Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System
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Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System

The Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System (Indonesian: Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan, abbreviated EYD), also called the Perfected Spelling System (PSS), is the spelling system used for the Indonesian language. It is an orthography that was released in 1972 to replace the Republican Spelling System (RSS, also called the Soewandi Spelling System, SSS).[clarification needed] The aim was greater harmonization of the Indonesian and Malay-language orthographies.

The adoption of the new EYD system, to begin on the 25th anniversary of Indonesia's independence on 17 August 1972, was announced by President Soeharto on 16 August 1972.[1] Government departments were instructed to begin using the EYD system on 1 January 1973. In October 1972, the Indonesian Department of Education and Culture (Department Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan) published Pedoman Buku Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia Yang Disempurnakan [A Guide to Improved Indonesian] which provided a detailed explanation of the changes proposed in the new system. In 2000 a revised guide to the EYD was published as Pedoman Umum Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia Yang Disempurnakan [General Guide to Improved Indonesian].


Republican-to-EYD letter changes

Changes Republican EYD English meaning
: tj becomes c tjuma, katjang cuma, kacang only, peanuts
: dj becomes j djual, edjaan jual, ejaan sell, spelling
: j becomes y ajam, pajung ayam, payung chicken, umbrella
: nj becomes ny njonja, banjak nyonya, banyak madam, many
: sj becomes sy sjair, masjarakat syair, masyarakat poem, people
: ch becomes kh tarich, achir tarikh, akhir era, end

Foreign loan letters

Letters that have previously been included in the Republican Spelling as foreign loan letters are officially used in the EYD Spelling.[2]

Letters Example English meaning
f maaf, fakir (I am) sorry, poor
v valuta, universitas currency, university
z zeni, lezat engineer, delicious

Q and X

The letters "q" and "x" are still only used in scientific subjects.[2]


  • a:b=p:q
  • Sinar-X (X-ray)

Affixes and prepositions

The writing of di- and ke- (affixes) can be distinguished from di and ke (prepositions), where di- and ke- is written together with the words that follow it, for example diambil, kehendak (is being taken, desire), while di and ke is written separately with the words that follow it, for example di rumah, ke pasar (at home, to the market). This is different from the former Republican Spelling, where both di- and di are written together with the words following it.[2]


Reduplication, mostly used in plural form of words, has to be fully written with letters, so the use of the number "2" as used in the Republican Spelling is no longer valid.[2] (The practice remains common in informal usage such as in text messaging.)

Republican EYD English meaning
anak2 anak-anak children
ber-main2 bermain-main to play around
ke-barat2-an kebarat-baratan westernized


  1. ^ Presidential Decision No 57 of 1972, Jakarta, 1972.
  2. ^ a b c d Tasai, S Amran and E. Zaenal Arifin (2000). Cermat Berbahasa Indonesia: Untuk Perguruan Tinggi.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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