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A drive-by shooting is a type of assault that usually involves the perpetrator firing a weapon from within a motor vehicle and then fleeing. Such shootings are associated with gang violence in urban areas of the United States but also occur in other contexts and other countries. The tactic is also called simply a "drive-by". The primary motivations for a gang-involved drive-by include intimidation, terrorization, and assassination of rival street gang members. Drive-by shootings allow the perpetrator(s) to quickly strike their target and flee the scene before law enforcement is able to respond. The invention of drive by shooting is attributed to Nestor Makhno, commander of the Revolutionary Insurrection Army of Ukraine at the beginning of the 20th century. He combined horse and carriage with a machine gun in order to quickly assault targets and get away before they could properly react.
Motorcycle ride-by killings were a common form of murder used by drug lord Griselda Blanco during her years controlling the Miami cocaine trade routes in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Blanco herself died by this method after having been shot twice in the head by a motorcyclist in a drive-by shooting in Medellín, Colombia. Drive-by shootings are also included in the Ku Klux Klan's modus operandi, and in the first decade of the 21st century, drive-by shootings were also used by militants in Iraq, including the assassinations of Waldemar Milewicz and Hatem Kamil. From the 1970s into the 21st century, the Camorra in Naples, Italy have been known for performing drive-by shootings during clan or gang wars.
Two notable drive-bys took place during the Second Philadelphia Mafia War during the 90s, between the Stanfa and Merlino faction. On August 5, 1993, Joey Merlino survived a drive-by shooting assassination attempt by two Stanfa gunmen, taking four bullets in the leg and buttocks, while Michael Ciancaglini was shot in the chest and killed. On August 31, 1993, a drive by shooting was performed on John Stanfa and his son in retaliation; while they were driving on the Schuylkill Expressway. Stanfa escaped uninjured and his son survived being shot in the jaw.
^Dominguez, Robert (14 September 1996). "Tupac Shakur dies days after drive-by shooting in 1996". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2015. Rapper Tupac Shakur died yesterday from wounds suffered in a Las Vegas drive-by shooting, becoming a casualty of the kind of bullet-sprayed urban violence captured in his lyrics.