Elections in Bulgaria
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Elections in Bulgaria

Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term directly by the people. The National Assembly (Narodno Sabranie) has 240 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 4% threshold. Bulgaria has a multi-party system, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each to form governments.

Parliamentary elections

Parliamentary elections have been held in Bulgaria since 1879. There was a period when partisan politics was banned from 1934 to 1944; in the wake of the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1934 and the sequential personal rule of Tsar Boris III. There was also period of single party system between 1945 and 1989, during the People's Republic of Bulgaria, during which only candidates sanctioned by authorities could run. This, in practice, gave the Bulgarian Communist Party and its collaborators a monopoly on power.

Until 1945 there was no universal suffrage for the women. The table below show the elections since 1990, when the government became a democratic republic.

All elections since 1990 have had 240 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 4% threshold. The two elections that differed from this model was the 1990 Grand National Assembly election, where 400 representatives were elected: half by proportional representation and half by first-past-the-post voting. The other exception was the 2009 election when 209 representatives were elected by proportional representation and 31 through first past the post; seats corresponding to the provinces and the largest cities.

Recent elections

2017 Bulgarian National Assembly composition chart.svg
Party Votes % Swing Seats +/-
GERB 1,147,292 32.65 -0.0 95 +11
BSP for Bulgaria 955,490 27.19 +11.8 80 +41
United Patriots 318,513 9.07 +4.3 27 -3
Movement for Rights and Freedoms 315,976 8.99 -5.9 26 -12
Volya 145,637 4.15 New 12 New
Reformist Bloc 107,407 3.06 -5.8 0 -23
Yes, Bulgaria! 101,177 2.88 New 0 New
Association DOST 100,479 2.86 New 0 New
New Republic 86,984 2.48 New 0 New
ABV-Movement 21 54,412 1.55 -2.6 0 -11
Revival 37,896 1.08 New 0 New
Party of the Greens 10,159 0.29 -0.3 0 0
Bulgarian Spring 9,232 0.26 New 0 New
Forward Bulgaria Movement 6,644 0.19 New 0 New
Coalition of the Dissatisfied 5,945 0.17 New 0 New
Movement for an Equal Public Model 4,989 0.14 New 0 New
Bulgarian National Association 3,921 0.11 New 0 New
Bulgarian Democratic Center 3,130 0.09 New 0 New
WHO-BL-ZP 2,916 0.08 0 0
National Republican Party 2,325 0.07 New 0 New
Independents 5,116 0.15 0 0
None of the above 87,850 2.50 - - -
Invalid/blank votes 169,009 - - - -
Total 3,682,499 100 - 240 0
Registered voters/turnout 6,838,235 53.85 +2.80 - -
Source: CIK

Presidential election

Presidential elections have been held since 1992. From 1996 onwards, presidential elections have been held every five years.

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Rumen Radev Independent 973,754 25.44 2,063,032 59.37
Tsetska Tsacheva GERB 840,635 21.96 1,256,485 36.16
Krasimir Karakachanov United Patriots 573,016 14.97
Veselin Mareshki Independent 427,660 11.17
Plamen Oresharski Independent 253,726 6.63
Traycho Traykov Reformist Bloc 224,734 5.87
Ivailo Kalfin Alternative for Bulgarian Revival 125,531 3.28
Tatyana Doncheva Movement 21-NDSV 69,372 1.81
George Ganchev Christian Social Union 27,928 0.73
Velizar Enchev Movement for Radical Change Bulgarian Spring 18,213 0.48
Dimitar Marinov Bulgarian National Unification 14,974 0.39
Rumen Galabinov Independent 10,286 0.27
Plamen Paskov Independent 10,103 0.26
Aleksandar Tomov Bulgarian Socialdemocratic-Euroleft 9,513 0.25
Gospodin Tonev Bulgarian Democratic Community 6,855 0.18
Kemil Ramadan Balkanic Democratic League 6,089 0.16
Kamen Popov Independent 5,212 0.14
Diana Dimitrova Independent 4,362 0.11
Nikolay Banev Independent 4,196 0.11
Yordanka Koleva Independent 4,182 0.11
Biser Milanov Independent 3,215 0.08
None of the above 214,094 5.59 155,411 4.47
Invalid/blank votes 119,925 - 66,036 -
Total 3,947,575 100 3,540,964 100
Registered voters/turnout 7,014,723 56.28 7,020,119 50.44
Source: Electoral Commission of Bulgaria

European Parliament elections

Referendums

Four nationwide referendums have been held in Bulgaria since it gained its De Facto independence in 1878:

  • On 19 November 1922 the question was if criminals from the three previous wars were to be prosecuted;[1]
  • On 8 September 1946 the question was if Bulgaria was to remain a monarchy to become a republic;[2]
  • On 16 May 1971 the nation's approval of a new constitution was asked;[3]
  • On 27 January 2013 the question was if Bulgaria should develop its nuclear power by building a new nuclear power plant.[4][5]
  • On 25 October 2015 the question was if Bulgaria should introduce electronic voting.
  • On 6 November 2016 voters were asked three questions. The questions were: Whether they supported limiting public funding of political parties; the introduction of compulsory voting in elections and referendums; and changing the electoral system for the National Assembly to the two-round system.

Several regional referendums have been held as well.

Local elections

See also

References

  1. ^ Bulgarien, 19. November 1922 : Anklage gegen Kriegsverbrecher Direct Democracy
  2. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p368 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p368
  4. ^ Q&A: Bulgaria's nuclear energy referendum BBC News, 25 January 2013
  5. ^ Bulgarians vote in referendum on nuclear energy Deutsche Welle

External links


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