Emperor %C5%8Cjin
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Emperor %C5%8Cjin
?jin
Emperor ?jin.jpg
Emperor of Japan
Reign270-310 (traditional)[1]
PredecessorCh?ai
SuccessorNintoku
Born200 (traditional)
Umi (Fukuoka)
Died310 (traditional)
Karushima no Toyoakira (Nara)
BurialEega no Mofushi no oka no misasagi (Osaka)
SpouseEmpress Nakatsuhime
(among others)
IssueSee below
HouseYamato
FatherEmperor Ch?ai
MotherEmpress Jing?

Emperor ?jin (?, ?jin-tenn?), also known as Homutawake or Hondawake (), was the 15th emperor of Japan,[2] according to the traditional order of succession.[3]

No firm dates can be assigned to this emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 270 to 310.[4]

Legendary narrative

?jin is regarded by historians as a "legendary emperor" of the 5th century.[5] The reign of Emperor Kinmei (c. 509 - 571 AD), the 29th emperor,[6] is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates;[7] however, the conventionally accepted names and dates of the early emperors were not to be confirmed as "traditional" until the reign of Emperor Kanmu (737-806), the 50th sovereign of the Yamato dynasty.[8]

The name ?jin Tenn? was assigned to him posthumously by later generations. ?jin is also identified by some as the earliest "historical" emperor.[9]

According to the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki, ?jin was the son of the Emperor Ch?ai and his consort Jing?. As Ch?ai died before ?jin's birth, his mother Jing? became the de facto ruler. The history book written to the 8th century, alleged that the boy ?jin was conceived but unborn when Ch?ai died. His widow, Jing?, then spent three years in conquest of a promised land, which is conjectured to be Korea, but the story is largely dismissed by scholars for lack of evidence. Then, after her return to Japanese islands, the boy was born, three years after the death of the father.

Either a period of less than nine months contained three "years" (some seasons), e.g. three harvests, or the paternity is just mythical and symbolic, rather than real. ?jin was born (in 200 according to the traditional, but untrustworthy TC date, timetable; realistically sometime in the late 4th century)[] in Tsukushi Province upon the return of his mother from the invasion of the promised land, and was named Prince Hondawake. He became the crown prince at the age of four. He was crowned (in 270) at the age of 70 and reigned for 40 years until his death in 310, although none of the TC dates around his reign have any historical basis. He supposedly lived in two palaces, both of which are in present-day Osaka.

?jin was traditionally identified as the father of Emperor Nintoku, who acceded after ?jin's death.[10] ?jin has been deified as Hachiman Daimy?jin, regarded as the guardian of warriors. The Hata clan considered him their guardian Kami.

Memorial Shinto shrine and mausoleum honoring Emperor ?jin.

The actual site of ?jin's grave is not known.[2] This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine (misasagi) at Osaka.

The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as ?jin's mausoleum. It is formally named Eega no Mofushi no oka no misasagi.[11]

Consorts and children

Empress: Nakatsuhime (), daughter of Homudamawaka ()

  • Princess Arata (?)
  • Prince ?osazaki (?), or Emperor Nintoku
  • Prince Netori (?), ancestor of ?ta no Kimi ()

Takakiirihime (), older sister of Nakatsuhime

  • Prince Nukata no ?nakatsuhiko (?)
  • Prince ?yamamori (), ancestor of Hijikata no Kimi () and Haibara no Kimi ()
  • Prince Izanomawaka (), ancestor of Fukakawawake ()
  • Princess ?hara (?)
  • Princess Komukuta ()

Otohime (), younger sister of Nakatsuhime

  • Princess Ahe (?)
  • Princess Awaji no Mihara (), wife of Prince Netori
  • Princess Ki no Uno ()
  • Princess Shigehara (?)
  • Princess Mino no Iratsume (?)

Miyanushiyakahime (?), daughter of Wani no Hifure no Omi ()

  • Prince Uji no Wakiiratsuko (?), Crown Prince
  • Princess Yata (?), wife of Emperor Nintoku
  • Princess Metori (?), wife of Prince Hayabusawake[12][13]

Onabehime (), younger sister of Miyanushiyakahime

Okinaga mawakanakatsuhime (?), daughter of Kawamatanakatsuhiko (?)

  • Prince Wakanuke no futamata (?), ancestor of Okinaga clan (). great-grandfather of Emperor Keitai

Itohime (), daughter of Sakuraitabe no Muraji Shimatarine ()

  • Prince Hayabusawake (), husband of Princess Metori[12][13]

Himuka no Izumi no nagahime ()

  • Prince ?hae ()
  • Prince ohae ()
  • Princess Hatabi no Wakairatsume (), wife of Emperor Rich?

Kagurohime (), daughter of Sumeiro ?nakahiko (?)

  • Princess Kawarata no iratsume ()
  • Princess Tama no iratsume ()
  • Prince Kataji (?)

Katsuragi no Irome (), daughter of Takenouchi no Sukune ?

  • Prince Izanomawaka ? (? -  ?)

Ehime (), younger sister of Kibi no Mimotowake ()

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Genealogy of the Emperors of Japan" at Kunaicho.go.jp; retrieved 2013-8-28.
  2. ^ a b Imperial Household Agency (Kunaich?): ? (15); retrieved 2013-8-26.
  3. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 19-22; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukansh?, p. 255-256; Varley, Paul. (1980). Jinn? Sh?t?ki, pp. 103-110.
  4. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 36.
  5. ^ Kelly, Charles F. "Kofun Culture," Japanese Archaeology. 27 April 2009.
  6. ^ Titsingh, pp. 34-36; Brown, pp. 261-262; Varley, pp. 123-124.
  7. ^ Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese emperor was Jinmu. Along with the next 13 emperors, Jinmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kinmei.
  8. ^ Aston, William. (1896). Nihongi, pp. 109.
  9. ^ Wakabayashi, Tadashi. (1995) Japanese loyalism reconstrued, p. 108., p. 108, at Google Books
  10. ^ Aston, William George. (1998). Nihongi, p. 254-271.
  11. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 419.
  12. ^ a b From "?" in Asashi Nihon rekishi jinbutsu jiten (?): "Metori no miko" (in Japanese). Kotobank. Retrieved .
  13. ^ a b From "? (Prince Hayabusawake and Princess Metori)" in vol2, Heibonsha ''World Encyclopedia'': "Hayabusawake-miko, Metori no miko" (in Japanese). Kotobank. Retrieved .

References

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Ch?ai
Emperor of Japan:
?jin

270-310
(traditional dates)
Succeeded by
Emperor Nintoku

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