, this time by the artificial Zvornik Lake, as a result of the Zvornik power plant. The villages of Amajic, Culine (in Serbia), Sopotnik, Drinja?a and Djevanje (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) are located on the lake. This is also where the Drinja?a river flows into the Drina (now the Zvornik lake) from the left, flowing from the Bosnian region of Gornji Bira?.
After the dual town of Zvornik (Bosnia and Herzegovina)-Mali Zvornik (Serbia), the Drina flows between the Bosnian mountain of Majevica and the Serbian mountain of Gu?evo, and enters the Lower Podrinje region. For the rest of its flow after the village of Kozluk, it has no major settlements on the Bosnian side (except for the town of Janja, which is several km away from the river, and some smaller settlements, like Branjevo and Glavi?ice). On the Serbian side, the Drina passes next to the villages of Brasina and Re?ane, the ruins of the medieval town of Koviljkin grad, the spa and town of Banja Kovilja?a, the industrial town and center of the Podrinje region, Loznica, and its largest suburb, Lozni?ko Polje.
The Drina enters the lowest section of its course, the southern Pannonian plain, including the Serbian regions of Jadar (where it receives the Jadar river) and Iverak (where it receives the Le?nica). This is where the rivers spills in many arms and flows, creating the largest flood plain in former Yugoslavia, which the river divides in half. The east side, Ma?va, is in Serbia, and the west side, Semberija, in Bosnia and Herzegovina (where it receives the Janja river). The Drina spills over and meanders, forming shallows, islands and sandbars, before emptying into the Sava river between the Serbian village of Crna Bara and the Bosnian Bosanska Ra?a. The variability of the water flow and low altitude resulted in several course changes during history. The Drina previously flowed into the Sava river near ?abac, 30 km (19 mi) to the east of the present mouth.
The Drina is a very fast river with cold and greenish water, which is from the limestone that underlays the area in which the river carved its bed.
Its average depth is 3 to 5 m (9.8 to 16.4 ft), the deepest being 12 m (39 ft) at Tijesno. On average, the Drina is 50-60 m (160-200 ft) wide, but it ranges from only 12-20 m (39-66 ft) at Tijesno to up to 200 m (660 ft) at Bajina Ba?ta and Ljubovija.
Before it was regulated by the several power stations, the Drina used to flood its valley. The most disastrous flood occurred in 1896, which destroyed the town of Ljubovija.
Major left tributaries: Sutjeska (at Kosman), Bjelava (at Trbue), Bistrica (at Brod), Kolunska rijeka (at Ustikolina), Osanica (at Osanica), Pra?a (at Ustipra?a), ?epa (at Slap), Drinja?a (at Drinja?a), Kamenica (at Djevanje), Sapna (at Karakaja) and Janja (at Janja).
Major right tributaries: ?ehotina (at Fo?a), Janjina (at Samobor), Lim (the longest one, 220 km, at Brodar), Rzav (at Vi?egrad), Kukal (at ?urevi?i), Roga?ica (at Roga?ica), Tre?njica (south of Ljubovija), Ljubovi?a (at Ljubovija), Jadar (at Stra?a) and Le?nica (at Le?nica).
The Drina originates at an altitude of 432 meters (1,417 feet) and flows into the Sava at 75 meters (246 feet). The large inclination is not constant because of many gorges and bends, but still more than enough to generate an estimated 6 billion kilowatt-hours of potential electrical power.
Also, the discharge steadily grows: 125 cubic metres per second (4,400 cu.ft./s) at the ?ehotina's mouth, and 370 cubic metres per second (13,000 cu.ft./s) on the Drina's mouth into the Sava. However, power capacity is not fully used since only three hydro electrical power stations (HE) have been constructed so far: HE Zvornik, HE Bajina Ba?ta, and HE Vi?egrad.
As a result of the inhospitable terrain and the lack of good railways and major roads, the surrounding territory is sparsely populated. Apart from many small villages, the major settlements on or near the river are:
The Drina is crossed by several bridges: at Vi?egrad, Skelani, Bratunac and Zvornik (in Bosnia and Herzegovina), and Loznica and Badovinci in Serbia. The most recent bridge is the one at Badovinci, the Pavlovi?a ?uprija.
In its lower, meandering course, the Drina is referred to as the kriva Drina ("bent Drina"). This has entered the Bosnian and Serbian languages as a phrase used when someone wants to resolve an unsolvable situation; it is said that he or she wants to "straighten the bent Drina".
During World War I, from September 8 to September 16, 1914, the Drina was the battlefield of bloody battles between the Serbian and Austro-Hungarian army, the Battle of Cer and Battle of Drina. In honor of the former battle, the Serbian composer Stanislav Bini?ki (1872-1942) composed the famous March on the Drina, and in 1964 a movie of the same title was shot by director ?ika Mitrovi?. The movie was later banned for a period of time by the Communist government, because of its portrayal of a true-to-life, bloody battle, and its use of Bini?ki's march (banned at that time) as part of the soundtrack. The Slovenian band Laibach did a cover version of the March on the Drina titled Mars on the River Drina in their album NATO, released in 1994 during the Yugoslav Wars.
The largest impact the river has had in culture probably is the 1945 novel "Na Drini ?uprija" (The Bridge on the Drina) by the Nobel Prize laureate, Ivo Andri?; the book is about the building of a bridge near Vi?egrad by the Ottomans in the 16th century.