The city was named after Euclid, the Greek mathematician. The city was settled in 1796 and became a township in 1809. Euclid then became a village in 1903 and a city in 1930, during the Great Depression.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.48 square miles (29.73 km2), of which 10.63 square miles (27.53 km2) is land and 0.85 square miles (2.20 km2) is water. It is on the shore of Lake Erie, therefore contains an area of beach front along its north edge.
As of the census of 2010, there were 48,920 people, 22,685 households, and 12,187 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,602.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,776.9/km2). There were 26,037 housing units at an average density of 2,449.4 per square mile (945.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 43.8% White, 52.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population.
There were 22,685 households of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.4% were married couples living together, 20.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.3% were non-families. 41.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.91.
The median age in the city was 61 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 7.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.3% were from 25 to 44; 28.9% were from 45 to 64; and 15.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 44.8% male and 55.2% female.
There were 24,353 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.3% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.6% were non-families. 39.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.89.
In the city, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,151, and the median income for a family was $45,278. Males had a median income of $35,914 versus $28,528 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,664. About 7.1% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over.
Euclid is the site of the 1926 case Euclid v. Ambler. The case opened the doors for municipalities across the United States to establish zoning ordinances.
Euclid is the home of Euclid High School, one of 5 schools in Ohio to split its school up via the Knowledgeworks Foundation grant. However, the program ended in 2009 due to low test score improvement and rising costs.
Euclid was home to two government owned housing projects, East 200th Street and Briardale. Both were torn down due to the federal government's failure to maintain the properties. Briardale now serves as the Municipal Golf Course, called Briardale Greens.
Euclid was the home to northern Ohio's first commercial UHF television station in 1968, WKBF Channel 61, then a Kaiser owned station located on St.Clair Avenue.
Euclid was the original location to the corporate headquarters of Reliance Electric, Thompson Products (TRW), and Addressograph-Multigraph.
In June 2011, Lincoln Electric installed a 2.5 Megawatt wind turbine. At 443 feet, it is the largest in Ohio and one of the largest in North America.
Home to the famed Euclid Road Machinery Company, a branch of Euclid Crane and Hoist Company. Founded by George A. Armington and his 5 sons. Taken over by General Motors, before the United States determined it to be a monopoly. In its time, it was one of the most valuable companies in Euclid and the name was known worldwide, among the earth moving and heavy equipment community.
As of October, 2001, Euclid is once again home to Guinness World Record Holder Perry R. Prine who on March 27, 1998 broke the Guinness Record for most bullseyes thrown (with darts) in a 10-hour period. He hit 1,432. He again broke yet another Guinness World Record with his tournament partner, Kevin Moncrief (Willowick, Ohio) on February 23, 2013 for highest score on the bulls-eye and 25's (darts) within a 2-minute period. Perry first resided in Euclid between 1979-1986.
Major east-west thoroughfares include Lake Shore Blvd. (SR 283), Lakeland Freeway (I-90/SR2), St. Clair Avenue, Euclid Avenue (US 20), and Chardon Road (US 6). North-south routes include East 185th Street (aka "Old World Plaza"), East 200, East 222, Babbitt Road, East 260th/Richmond Road (SR 175), Highland Road and Lloyd Road.
GCRTA bus routes serving Euclid include the #39 (Lakeshore), #239 (Euclid Park & Ride), #1 (St. Clair), #28 (Euclid Avenue), #37 (E. 185 / Taylor), #34 (E. 200 / Green), and #94 (E. 260/Richmond). Several of these routes were originally operated by the now-defunct Euclid Transit System, whose operations merged with the GCRTA during the late 1970s.
Euclid is home to a variety of ethnic groups. One of the largest is the city's historic Slovene population. There are a number of streets in Euclid that commemorate the Slovenian influence on Euclid, including Recher, Mavec, Drenik, Grdina, Trebec, Mozina, Kapel, and Ljubljana. Today, Euclid's largest ethnic population is African American, while also containing sizeable populations of Croats, Irish and Italian communities.
Amy Stoch, actress and academic, reached semifinals of spokesmodel category on television's Star Search, appeared in Bill & Ted's Bogus Journey (1991), Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure (1989) and Days of Our Lives (1965)