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? (Dyushambe, 1924-29),
? (Stalinabad, 1929-60)
Palace of Nations and the Flagpole, Dushanbe, Tajikistan.JPG
Dushanbe, Tajikistan (satellite view).jpg
National Library of Tajikistan.JPG
TJ-Dushanbe photo (9).JPG
Tajik Parliament House, Dushanbe, Tajikistan.JPG
Opera-Ballet - panoramio.jpg
Dushanbe, Tajikistan - panoramio (3).jpg
Official seal of Dushanbe
Dushanbe is located in Tajikistan
Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan
Dushanbe is located in Asia
Dushanbe (Asia)
Coordinates: 38°32?12?N 68°46?48?E / 38.53667°N 68.78000°E / 38.53667; 68.78000Coordinates: 38°32?12?N 68°46?48?E / 38.53667°N 68.78000°E / 38.53667; 68.78000
Country Tajikistan
 o MayorRustam Emomali
 o City124.6 km2 (48.1 sq mi)
823 m (2,700 ft)
(1 January 2019)
 o City846,400[1]
 o Metro
Time zoneUTC+5 (Tajikistan Time)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+5 (Tajikistan Time)
HDI (2017)0.728[2]
Elevation source[3]

Dushanbe (Tajik: ?, IPA: [du?æm'be]; meaning Monday in Persian,[4][5][6]) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan. As of 2016, Dushanbe had a population of 802,700.

Historically a small village, Dushanbe was made the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. Until 1929, the city was known in Russian as Dyushambe (Russian: ?, Dyushambe), and from 1929 to 1961 as Stalinabad (Tajik: ?, Stalinobod), after Joseph Stalin.


Dushanbe was at a crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays[7]. This gave rise to the name Dushanbe-Bazar (Tajik: ? , Dushanbe Bozor)[8] from Dushanbe, which means Monday in the Persian language,[9][5] literally - the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe).


Ancient times


In the stone age, Mousterian tool-users inhabited the Gissar valley, near modern-day Dushanbe.[10]


The Hissar culture, Bishkent culture, and Vakhsh culture all where thought to have inhabited the Gissar valley in the second millennium BC.[11][12] Hissar stone tools were discovered within modern-day Dushanbe at the confluence of the Varzob and Luchob.[13]

Bronze age

Near the Dushanbe airport, bronze age burials were discovered dating from the end of the second to the beginning of the first millennium BC.[14]

Achaemenid period

Achaemenid dishes and ceramics were found 6 kilometres east of Dushanbe in Qiblai.[15] Archaeological remnants of a small citadel dating to the 5th century BC have been discovered 40 kilometres south[16] and wedge-shaped copper axes have been discovered from the 2nd century BC.[17]

Greco-Bactrian period

Another settlement throughout the region's early history was a small Greco-Bactrian settlement from the end of the 3rd century BC of about 40 hectacres in modern-day Dushanbe.[18][17][19]

Kushan period

Near Dushanbe, there was also a Kushan city on the left bank of the Varzob river from the 2nd century BC to 3rd century AD containing burial sites from the time period.[20][17][19] Kushan settlements such as Garavkala, Tepai Shah, Shakhrinau, and Uzbekontepa were founded in this period near Dushanbe.[21][22][23]

Hephalite and Tokharistan period

Ajina Teppe was a Buddhist monastery of the Hephalite period of the late 5-6th century discovered in the Vaksh valley near Dushanbe.[24] Other settlements were discovered near Dushanbe during that period as well, like the town of Shishikona that was unfortunately destroyed during the Soviet era and depopulated during the Mongol invasion.[25][26]International trade began during this period in the Dushanbe region.[27] A castle was also discovered in modern-day Dushanbe dating from the time period.[28] In the 7th century, the Chinese pilgrim Xuanjian visited the region and mentioned the city of Shuman, possibly on the site of modern Dushanbe.[29]

Early Middle Ages

Sasanid silver coins were discovered in the city.[17] After the Arab conquest, in the 10th-12th centuries the medieval city of Hulbuk was developed near Dushanbe which notably contained the palace of the governor of Khulbuk, "an artistic treasure of the Tajik people" among other smaller medieval settlements like Shishikhona.[30]Kharakhamid coins were found that were minted from 1018-1019 in Dushanbe.[31]

Late Middle Ages

Other, smaller settlements were found from the Late Middle Ages after the Mongol invasion. These included Abdullaevsky, and the Shainak settlement. The region of Dushanbe was controlled during this time period by different empires, including the Timurid Empire.[32]

Market town

The first time Dushanbe appeared in the historical record, in a letter sent from the Balkh khan Subhonquli Bahodur to Fyodor Alekseevich, the Tsar of Russia, was in 1676, called "Kasabai Dushanbe," when the village was under the control of Balkh.[33][34] This reflected Dushanbe's status as a town, originally taking the name Dushanbe (Monday) due to the large bazaar in the village that operated on Mondays. Dushanbe's location between the caravan routes heading east-west from the Hissar Valley through Karategin to the Alay Valley, and north-south to the Kafirnigan River and then to Vaksh Valley and Afghanistan through the Anzob Pass from the Fergana and Zeravshan valleys that ultimately led traders to Bukhara, Samarkand, the Pamirs, and Afghanistan incentivized the development of its market.[17][4][35] At the time, the town had a population of around 7-8 thousand with around 500-600 households.[36]

By 1826, the town was called Dushanbe Qurghan (Tajik: ? , Dushanbe Qurghon, with the suffix qur?on from Turkic qur?an, meaning "fortress") Russified as Dyushambe (?). The first map showing Dyushambe was drafted in 1875. It had a caravanserai, a stopping point for travelers to Samarkand, Khujand, Kulob and the Pamirs. It boasted 14 mosques and 2 madrasses at the turn of the century. At that time, the town was a fortress on a steep bank on the left bank of the Varzob River with 10,000 residents.[36][37] It was also a center for weaving, tanning, and ironsmelting production in the region. Control over it was long exercised by the Beg of Hisor but in 1868, it was given to the Emir of Bokhara by the Tsarist government.[38] The first hospital in the village was constructed in 1915 by Russian investment[39] and an early railroad was proposed to connect the market town in 1909, but was abandoned after a review determined the venture would not be profitable.[40]

In 1920, the last Emir of Bukhara briefly took refuge in Dushanbe after being overthrown by the Bolshevik revolution. He fled to Afghanistan after the Red Army conquered the area the next year, March 4 1921.[41][42] In February 1922, the town was taken by Basmachi troops led by Enver Pasha after a siege,[43] but on 14 July 1922 again came under the power of the Bolsheviks[44][45] soon before the death of Enver Pasha on August 4 1922 outside of Dushanbe.[41][46] It was a part of the Bukharan PSR until the formation of the Tajik ASSR.[47]

Capital of the Tajik ASSR and the beginnings of development

Dushanbe was proclaimed the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in October 1924 and the government started to function formally on March 15 1925.[48][49][38] The population during the struggle declined from an already meager 3140 in 1920 to only 283 in 1924.[38][40]

To aid in the recovery, the Soviet authorities temporarily exempted much of the population from having to pay taxes. On August 12th 1924 the first newspaper of the village, Ovozi Sharq, was published in Arabic and soon after a Russian-language paper, Red Tajikistan, began publication. Power plants and electricity were introduced to Dushanbe during this time. In 1924 the first regular plane route began from Dushanbe to Bukhara and another from Dushanbe to Tashkent, and the post office was set up.[40] In 1923, the Soviets created Dushanbe's first telegraph link to Bukhara and initiated its first railroad to Termez.[38] Construction on the railroad began on June 24 1926, and it was completed in November 1929, connecting Dushanbe with the Trans-Caspian railroad and kickstarting economic growth.[34] In 1925, the first boy's boarding school was constructed in the capital.[40] On September 1 1927, the first pedagogical college opened in Dushanbe and in November the motor road from Dushanbe to Kulob was completed.[49] Tajiks from the countryside were given assistance and free land plots in the capital to increase its population and development.[40]

Capital of the Tajik SSR

Dushanbe Post Office in 1937

A Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic separate from the Uzbek SSR was created in 1929, and its capital Dyushambe was renamed Stalinabad (Russian: ?; Tajik: ? Stalinobod) for Joseph Stalin on 19 October 1929, which incorporated the nearby villages of Shohmansur, Mavlono, and Sari Osiyo.[34][50][49]

Reasons for selection

Dushanbe was chosen instead of larger-populated villages in Tajikistan because of its role as a crossroads of Tajikistan because of its large market that served as a crossroads for much of Tajikistan's population. Along with its market, there was a lively livestock trade as well as trade in fabrics, leather, tin products, and weapons.[51]

Dushanbe also boasted the only Jewish population in the Tajjik SSR, whom were involved in trade and in loaning money, financing much of the Red Army during its conquest of the region.[40] When the Emir moved to the city, however, the Jewish population's property was plundered and the Jews were relocated to Gissar. They were only let back into Dushanbe with its conquest by the Red Army.[52]

The mild Mediterranean climate was another reason Soviet authorities chose the city as the capital.[40]

Dushanbe was also official recognized as the capital of the Emirate of Bukhara during its waning days as it served as the last refuge of the last Emir of Bukhara during its conquest by the Soviet Union, possibly another motivating factor for the decision to establish the new SSR's capital in the village.[51]

Later development

In the years that followed, the city developed at a rapid pace.[17] The Soviets transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, and tens of thousands of people relocated to the city. The population also increased with thousands of Tajiks migrating to Tajikistan following the transfer of Bukhara and Samarkand to the Uzbek SSR as part of national delimitation in Central Asia.[46] Industry during the time period was limited, focused on local production.[38] The first bus line began operating in 1930. and in 1940, Komsomolskoye Lake was constructed in the city.[40]

Many of these projects occurred under the mayoralty of Abdukarim Rozykov, one of the first mayors of Dushanbe, from 1925-1932, who seeked to transform it into a "model communist city" through modernization and urban planning. Mikhail Kalitin continued the industrial development of Dushanbe, building the Komsomolskoye Lake and promoting industry in the city.[53]

Early textile mill, depicted on a stamp of the Tajik SSR

Several architects played a major role in the city's construction in a group headed by Peter Vaulin. He drew up a piece of legislation called "On the construction of the city of Dushanbe" which the city adopted on April 27 1927. He implemented a constructivist design, learned from his meeting with Le Corbusier in Moscow in 1929.[54] In 1934 and 1935, the Griprogor Institute, based in Leningrad, created a master plan for the construction of Dushanbe. It was approved on March 3 1938. The city center during the reconstruction shifted to Red Square and Frunze Park, the location of many workers demonstrations and military parades into the forties. The first skyscraper in Dushanbe, the hotel Dushanbe, was erected in 1964.[49]High-rise buildings began to be developed in the mid-70s against the wishes of the Tajik Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, which viewed such developments as dangerous in an earthquake.[35]

1949 depiction of the Avicenna Medical Institute and the Pedagogical Institute

During World War 2, the population of Dushanbe and Tajikistan swelled with 100,000 evacuees from the front that led to the deployment of 17 hospitals in the city.[55] The city's industry also greatly increased during the war, as the Soviets wanted to move critical infrastructure far behind enemy lines, and industries like textile manufacturing and food processing began to grow.[38] In 1954, there were 30 schools in the city, a medical institute named after Avicenna, the Stalinabad Academy of Sciences, the University of Stalinabad, which was founded in 1947 and had 1,500 students,[56] and the Stalinabad Pedagocial Instute for Woman, established on September 1 1953.[57]

In 1960, gas supply reached the capital through a gas pipeline opened from Kyzyl to Tumshuk to Dushanbe. On 10 November 1961, as part of de-Stalinization, Stalinabad was renamed back to Dushanbe, the name it retains to this day.[58] In the 1960s, under the leadership of Mahmudbek Narzibekov, the first zoo was built in the city along with a plan to end the housing shortage and provide free apartments.[53] The Nurek Dam, which would have been the tallest dam in the world, was started 90 kilometers south east of Dushanbe during that time period. It was a megaproject meant to showcase Soviet innovation and development in Tajikistan, but the project was cancelled in the 1970s because of stagnating Soviet economic growth. [59][60]

On August 2 1979 the population of Dushanbe reached 500,000.[49]

Riots and unrest

In the 1980s, environmental problems and crime began to increase. Mass violence, hooliganism, binge drinking, and violent assaults were becoming more common in Dushanbe. There was an attack on foreign students at the Agricultural Institute in 1987 and a riot in the Pedagogical Institute two years later.[61] Increasing regionalism also destabilized the SSR.

February 1990 Riots in Dushanbe

On February 10-11, 300 demonstrators at the Communist Party Central Committee building after it was rumored that the Soviet government planned to relocate tens of thousands of Armenian refugees to Tajikistan. In reality, only 29 Armenians went to Dushanbe and were housed by their family members. However, the crowd kept growing in size to 3 to 5 thousand people until violence began in the city. Martial law was quickly declared and troops were sent in to protect ethnic minorities and defend against vandalism and looting. The number of people protesting increased significantly, however, and they attacked the Central Committee building. The 29 Armenians were quickly evacuated on an emergency flight after shots were fired.

A few days after, and with looting still occurring throughout the city, demonstrators created the Provisional People's Committee or the Temporary Committee for Crisis Resolution which put forward demands such as "the expulsion of Armenian refugees, the resignation of the government and the removal of the Communist Party, the closure of an aluminium smelter in western Tajikistan for environmental reasons, equitable distribution of profits from cotton production, and the release of 25 protesters taken into custody."

Many high ranking officials resigned and the protector's goal of toppling the government was close to being successful, but Soviet troops moved into the city, declared the demands illegal, and rejected the resignation of the high ranking officials. 16-25 people were killed in the violence and many if not most were Russian.[62]

The riots were largely fueled by concerns about housing shortages for the Tajik population, but they coincided with a wave of nationalist unrest that swept Transcaucasia and other Central Asian states during the twilight of Mikhail Gorbachev's rule.[63]

After the increase of organized opposition in the Democratic Party of Tajikistan and Rastokhez, glasnost by Gorbachev, economic contraction, and increased opposition by regional elites, Qahhor Mahkamov disbanded the Communist Party of Tajikistan on August 27 1991 and quit the party the next day. On September 9 1991 Tajikistan's government declared independence from the Soviet Union.[64]

Capital of Tajikistan

Dushanbe became the capital of an independent Tajikistan on September 9 1991.[64]

Tajikistani Civil War

On November 24 1991 Rahmon Nabiev was elected President of Tajikistan, defeating Davlatnazar Khudonazarov soon after Tajikistan declared independence. Iran, the United States, and Russia soon opened embassies in Dushanbe. Nabiev was soon forced to resign before the government abolished the office of president and chose Emomoli Rahmon as head of state; in 1994 the office of president was re-established with Rahmon chosen to be president.[49] Dushanbe was controlled by the Russian-backed government during most the Tajikistani Civil War, although the Islamist and Democratic United Tajik Opposition managed to capture the capital in 1992 before 8000 Russian-backed and Uzbekistani-backed government troops regained control of Dushanbe.[65] Most of the Russian population fled the capital during the violence of this time period while large amounts of rural Tajiks moved in; by 1993, more than half had fled.[34][66] The factions during the civil war were organized primarily upon regional lines.[65] The war was ended by a June 27 1997 armistice, administered by the UN, that guaranteed the opposition 30% of the positions in the government.[67]

Modern day

In 2000, Dushanbe received internet access for the first time.[49] In 2004, the UNESCO declared Dushanbe as a city of peace.[68]Mahmadsaid Ubaidulloev was declared mayor of Dushanbe in 1996, after during the civil war era many said he was in real control of the government.[69] He was the mayor of the capital for the longest term of any mayor, of 21 years, until 2017.[53]

In January 2017, Rustam Emomali, current President Emomali Rahmon's son, was appointed Mayor of Dushanbe, a move which is seen by some analysts as a step to reaching the top of the government.[70]


Dushanbe is situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Varzob and Kofarnihon, 700-900 meters above sea level. The north and east of the city is bounded by the Gissar range.[17]


Dushanbe features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa),[71] with some continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa) due to the nearby glaciers and moutain range.[17][71] The summers are hot and dry and the winters are chilly, but not very cold. The climate is damper than other Central Asian capitals, with an average annual rainfall over 500 millimetres (20 in) as moist air is funneled by the surrounding valley during the winter and spring. Winters are not as cold as further north owing to the shielding of the city by mountains from extremely cold air from Siberia. January 2008 was particularly cold, and the temperature dropped to -22 °C (-8 °F).[72]

Climate data for Dushanbe (1961-1990, extremes 1951-2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.6
Average high °C (°F) 7.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.1
Average low °C (°F) -2.0
Record low °C (°F) -26.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.3
Average precipitation days 8.5 9.1 13.4 9.8 7.8 1.5 0.7 0.1 0.8 3.7 5.3 8.1 68.8
Average relative humidity (%) 69 67 65 63 57 42 41 44 44 56 63 69 57
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120 121 156 198 281 337 352 338 289 224 164 119 2,699
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[73]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961-1990)[74]


Districts of Dushanbe
Dark Green: Shah Mansur
Purple: Ismail Samani
Light Green: Avicenna
Yellow: Ferdowsi

Dushanbe is divided into the following districts:

District name Former name Area,

km² [75]


persons (2019)[75]

District Chairman[76]
Ismail Samani (Tajik: ? , Ismoili Somoni; Persian: ? ?‎) October () 25.8 148,700 Sami Sharif Hamid
Avicenna (Sino) (Tajik: ? ?, Ab?ali Ibni Sino; Persian: ‎) Frunzensky () 43.8 326,100 Salimzoda Nusratullo Faizullo
Ferdowsi (Tajik: , Firdavsi; Persian: ?‎) Central () 29.1 209,000 Yusufi Muhammadrahim
Shah Mansur (Tajik: , Shohmansur; Persian: ‎)[77] Railway () 27.9 162,600 Bilol Ibrohim

Main sights


The population of Dushanbe:

  • In 1970, Dushanbe was 42% Russian and 26% Tajik
  • In 1979, Dushanbe was 39% Russian and 30.7% Tajik[38]
  • in 1987 Dushanbe's population was about 796,000 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (75%), Uzbeks (10%), ethnic Russians (3%), and others (12%);[]
  • in 1989 the population was 39.1% Tajik, 32.4% Russian, 10.4% Uzbek, 4.1% Tatar, and 3.5% Ukrainians. The remaining 10.4 percent included Jews, Kirghiz, Turkmen, Korean and others
  • In 2003 the population was 83.4% Tajik, 5.1% Russia, 0.7% Tatars, 0.3% Ukrainian, 0.1% Korean, and 1.1% German,[80] and 9.3% other.
  • in 2010 was made up of ethnic Tajiks (89.5%), Uzbeks (6.7%), Tatars (0.3%), Turkmens (0.1%), and others (0.7%);[81]
  • in 2016 was about 802,400 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (c. 84.4%), Uzbeks (9.1%), Russians (4.1%), and others (2.4%).
Population of Dushanbe
Year Population
1676 7,000-8,000[36]
1875 10,000[36]
1920 3,140
1924 283[38]
1926 5,600[38]
1929 7,298[39]
1930 15,540[39]
1931 20,360[39]
1933 35,818[39]
1939 82,540[39][40]
1949 150,000[57]
1956 227,000
1971 388,000
1979 500,000[49]
1982 512,000[40]
1987 796,000[82]
1989 604,000[38]
1991 592,000[83]
1998 538,600
1999 561,200
2000 575,900
2001 589,400
2002 604,000
2003 619,400
2004 631,700
2005 646,400
2006 661,000[84]
2008 679,400[85]
2014 779,000
2015 788,700[86]
2016 802,700[87]

Economy and infrastructure

Puppet theatre

Tajik Air had its head office on the grounds of Dushanbe Airport in Dushanbe.[88]Somon Air has its head office in Dushanbe.[89]


Trolleybus in Dushanbe

The first scheduled flight from the city to Moscow began in 1945.[49] The city is served by Dushanbe International Airport which, as of April 2015, had regularly scheduled flights to major cities in Russia, Central Asia, Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, and Ürümqi amongst others. Tajikistan's principal railways are in the southern region and connect Dushanbe with the industrial areas of the Gissar and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia.[90]

The Dushanbe trolleybus system operates public buses in the city, and construction of a metro system is due to begin in 2025.[91] Automobiles are the main form of transportation in the country. The Uzbekistan border is about 50 km away and there is a road that links it to the Uzbek town of Denov. Roads to the north link it to the Sughd Region and from there to parts of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The road to the south goes to Afghanistan, accessible via the bridge at Panji Poyon 150 km away.

Many highway and tunnel construction projects are underway or have recently been completed (as of 2014). Major projects include rehabilitation of the Dushanbe - Chanak (Uzbek border), Dushanbe - Kulma (Chinese border), Kurgan-Tube - Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border) highways and construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar[92] and Chormazak.[93]


A number of educational facilities are based in Dushanbe:

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Dushanbe is twinned with:[17]

Notable people

See also


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  4. ^ a b "General information about Dushanbe". Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia. Retrieved 2020. The village Dushanbe arose at the crossroads. On Mondays big Bazaar's would be organized, which is where the village inherited its name "Dushanbe", meaning "Monday".
  5. ^ a b D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, Tajik-Russian Dictionary, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006.
  6. ^ "TAJIKISTAN". The World Factbook. Retrieved 2020. etymology: today's city was originally at the crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe, which in Persian means Monday, i.e., the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe)
  7. ^ "Central Asia :: Tajikistan -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ Dushanbe in Dictionary of Geographic Names (in Russian)
  9. ^   Dushanbe in Persian language Archived 31 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine
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  13. ^ Ranov, V. A. (Vadim Aleksandrovich) (1993). Dushanbe : gorod drevni? (PDF). Solov?ev, V. S. (Viktor Stepanovich), Masov, R. M. (Rakhim Masovich). Dushanbe: Izd-vo "Donish". p. 100. ISBN 5-8366-0427-4. OCLC 32311792.
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  16. ^ Yavan, Oxford Art Online. Macy, Laura Williams. [Basingstoke, England]: Macmillan. 2002. ISBN 1-884446-05-1. OCLC 50959350.CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Regions: Dushanbe & Surroundings". Official Website of the Tourism Authority of Tajikistan. Committee of Youth Affairs, Sports and Tourism. Retrieved 2013.
  18. ^ Ranov, V. A. (Vadim Aleksandrovich) (1993). Dushanbe : gorod drevni? (PDF). Solov?ev, V. S. (Viktor Stepanovich), Masov, R. M. (Rakhim Masovich). Dushanbe: Izd-vo "Donish". p. 110. ISBN 5-8366-0427-4. OCLC 32311792.
  19. ^ a b "tajikistan". www.afc.ryukoku.ac.jp. Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ Ranov, V. A. (Vadim Aleksandrovich) (1993). Dushanbe : gorod drevni? (PDF). Solov?ev, V. S. (Viktor Stepanovich), Masov, R. M. (Rakhim Masovich). Dushanbe: Izd-vo "Donish". pp. 125-126. ISBN 5-8366-0427-4. OCLC 32311792.
  21. ^ Hiebert, F. T.; Kohl, P. L. (20 October 2012). "Garav kala: a Pleiades place resource". Pleiades: a gazetteer of past places. R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. Retrieved 2020.
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  23. ^ 38-39
  24. ^ "AJINA TEPE - Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2020.
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