Dyaus Pita
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Dyaus Pita

Dyaus
God of Sky and Heaven
Member of the Pancha Bhoota
Other namesAkasha
AffiliationDeva, Pancha Bhoota
AbodeDyuloka, Sky (?ka, ?)
MountCow
TextsRigveda
ConsortYogasiddha aka mother earth
OffspringViswakarma,

Dyáu? Pit (Vedic Sanskrit: Dyáu?pit, ?, literally 'Sky Father') is the 'Father Heaven' deity of the Vedic pantheon related to & possibly from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European Sky father god, Dyeus. Dyáu? Pit appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata 'Mother Earth' in the ancient scriptures of Hinduism. He is significant in comparative philology scholarship of Proto-Indo-European religion as similar vocative and nominative concepts share a similar derivation from the Indo-European language, such as Dies Pater and Jupiter (Latin), Zeus Patér (Z , Ancient Greek), Dievas, Tius or Zio (Old High German) and Toutiks dipater (South Picene), all of which like Dyáu? Pit mean 'sky father'.[1][2][3]

In the Rigveda, Dyaus Pitr appears in verses 1.89.4, 1.90.7, 1.164.33, 1.191.6, 4.1.10. and 4.17.4[4] He is also referred to under different theonyms: Dyavaprithvi, for example, is a dvandva compound combining 'heaven' and 'earth' as Dyaus Pitr and Prithvi Mata.

The name Dyau? Pit? is etymologically connected to theonyms such as the Greek Zeus Pater, and closely related to Latin (Roman) Jupiter. Both Dyau? and Zeus stem from a Proto-Indo-European *Dyeus (also *Dy?us Ph?t?r, alternatively spelled *Dy?ws). This, and many other parallels such as the similarity of Vedic rain god Parjanya to Slavic Perun, Lithuanian Perk?nas, and Norse Thor and Fjörgyn, led 19th-century scholars to comparative mythology studies and a conjecture that Vedic, post-Vedic, Greek, and Roman rituals likely had more ancient Proto-Indo-European roots.[5]

The noun dyaús (when used without the pit 'father') refers to the daylit sky, and occurs frequently in the Rigveda, as an entity. The sky in Vedic writing was described as rising in three tiers, avamá, madhyamá, and uttamá or t?tya.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Winter, Werner (2003). Language in Time and Space. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 134-135. ISBN 978-3-11-017648-3.
  2. ^ Bopp, F.; Wilson, H. H. (1851). "Edinburgh Review, or Critical Journal". XCIII-XCIV. A & C Black: 171. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Müller, Friedrich Max (1902). The life and letters of the right Honourable Friedrich Max Müller. Longmans, Green, and co. pp. 506-507.
  4. ^ Sanskrit: Rigveda, Wikisource; translation: Ralph T. H. Griffith Rigveda, Wikisource
  5. ^ Davidson, Hil (1993). The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe. Psychology Press. pp. 147-148. ISBN 978-0-415-04936-8.
  6. ^ Rigveda, 5.60.6.
  • Oberlies, Thomas (1998). Die Religion des Rgveda. Vienna.

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