ENAER T-35 Pillan
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ENAER T-35 Pill%C3%A1n

Not to be confused with the T-35 Buckaroo. For other uses, see: T35 (disambiguation)

T-35 Pillán
US Navy 070901-N-1713L-013 2nd Lt. Hanz Zimmermann, a Panamanian T-35 pilot, stands near his aircraft after returning to Tocumen International Airport from maritime surveillance as part of the Combined Forces Air Combatant Comm.jpg
An ENAER T-35 Pillán of the Panamanian Air Force
Role Trainer
Chile
Manufacturer ENAER
First flight 6 March 1981[1]
Primary users Chilean Air Force
Spanish Air Force
National Air and Naval Service of Panama
Paraguayan Air Force
Produced 28 December 1984[1] - 1991
154[2]

ENAER T-35 Pillán (mapudungún, Spanish pronunciation: [pi'?an], volcano or ancestral spirit) is a Chilean propeller-driven basic trainer aircraft. The student and the instructor sit in tandem. Production ceased in 1991 after 7 years but restarted briefly in 1998.[2]

Design and development

Prior to the eighties Chile possessed a decrepit fleet of military trainers obtained under the Mutual Defense Assistance Act. However, these trainers had become exceedingly difficult to repair following passage of a US arms embargo in 1976.[3] The PA-28R-300 Pillán was developed by Piper Aircraft in the United States as a two-seat military trainer for assembly in Chile, based on a PA-32R fuselage with a new center-section and wing stressed for aerobatics.[4] The first prototype designated XBT first flew at Lakeland on 6 March 1981 and was followed by a second prototype, designated YBT.[4] The second prototype first flew on 31 August 1981 and was then delivered to Chile.[4] The prototype XBT was delivered to Chile in January 1982 but was written off on 10 March 1982.[4] Production of kits at Vero Beach Municipal Airport commenced with three pre-production kits which were delivered for assembly in Chile in 1982, Vero Beach then produced 120 kits for assembly in Chile for the Chilean and Spanish Air Force.[4] The first production aircraft was delivered by ENAER to the Chilean Air Force Air Academy in August 1985.[4] The Spanish aircraft were assembled in Spain by CASA.[1]

Apart from a few turbine powered aircraft, all Pilláns were powered by a 300 hp (224 kW) Textron Lycoming AEIO-540-K1K5 six cylinder horizontally opposed piston engine.

In 1985 a turboprop variant was developed by ENAER as the T-35A Aucan.[4] In early 1986 one of the piston-engined pre-production aircraft was sent to Soloy Aviation Solutions in the United States for modification to install a 420 shp Allison 250B-17D engine.[4]

Variants

ENAER T-35 Pillan of the Chilean Air Force
Piper PA-28R-300 Pillan
Two Piper built prototypes.[4]
T-35A
Two-seat primary training aircraft for the Chilean Air Force. 60 delivered by 1990.[5]
T-35B
Two-seat instrument training aircraft for the Chilean Air Force. 20 delivered by 1990.[5]
T-35C
Two-seat primary training aircraft for the Spanish Air Force, known as the E.26 Tamiz. 41 delivered by 1987.[5]
T-35D
Two-seat primary and instrument training aircraft for Panama and Paraguay.[6]
T-35DT
Turboprop powered version, powered by a 420-ehp (313-kW) Allison 250-B17D turboprop engine. Original designation T-35XT.
T-35S
Single-seat aerobatic aircraft.[6]
T-35T Aucan
Improved turboprop powered version.
Pillan 2000
Proposed (1998) updated version of the T-35 Pillan with new wing.[7]

Operators

A T-35 Pillán formation of Chilean Air Force above Santiago, 2009.
 Chile
 Dominican Republic
 Ecuador
 El Salvador
 Guatemala
 Panama
 Paraguay
 Spain

Specifications (T-35A)

Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1988-89[13]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 8 m (26 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 8.84 m (29 ft 0 in)
  • Height: 2.64 m (8 ft 8 in)
  • Wing area: 13.69 m2 (147.4 sq ft)
  • Airfoil: root: NACA 652-415 ; tip: NACA 652-415 modified
  • Empty weight: 930 kg (2,050 lb) equipped
  • Max takeoff weight: 1,338 kg (2,950 lb) (and Maximum Landing Weight)
1,315 kg (2,899 lb) aerobatic
  • Fuel capacity: 291.5 l (77.0 US gal; 64.1 imp gal) in two wing leading edge integral tanks / 210 kg (463 lb) (272.5 l (72.0 US gal; 59.9 imp gal) usable)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Avco Lycoming AEIO-540-K1K5 6-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed piston engine, 224 kW (300 hp)
  • Propellers: 3-bladed Hartzell HC-C3YR-4BF/FC7663R, 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in) diameter constant-speed propeller

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 311 km/h (193 mph, 168 kn) at sea level
  • Cruise speed: 266 km/h (165 mph, 144 kn) 75% power at 2,680 m (8,793 ft)
255 km/h (158 mph; 138 kn) 55% power at 5,120 m (16,798 ft)
  • Stall speed: 125 km/h (78 mph, 67 kn) flaps up
115 km/h (71 mph; 62 kn) flaps down
  • Maximum flap extension speed: 218 km/h (135 mph; 118 kn)
  • Maximum undercarriage extension speed: 256 km/h (159 mph; 138 kn)
  • Approach speed over 15 m (49 ft) obstacle: 148 km/h (92 mph; 80 kn)
  • Landing speed: 120 km/h (75 mph; 65 kn)
  • Never exceed speed: 446 km/h (277 mph, 241 kn)
  • Range: 1,093 km (679 mi, 590 nmi) 75% power at 2,440 m (8,005 ft) (45 minutes reserve)
1,204 km (748 mi; 650 nmi) 55% power at 3,660 m (12,008 ft) (45 minutes reserve)
1,260 km (780 mi; 680 nmi) 75% power at 3,660 m (12,008 ft) (no reserve)
1,362 km (846 mi; 735 nmi) 55% power at 3,660 m (12,008 ft) (no reserve)
  • Endurance: 75% power at sea level 4 hours 24 minutes
55% power at sea level 5 hours 36 minutes
  • Service ceiling: 5,840 m (19,160 ft)
  • Absolute ceiling: 6,250 m (20,505 ft)
  • g limits: +6 -3
  • Rate of climb: 7.75 m/s (1,526 ft/min)
  • Time to altitude: 1,830 m (6,004 ft) in 4 minutes 42 seconds
3,050 m (10,007 ft) in 8 minutes 48 seconds
  • Wing loading: 97.73 kg/m2 (20.02 lb/sq ft)
  • Power/mass: 0.167 kW/kg (0.102 hp/lb)
  • Take-off run: 287 m (942 ft)
  • Take-off distance to 15 m (49 ft): 494 m (1,621 ft)
  • Landing run: 238 m (781 ft)
  • Landing distance from 15 m (49 ft): 509 m (1,670 ft)

Avionics

  • 2x Collins VHF
  • CollinsV1R VOR
  • Collins ADF-650A
  • Collins TOR-950 IFF
  • King KTR 908 with 2X King KFS 598A control units
  • 2x King KMA 244 audio panels
  • 2x King KR 87 ADF
  • (Blind-flying instruments with full IFR capability in T-35B)

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Green 1988, pp. 98-9
  2. ^ a b Endres, Gunther; Gething, Mike (2002). Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide. Glasgow, UK: HarperCollinsPublishers. p. 392. ISBN 0-00-713721-4.
  3. ^ John R. Bawden,"Cutting Off the Dictator: the United States Arms Embargo of the Pinochet Regime, 1974-1988," Journal of Latin American Studies, 45:3 (August 2013): 513-43.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Peperell 1987, p. 159
  5. ^ a b c Lambert 1990, p. 30
  6. ^ a b Jackson 2003, p. 71
  7. ^ Jackson 2003, p. 72
  8. ^ Hoyle 2017, p. 36
  9. ^ a b c Hoyle 2017, p. 38
  10. ^ Hoyle 2017, p. 41
  11. ^ a b Hoyle 2017, p. 48
  12. ^ Hoyle 2017, p. 51
  13. ^ Taylor, John W.R., ed. (1988). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1988-89 (79th ed.). London: Jane's Information Group. pp. 32-33. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.

References

  • "Hecho En Chile...An Innocuous Devil". Air International. Vol. 28 no. 4. April 1985. pp. 170-175, 208-209.
  • Hoyle, Craig (5-11 December 2017). "World Air Force Directory". Flight International. Vol. 192 no. 5615. pp. 26-57. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Jackson, Paul, ed. (2003). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2003-2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
  • Lambert, Mark, ed. (1990). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1990-91. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data. ISBN 0-7106-0908-6.
  • Peperell, Roger W; Smith, Colin M (1987). Piper Aircraft and their forerunners. Tonbridge, Kent, England: Air-Britain. ISBN 0-85130-149-5.
  • Green, William (1988). Observer's book of aircraft (1988 ed.). London: Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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