? (Dyushambe, 1924-29),
? (Stalinabad, 1929-60)
|o Mayor||Rustam Emomali|
|o City||124.6 km2 (48.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||823 m (2,700 ft)|
(1 January 2019)
|Time zone||UTC+5 (Tajikistan Time)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+5 (Tajikistan Time)|
Historically a small village, Dushanbe was made the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. Until 1929, the city was known in Russian as Dyushambe (Russian: ?, Dyushambe), and from 1929 to 1961 as Stalinabad (Tajik: ?, Stalinobod), after Joseph Stalin.
Dushanbe was at a crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays. This gave rise to the name Dushanbe-Bazar (Tajik: ? , Dushanbe Bozor) from Dushanbe, which means Monday in the Persian language, literally - the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe).
The Hissar culture, Bishkent culture, and Vakhsh culture all where thought to have inhabited the Gissar valley in the second millennium BC. Hissar stone tools were discovered within modern-day Dushanbe at the confluence of the Varzob and Luchob.
Achaemenid dishes and ceramics were found 6 kilometres east of Dushanbe in Qiblai. Archaeological remnants of a small citadel dating to the 5th century BC have been discovered 40 kilometres south and wedge-shaped copper axes have been discovered from the 2nd century BC.
Near Dushanbe, there was also a Kushan city on the left bank of the Varzob river from the 2nd century BC to 3rd century AD containing burial sites from the time period. Kushan settlements such as Garavkala, Tepai Shah, Shakhrinau, and Uzbekontepa were founded in this period near Dushanbe.
Ajina Teppe was a Buddhist monastery of the Hephalite period of the late 5-6th century discovered in the Vaksh valley near Dushanbe. Other settlements were discovered near Dushanbe during that period as well, like the town of Shishikona that was unfortunately destroyed during the Soviet era and depopulated during the Mongol invasion.International trade began during this period in the Dushanbe region. A castle was also discovered in modern-day Dushanbe dating from the time period. In the 7th century, the Chinese pilgrim Xuanjian visited the region and mentioned the city of Shuman, possibly on the site of modern Dushanbe.
Sasanid silver coins were discovered in the city. After the Arab conquest, in the 10th-12th centuries the medieval city of Hulbuk was developed near Dushanbe which notably contained the palace of the governor of Khulbuk, "an artistic treasure of the Tajik people" among other smaller medieval settlements like Shishikhona.Kharakhamid coins were found that were minted from 1018-1019 in Dushanbe.
Other, smaller settlements were found from the Late Middle Ages after the Mongol invasion. These included Abdullaevsky, and the Shainak settlement. The region of Dushanbe was controlled during this time period by different empires, including the Timurid Empire.
The first time Dushanbe appeared in the historical record, in a letter sent from the Balkh khan Subhonquli Bahodur to Fyodor Alekseevich, the Tsar of Russia, was in 1676, called "Kasabai Dushanbe," when the village was under the control of Balkh. This reflected Dushanbe's status as a town, originally taking the name Dushanbe (Monday) due to the large bazaar in the village that operated on Mondays. Dushanbe's location between the caravan routes heading east-west from the Hissar Valley through Karategin to the Alay Valley, and north-south to the Kafirnigan River and then to Vaksh Valley and Afghanistan through the Anzob Pass from the Fergana and Zeravshan valleys that ultimately led traders to Bukhara, Samarkand, the Pamirs, and Afghanistan incentivized the development of its market. At the time, the town had a population of around 7-8 thousand with around 500-600 households.
By 1826, the town was called Dushanbe Qurghan (Tajik: ? , Dushanbe Qurghon, with the suffix qur?on from Turkic qur?an, meaning "fortress") Russified as Dyushambe (?). The first map showing Dyushambe was drafted in 1875. It had a caravanserai, a stopping point for travelers to Samarkand, Khujand, Kulob and the Pamirs. It boasted 14 mosques and 2 madrasses at the turn of the century. At that time, the town was a fortress on a steep bank on the left bank of the Varzob River with 10,000 residents. It was also a center for weaving, tanning, and ironsmelting production in the region. Control over it was long exercised by the Beg of Hisor but in 1868, it was given to the Emir of Bokhara by the Tsarist government. The first hospital in the village was constructed in 1915 by Russian investment and an early railroad was proposed to connect the market town in 1909, but was abandoned after a review determined the venture would not be profitable.
In 1920, the last Emir of Bukhara briefly took refuge in Dushanbe after being overthrown by the Bolshevik revolution. He fled to Afghanistan after the Red Army conquered the area the next year, March 4 1921. In February 1922, the town was taken by Basmachi troops led by Enver Pasha after a siege, but on 14 July 1922 again came under the power of the Bolsheviks soon before the death of Enver Pasha on August 4 1922 outside of Dushanbe. It was a part of the Bukharan PSR until the formation of the Tajik ASSR.
Dushanbe was proclaimed the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in October 1924 and the government started to function formally on March 15 1925. The population during the struggle declined from an already meager 3140 in 1920 to only 283 in 1924.
To aid in the recovery, the Soviet authorities temporarily exempted much of the population from having to pay taxes. On August 12th 1924 the first newspaper of the village, Ovozi Sharq, was published in Arabic and soon after a Russian-language paper, Red Tajikistan, began publication. Power plants and electricity were introduced to Dushanbe during this time. In 1924 the first regular plane route began from Dushanbe to Bukhara and another from Dushanbe to Tashkent, and the post office was set up. In 1923, the Soviets created Dushanbe's first telegraph link to Bukhara and initiated its first railroad to Termez. Construction on the railroad began on June 24 1926, and it was completed in November 1929, connecting Dushanbe with the Trans-Caspian railroad and kickstarting economic growth. In 1925, the first boy's boarding school was constructed in the capital. On September 1 1927, the first pedagogical college opened in Dushanbe and in November the motor road from Dushanbe to Kulob was completed. Tajiks from the countryside were given assistance and free land plots in the capital to increase its population and development.
A Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic separate from the Uzbek SSR was created in 1929, and its capital Dyushambe was renamed Stalinabad (Russian: ?; Tajik: ? Stalinobod) for Joseph Stalin on 19 October 1929, which incorporated the nearby villages of Shohmansur, Mavlono, and Sari Osiyo.
Dushanbe was chosen instead of larger-populated villages in Tajikistan because of its role as a crossroads of Tajikistan because of its large market that served as a crossroads for much of Tajikistan's population. Along with its market, there was a lively livestock trade as well as trade in fabrics, leather, tin products, and weapons.
Dushanbe also boasted the only Jewish population in the Tajjik SSR, whom were involved in trade and in loaning money, financing much of the Red Army during its conquest of the region. When the Emir moved to the city, however, the Jewish population's property was plundered and the Jews were relocated to Gissar. They were only let back into Dushanbe with its conquest by the Red Army.
Dushanbe was also official recognized as the capital of the Emirate of Bukhara during its waning days as it served as the last refuge of the last Emir of Bukhara during its conquest by the Soviet Union, possibly another motivating factor for the decision to establish the new SSR's capital in the village.
In the years that followed, the city developed at a rapid pace. The Soviets transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, and tens of thousands of people relocated to the city. The population also increased with thousands of Tajiks migrating to Tajikistan following the transfer of Bukhara and Samarkand to the Uzbek SSR as part of national delimitation in Central Asia. Industry during the time period was limited, focused on local production. The first bus line began operating in 1930. and in 1940, Komsomolskoye Lake was constructed in the city.
Many of these projects occurred under the mayoralty of Abdukarim Rozykov, one of the first mayors of Dushanbe, from 1925-1932, who seeked to transform it into a "model communist city" through modernization and urban planning. Mikhail Kalitin continued the industrial development of Dushanbe, building the Komsomolskoye Lake and promoting industry in the city.
Several architects played a major role in the city's construction in a group headed by Peter Vaulin. He drew up a piece of legislation called "On the construction of the city of Dushanbe" which the city adopted on April 27 1927. He implemented a constructivist design, learned from his meeting with Le Corbusier in Moscow in 1929. In 1934 and 1935, the Griprogor Institute, based in Leningrad, created a master plan for the construction of Dushanbe. It was approved on March 3 1938. The city center during the reconstruction shifted to Red Square and Frunze Park, the location of many workers demonstrations and military parades into the forties. The first skyscraper in Dushanbe, the hotel Dushanbe, was erected in 1964.High-rise buildings began to be developed in the mid-70s against the wishes of the Tajik Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, which viewed such developments as dangerous in an earthquake.
During World War 2, the population of Dushanbe and Tajikistan swelled with 100,000 evacuees from the front that led to the deployment of 17 hospitals in the city. The city's industry also greatly increased during the war, as the Soviets wanted to move critical infrastructure far behind enemy lines, and industries like textile manufacturing and food processing began to grow. In 1954, there were 30 schools in the city, a medical institute named after Avicenna, the Stalinabad Academy of Sciences, the University of Stalinabad, which was founded in 1947 and had 1,500 students, and the Stalinabad Pedagocial Instute for Woman, established on September 1 1953.
In 1960, gas supply reached the capital through a gas pipeline opened from Kyzyl to Tumshuk to Dushanbe. On 10 November 1961, as part of de-Stalinization, Stalinabad was renamed back to Dushanbe, the name it retains to this day. In the 1960s, under the leadership of Mahmudbek Narzibekov, the first zoo was built in the city along with a plan to end the housing shortage and provide free apartments. The Nurek Dam, which would have been the tallest dam in the world, was started 90 kilometers south east of Dushanbe during that time period. It was a megaproject meant to showcase Soviet innovation and development in Tajikistan, but the project was cancelled in the 1970s because of stagnating Soviet economic growth. 
On August 2 1979 the population of Dushanbe reached 500,000.
In the 1980s, environmental problems and crime began to increase. Mass violence, hooliganism, binge drinking, and violent assaults were becoming more common in Dushanbe. There was an attack on foreign students at the Agricultural Institute in 1987 and a riot in the Pedagogical Institute two years later. Increasing regionalism also destabilized the SSR.
On February 10-11, 300 demonstrators at the Communist Party Central Committee building after it was rumored that the Soviet government planned to relocate tens of thousands of Armenian refugees to Tajikistan. In reality, only 29 Armenians went to Dushanbe and were housed by their family members. However, the crowd kept growing in size to 3 to 5 thousand people until violence began in the city. Martial law was quickly declared and troops were sent in to protect ethnic minorities and defend against vandalism and looting. The number of people protesting increased significantly, however, and they attacked the Central Committee building. The 29 Armenians were quickly evacuated on an emergency flight after shots were fired.
A few days after, and with looting still occurring throughout the city, demonstrators created the Provisional People's Committee or the Temporary Committee for Crisis Resolution which put forward demands such as "the expulsion of Armenian refugees, the resignation of the government and the removal of the Communist Party, the closure of an aluminium smelter in western Tajikistan for environmental reasons, equitable distribution of profits from cotton production, and the release of 25 protesters taken into custody."
Many high ranking officials resigned and the protector's goal of toppling the government was close to being successful, but Soviet troops moved into the city, declared the demands illegal, and rejected the resignation of the high ranking officials. 16-25 people were killed in the violence and many if not most were Russian.
The riots were largely fueled by concerns about housing shortages for the Tajik population, but they coincided with a wave of nationalist unrest that swept Transcaucasia and other Central Asian states during the twilight of Mikhail Gorbachev's rule.
After the increase of organized opposition in the Democratic Party of Tajikistan and Rastokhez, glasnost by Gorbachev, economic contraction, and increased opposition by regional elites, Qahhor Mahkamov disbanded the Communist Party of Tajikistan on August 27 1991 and quit the party the next day. On September 9 1991 Tajikistan's government declared independence from the Soviet Union.
Dushanbe became the capital of an independent Tajikistan on September 9 1991.
On November 24 1991 Rahmon Nabiev was elected President of Tajikistan, defeating Davlatnazar Khudonazarov soon after Tajikistan declared independence. Iran, the United States, and Russia soon opened embassies in Dushanbe. Nabiev was soon forced to resign before the government abolished the office of president and chose Emomoli Rahmon as head of state; in 1994 the office of president was re-established with Rahmon chosen to be president. Dushanbe was controlled by the Russian-backed government during most the Tajikistani Civil War, although the Islamist and Democratic United Tajik Opposition managed to capture the capital in 1992 before 8000 Russian-backed and Uzbekistani-backed government troops regained control of Dushanbe. Most of the Russian population fled the capital during the violence of this time period while large amounts of rural Tajiks moved in; by 1993, more than half had fled. The factions during the civil war were organized primarily upon regional lines. The war was ended by a June 27 1997 armistice, administered by the UN, that guaranteed the opposition 30% of the positions in the government.
In 2000, Dushanbe received internet access for the first time. In 2004, the UNESCO declared Dushanbe as a city of peace.Mahmadsaid Ubaidulloev was declared mayor of Dushanbe in 1996, after during the civil war era many said he was in real control of the government. He was the mayor of the capital for the longest term of any mayor, of 21 years, until 2017.
Dushanbe features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with some continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa) due to the nearby glaciers and moutain range. The summers are hot and dry and the winters are chilly, but not very cold. The climate is damper than other Central Asian capitals, with an average annual rainfall over 500 millimetres (20 in) as moist air is funneled by the surrounding valley during the winter and spring. Winters are not as cold as further north owing to the shielding of the city by mountains from extremely cold air from Siberia. January 2008 was particularly cold, and the temperature dropped to -22 °C (-8 °F).
|Climate data for Dushanbe (1961-1990, extremes 1951-2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.6
|Average high °C (°F)||7.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.1
|Average low °C (°F)||-2.0
|Record low °C (°F)||-26.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||66.3
|Average precipitation days||8.5||9.1||13.4||9.8||7.8||1.5||0.7||0.1||0.8||3.7||5.3||8.1||68.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69||67||65||63||57||42||41||44||44||56||63||69||57|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||120||121||156||198||281||337||352||338||289||224||164||119||2,699|
|Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst|
|Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961-1990)|
Dushanbe is divided into the following districts:
|District name||Former name||Area,
|Ismail Samani (Tajik: ? , Ismoili Somoni; Persian: ? ?)||October ()||25.8||148,700||Sami Sharif Hamid|
|Avicenna (Sino) (Tajik: ? ?, Ab?ali Ibni Sino; Persian: )||Frunzensky ()||43.8||326,100||Salimzoda Nusratullo Faizullo|
|Ferdowsi (Tajik: , Firdavsi; Persian: ?)||Central ()||29.1||209,000||Yusufi Muhammadrahim|
|Shah Mansur (Tajik: , Shohmansur; Persian: )||Railway ()||27.9||162,600||Bilol Ibrohim|
The population of Dushanbe:
The first scheduled flight from the city to Moscow began in 1945. The city is served by Dushanbe International Airport which, as of April 2015, had regularly scheduled flights to major cities in Russia, Central Asia, Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, and Ürümqi amongst others. Tajikistan's principal railways are in the southern region and connect Dushanbe with the industrial areas of the Gissar and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia.
The Dushanbe trolleybus system operates public buses in the city, and construction of a metro system is due to begin in 2025. Automobiles are the main form of transportation in the country. The Uzbekistan border is about 50 km away and there is a road that links it to the Uzbek town of Denov. Roads to the north link it to the Sughd Region and from there to parts of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The road to the south goes to Afghanistan, accessible via the bridge at Panji Poyon 150 km away.
A number of educational facilities are based in Dushanbe:
The village Dushanbe arose at the crossroads. On Mondays big Bazaar's would be organized, which is where the village inherited its name "Dushanbe", meaning "Monday".
etymology: today's city was originally at the crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe, which in Persian means Monday, i.e., the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe)
Largest cities or towns in Tajikistan
|7||Vahdat||Districts of Republican Subordination||55,000|
|8||Tursunzoda||Districts of Republican Subordination||53,700|