Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales
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Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales
Edward of Middleham
Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester,
Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Salisbury
Rous Roll - Edward, Prince of Wales.jpg
Illustration from the contemporary Rous Roll in the Heralds' College
BornDecember 1473
Middleham, Wensleydale
Died9 April 1484 (aged 10)
Middleham, Wensleydale
Burialafter 9 April 1484
Full name
English: Edward of Middleham
Welsh: Edward o Middleham
HouseYork
FatherRichard III of England
MotherAnne Neville
ReligionRoman Catholic

Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, 1st Earl of Salisbury (December 1473 – 9 April 1484), was the heir apparent of King Richard III of England and his wife, Anne Neville. He was Richard's only legitimate child and died aged ten.[1]

Birth and titles

Edward was allegedly born in December 1473[2] at Middleham Castle, a stronghold close to York that became Richard and Anne's principal base in northern England.[3] The date of 1473 is, however, not universally accepted; Professor Charles Ross wrote that the date 1473 "lacks authority. In fact, he was probably not born until 1476."[4] The act of Parliament that settled the dispute between George of Clarence and Richard over Anne Beauchamp's inheritance just as if the Countess of Warwick "was naturally dead" was dated May 1474.[5] The doubts cast by Clarence on the validity of Richard and Anne's marriage were addressed by a clause protecting their rights in the event they were divorced (i.e. of their marriage being declared null and void by the Church) and then legally remarried to each other, and also protected Richard's rights while waiting for such a valid second marriage with Anne.[6] There were no provisions, however, for their heirs in case of this said divorce, which seems to confirm Richard and Anne had no children as of 1474. However, such provision was the provence of the ruling king for those of royal blood, so would have been moot.

Edward was mostly kept at Middleham, and was known to be a sickly child.[7]

In 1478, Edward was granted the title of Earl of Salisbury, previously held by the attainted George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence. The title became extinct on his death.[8] His father became King of England on 26 June 1483, deposing his nephew Edward V. Edward did not attend his parents' coronation, likely due to illness.[3] He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in a splendid ceremony in York Minster on 8 September 1483, following his parents' royal progress across England.[9]

Death

The reasons for his sudden death are unknown. The Croyland Chronicle reads:

Edward's sudden death left Richard without a legitimate child and heir.[11] Contemporary historian John Rous recorded that Richard declared his nephew Edward, Earl of Warwick, his heir in his place, but there is no other evidence of this.[12] Similarly, John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln also seemed to have been designated as Richard's new heir, but was never publicly proclaimed as such.[13]

Richard's enemies were inclined to believe that Edward's sudden death was divine retribution for Richard's alleged involvement in the usurpation and subsequent disappearance of the sons of Edward IV, Edward V of England and Richard, Duke of York.

Burial

Cenotaph at Sheriff Hutton Church long believed to represent Edward of Middleham, but now thought to be an earlier work

The location of Edward's burial is unknown. A mutilated white alabaster cenotaph ("empty tomb")[14] in the church at Sheriff Hutton, with an effigy of a child, was long believed to represent Edward of Middleham, but is now thought to be an earlier work depicting one of the Neville family.[15]

It is perhaps most probable that Edward, having died in Middleham Castle, was buried in the nearby parish church of Saints Mary and Alkelda in Middleham, where his father had intended to found a college. However, evidence for this suggestion is lacking.

In fiction

Edward of Middleham appeared in Sharon Penman's The Sunne in Splendour and in Sandra Worth's The Rose of York series. In the latter series, it is implied that Edward was poisoned at the behest of Margaret Beaufort, as part of her efforts to secure the throne for her son, the eventual Henry VII.

Edward of Middleham is a character in Joan Szechtman's Loyalty Binds Me, her second book about Richard III in the 21st century.

Edward of Middleham also appears in Phillipa Gregory's Cousins' War series, and in the TV adaptation of the novels, The White Queen.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles

  • 15 February 1478 onwards:[2] The Earl of Salisbury
  • 26 June 1483 onwards:[2] The Duke of Cornwall
  • 19 July 1483 onwards:[16]Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
  • 24 August 1483 onwards:[2] The Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester

Arms

From 1483 to 1484, Edward used the arms of his father, debruised with a label of three points Argent.

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ "Official Website of the British Monarchy". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d "- Person Page 10163". thepeerage.com.
  3. ^ a b Panton, p. 162-163
  4. ^ Ross, Charles. Richard III (Univ. of California Press, 1981) ISBN 0-520-04589-0, p. 29, n22, citing P. W. Hammond Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales (1973) pgs. 12, 35-6, and also T. B. Pugh, Glamorgan County History III (1971) p 687.
  5. ^ Ross, C.D., Richard III, St. Ives 1981, p.30
  6. ^ C. Given-Wilson [ed.], Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, Edward IV - October 1472 - 2nd roll
  7. ^ "Princes of Wales". englishmonarchs.co.uk.
  8. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Salisbury, Earls of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 72.
  9. ^ Kendall P.M., Richard III, 1955.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Edward of Middleham at Find a Grave
  12. ^ Pierce, Hazel, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury 1473-1541 (University of Wales Press, 2009), p. 9.
  13. ^ Wagner, John, Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses, ABC-CLIO, 2001, p. 211-212.
  14. ^ "Richard III". englishmonarchs.co.uk.
  15. ^ Routh P. and Knowles R. (1982). The Sheriff Hutton Alabaster Reconsidered. Wakefield Historical Publications.
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

Bibliography

Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Born: December 1473 Died: 9 April 1484
English royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Edward of the Sanctuary
Prince of Wales
24 August 1483 – 9 April 1484
Vacant
Title next held by
Arthur Tudor
Peerage of England
Vacant
Title last held by
Edward of the Sanctuary
Duke of Cornwall
26 June 1483 – 9 April 1484
Vacant
Title next held by
Arthur Tudor
Earl of Chester
24 August 1483 – 9 April 1484
Political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
The Duke of Bedford
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
19 July 1483 – 9 April 1484
Vacant
Title next held by
The Marquess Cornwallis


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