European Union Customs Union
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European Union Customs Union

European Union Customs Union
  EU member states (including participating British dependencies which are not part of the EU)   Non-EU states which participate in the customs union, or are in bilateral customs unions with the EU
  EU member states (including participating British dependencies which are not part of the EU)
  Non-EU states which participate in the customs union, or are in bilateral customs unions with the EU
Policy of European Union
TypeCustoms union
Membership
Establishment1958
Area
o Total
5,200,000 km2 (2,000,000 sq mi)
Population
o 2014 estimate
585,000,000
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
o Total
$19.6 trillion
GDP (nominal)2014 estimate
o Total
$19.2 trillion
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politics and government of
the European Union
Flag of Europe.svg European Union portal

The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some dependencies of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU.[a] Some detached territories of EU members do not participate in the customs union, usually as a result of their geographic separation.[b] In addition to the EUCU, the EU is in customs unions with Andorra, San Marino, and Turkey,[c] (with the exceptions of certain goods) through separate bilateral agreements.[2]

The customs union is a principal component of the European Union, since its establishment in 1958 as European Economic Community. There are no tariffs or non-tariff barriers to trade between members of the customs union and – unlike a free trade area – members of the customs union impose a common external tariff on all goods entering the union.[3]

The European Commission negotiates for and on behalf of the Union as a whole in international trade deals (such as that with Canada and many others), rather than each member state negotiating individually. It also represents the Union in the World Trade Organization and any trade disputes mediated through it.

Non-EU participants

Monaco and the British dependencies of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey are integral parts of the EU's customs territory.[2]

State / territory Agreement Entry into force Notes
Monaco Franco-Monegasque Customs Convention[4][5] 1963
in respect of

Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic and the adjustments to the Treaties on which the European Union is founded
Protocol No 3 on the sovereign base areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus[6]
1 May 2004
in respect of

 Guernsey

 Jersey

Documents concerning the accession to the European Communities of the Kingdom of Denmark, Ireland, the Kingdom of Norway and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Protocol No 3 on the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man[7]
1 January 1973

Bilateral customs unions

Andorra, San Marino and Turkey, a candidate for EU membership, are each in a customs union with the EU.[2]

State Agreement Entry into force Notes
Agreement in the form of an Exchange of Letters between the European Economic Community and the Principality of Andorra - Joint Declarations[8] 1 January 1991 Excludes agricultural products
Agreement on Cooperation and Customs Union between the European Economic Community and the Republic of San Marino[9] 16 December 1991
Turkey Decision No 1/95 of the EC-Turkey Association Council of 22 December 1995 on implementing the final phase of the European Union-Turkey Customs Union[10] 31 December 1995 Excludes agricultural products

EU territories with an opt-out

While all EU member states are part of the customs union, not all of their respective territories participate. Territories of member states which have remained outside of the EU (overseas territories of the European Union) generally do not participate in the customs union.[11]

However, four EU member countries have territories that do not participate in the customs union:

The following are not listed in Regulation 952/2013 but may be non-participant for other reasons

Union Customs Code

The Union Customs Code (UCC), intended to modernise customs procedures, entered into force on 1 May 2016.[16] Implementation will take place over a period of time and full implementation is anticipated by 31 December 2020 at the latest.[17] The European Commission has stated that the aims of the UCC are simplicity, service and speed.

Common external tariffs

The EU Customs Union sets the tariff rates for imports to the EU from other countries. These rates are detailed and depend on the specific type of product imported, and can also vary by the time of year.[18] The full WTO Most Favoured Nation tariff rates apply only to those countries that do not have a Free Trade Agreement with the EU, or are not on a WTO recognised exemption scheme such as Everything but Arms (an EU support arrangement for Least Developed Countries).

See also

External links

Footnotes

  1. ^ Akrotiri and Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory; and the British Crown dependencies: Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man.[1]
  2. ^ For example, exclaves of Germany and Italy within Switzerland, some Spanish and Portuguese islands.
  3. ^ See European Union-Turkey Customs Union.

References

  1. ^ FAQ: Customs, Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Customs unions, Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  3. ^ Erskine, Daniel H (2006). "The United States-EC Dispute Over Customs Matters: Trade Facilitation, Customs Unions, and the Meaning of WTO Obligations". Florida Journal of International Law. 18: 432-485.
  4. ^ "Taxation and Customs - FAQ". European Commission. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  5. ^ "Council Regulation (EEC) No 2913/92 of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code". Official Journal of the European Union. 19 October 1992. Retrieved 2012.
  6. ^ "EUR-Lex - 12003T/PRO/03 - Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic and the adjustments to the Treaties on which the European Union is founded - Protocol No 3 on the sovereign base areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on Cyprus". eur-lex.europa.eu.
  7. ^ "EUR-Lex - 11972B/PRO/03 - DOCUMENTS CONCERNING THE ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES OF THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK, IRELAND, THE KINGDOM OF NORWAY AND THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, PROTOCOL NO 3 ON THE CHANNEL ISLANDS AND THE ISLE OF MAN". eur-lex.europa.eu.
  8. ^ "Andorra : Customs Unions and preferential arrangements". European Commission. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ "Agreement on Cooperation and Customs Union between the European Economic Community and the Republic of San Marino".
  10. ^ "Decision No 1/95 of the EC-Turkey Association Council of 22 December 1995 on implementing the final phase of the Customs Union" (PDF).
  11. ^ a b c Territorial status of EU countries and certain territories – European Commission, retrieved 18 December 2018
  12. ^ a b c d Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC, 28 November 2006
  13. ^ a b c d "REGULATION (EU) No 952/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 9 October 2013 laying down the Union Customs Code, Article 4" (PDF). EURLEX. October 2013. p. 11. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (Annex II)". European Commission. p. 336. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ Article 28 of the Act concerning the conditions of Accession and the Adjustments to the Treaties, 22 January 1972
  16. ^ "Union Customs Code - Taxation and customs union - European Commission". Taxation and customs union.
  17. ^ UCC: an Introduction, accessed 29 January 2017
  18. ^ Taric and Quota Data & Information  – European Commission Communication and Information Resource Centre for Administrations, Businesses and Citizens.

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