|Full name||Football Club Twente|
Pride of the East
|Founded||1 July 1965|
|Ground||De Grolsch Veste|
|Head coach||Gonzalo García|
|2018-19||Eerste Divisie, 1st of 20 (promoted)|
Football Club Twente (Dutch pronunciation: [?f'se: 'tnt?]) is a Dutch professional football club from the city of Enschede. In 2018-19, it competed in and won the Eerste Divisie. The club was formed in 1965 by the merger of 1926 Dutch champions, Sportclub Enschede and Enschedese Boys. They were the holders of the 2011 KNVB Cup and Johan Cruijff Schaal trophies, and were Eredivisie champions in the 2009-10 season; the team has also finished as Eredivisie runner-up twice, was runner-up in the 1974-75 UEFA Cup, and has won the KNVB Cup three times. Twente's home ground since 1998 is De Grolsch Veste.
The club was formed in 1965 as a merger of two professional clubs, Sportclub Enschede and the Enschedese Boys. One of such predecessors, SC Enschede, had also won a single Dutch championship in 1926.
The first successes of the club started just after the merger of 1965, under the innovative coach Kees Rijvers. Twente finished third in 1969, fourth in 1970, fifth in 1971, third in 1972 and again in 1973. The team's key figures were local heroes, such as Epi Drost, Eddy Achterberg, Kick van der Vall and Theo Pahlplatz. Their finest Eredivisie season was 1973-74, in which Twente battled for the Dutch championship with Feyenoord. A head-to-head confrontation in the very last game of the season, in Rotterdam, where Feyenoord prevailed 3-2, sealed Twente's fate in second. Nonetheless, this earned the side a position in the UEFA Cup.
The Tukkers (as people from the Dutch region of Twente are generally called) nearly made the very most out of that UEFA Cup ticket--after beating Juventus in the semi-finals, Twente lost to German side Borussia Mönchengladbach in the finals (0-0, 1-5).
After enjoying some success in the 1970s, prospects went downhill for Twente, with the club ultimately suffering relegation to the Eerste Divisie, the Dutch second division, in 1983. However, Twente returned to the top flight a year later, but the club soon became known for their "impressive" amount of 1-1 and 0-0 draws. This new reputation as "boring Twente" overshadowed the fact that the club kept qualifying for European football on a fairly regular basis, with five times since 1985.
Re-establishment then followed in the 1990s: German coach Hans Meyer led Twente to third-place in the Eredivisie of 1997 and into the third round of the 1997-98 UEFA Cup the next season. On 24 May 2001, Twente clinched their second triumph in the KNVB Cup after beating PSV in the final after being 3-1 down in the penalty shoot-out. The season after, Twente crashed out of the Cup at hand of Ajax's second team. Additionally, results in the league were poor, with hardcore Twente fans Ultras Vak-P eventually going on a rampage at the club's brand-new stadium out of frustration.
The club's mother corporation (FC Twente '65) was declared bankrupt in the 2002-03 season, almost leading to the end of the club's existence. The club, now chaired by ambitious businessman Joop Munsterman, survived such problems and made it to another KNVB Cup final in 2004, and then finished in fourth place in the league table in 2006-07. In the 2007-08 season, Twente placed fourth and won the play-offs for a ticket to the Champions League qualifiers by defeating Ajax in the play-off finals.
In the 2008-09 season, Twente hired former England manager Steve McClaren as its new head coach. Under his tenure, unseeded Twente entered the draw for the third qualifying round of the Champions League, being drawn against seeded Arsenal. The two legs were played at home on 13 August and away on 27 August 2008. Twente lost 6-0 on aggregate, resulting in their elimination from the Champions League and subsequent entry of the 2008-09 UEFA Cup first round. At the domestic level, Twente finished second in the Eredivisie, 11 points behind champions AZ, and again secured entry to the Champions League qualifying rounds as Dutch runners-up, as well as KNVB Cup finalists (defeated by Heerenveen).
The 2009-10 season started with Twente being knocked out of the 2009-10 UEFA Champions League third qualifying round after a 1-1 aggregate draw against Sporting CP, which sent the Portuguese side through on away goals. The club was then admitted to the Europa League, where it enjoyed a relatively successful path that ended in a 4-2 aggregate defeat at the hands of Werder Bremen in the round of 32. At the domestic level, Twente won its first Eredivisie title at the end of a campaign in which they lost just twice, winning 16 of 17 at home. The championship was confirmed on the final day of the season when they beat NAC 2-0 away, making Steve McClaren the first Englishman to guide a Dutch team to a national title since Bobby Robson in 1992. The victory qualified Twente for the 2010-11 UEFA Champions League group stage, the club's first appearance in the competition. At the end of the season, McClaren resigned as the manager, moving to German side VfL Wolfsburg, and was replaced by the Belgian Michel Preud'homme. Twente continued their success by having a good run during the 2010-11 KNVB Cup, reaching the final on 8 May 2011 at De Kuip. Twente recovered from 2-0 down to defeat Ajax 3-2 in extra time with a winner from Marc Janko, which claimed the club's third KNVB Cup title. One week later, the two teams faced each other in Amsterdam in the final round of matches in the Eredivisie, with Twente leading by a point. However, Ajax gained revenge for the Cup defeat by winning 3-1 to claim their first title in seven years.
The start of the 2011-12 season, under Preud'homme's successor Co Adriaanse, featured another clash between the duo in the Amsterdam Arena, this time with Twente winning 2-1 in their second successive Johan Cruijff Shield supercup victory.
During the 2014-15 Eredivisie season, Twente found themselves in financial trouble again, forcing the Royal Dutch Football Association (KNVB) to deduct the club three points from the side in March 2015. Club President Munsterman, who had announced to leave the club at the end of the season, then already quit the club on 1 April 2015 over allegations of financial mismanagement. The team fired 18 employees and stopped with their scouting department after they received a second three-point penalty in April 2015. They also decided to withdraw Jong Twente from the Eerste Divisie for the 2015-16 season and the women's professional team was relocated in a separate foundation. On 18 May 2016 the KNVB declared its intent to relegate FC Twente to the Eerste Divisie. This was however still subject to appeal by FC Twente and on 17 June 2016 the KNVB appeal committee decided that Twente can remain in the Eredivisie. At the end of the 2017-18 Eredivisie season, Twente relegated to the Eerste Divise by finishing at the bottom of the table at the end of the season, after having fired two managers that season. The 2018-19 Eerste Divisie season was the first outside of the top flight for 34 years.
The following clubs are affiliated with Twente:
De Grolsch Veste, formerly named Arke Stadion, is the official stadium of FC Twente and is owned by the club. It is located at the Business & Science Park, near the University of Twente and between the city centers of Enschede and Hengelo. It has a spectator capacity of 30,205 with a standard pitch heating system and has a promenade instead of fences around the stands.
De Grolsch Veste replaced the old Diekman Stadion as Twente's home ground on 22 March 1998. Initially, plans had been afoot to expand and renovate the old and now demolished Diekman stadium. However, with a growing fan capacity and with arguments that the location of the Diekman stadium was not strategic enough, the idea was conceived to build a new arena for the Twente fans. The Diekman ground also faced problems with its seating plans as a result of the FIFA regulations, which impose a requirement to construct a seating stand behind each goal.
The cost of the construction is estimated to be around 33 million guilders, and the stadium took 14 months to complete, with its foundation stone having been laid on 31 January 1997. Due to the tight budget available, the layout of the stadium was constructed so that future expansions are possible without the necessity to tear down entire existing stands.
Initially, the Grolsch Veste had a capacity of 13,500 spectators, which was later reduced to 13,250. As of the start of the 2008-09 season, the stadium has been expanded with a partial second ring increasing the capacity to 24,000 seats. After a second expansion, completed in 2011, the current capacity became 30,205.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Below is a table with Twente's domestic results since the introduction of the Eredivisie in 1956.
|Domestic results since 1956|
|Domestic league||League result||Qualification to||KNVB Cup season||Cup result|
|2018-19 Eerste Divisie||1st||Eredivisie (promotion)||2018-19||quarter-final|
|2017-18 Eredivisie||18th (relegation)||-||2017-18||semi-final|
|2016-17 Eredivisie||7th||-||2016-17||second round|
|2015-16 Eredivisie||13th||-||2015-16||second round|
|2013-14 Eredivisie||3rd||Europa League (Q4)||2013-14||second round|
|2012-13 Eredivisie||6th||- (losing EL play-offs)||2012-13||round of 16|
|2011-12 Eredivisie||6th||Europa League (Q1)||2011-12||round of 16|
|2010-11 Eredivisie||2nd||Champions League (Q2)||2010-11||winners|
|2009-10 Eredivisie||1st||Champions League||2009-10||semi-final|
|2008-09 Eredivisie||2nd||Champions League (Q2)||2008-09||final|
|2007-08 Eredivisie||4th||Champions League (winning CL play-offs) (Q3)||2007-08||second round|
|2006-07 Eredivisie||4th||UEFA Cup (after losing CL play-offs)||2006-07||round of 16|
|2005-06 Eredivisie||9th||Intertoto Cup (after losing UC play-offs final)||2005-06||round of 16|
|2004-05 Eredivisie||6th||-||2004-05||round of 16|
|2002-03 Eredivisie||12th||-||2002-03||second round|
|2001-02 Eredivisie||12th||-||2001-02||round of 16|
|2000-01 Eredivisie||11th||UEFA Cup||2000-01||winners|
|1999-2000 Eredivisie||6th||-||1999-2000||second round|
|1998-99 Eredivisie||8th||-||1998-99||round of 16|
|1997-98 Eredivisie||9th||Intertoto Cup||1997-98||4th place|
|1996-97 Eredivisie||3rd||UEFA Cup||1996-97||round of 16|
|1994-95 Eredivisie||5th||-||1994-95||round of 16|
|1993-94 Eredivisie||5th||UEFA Cup||1993-94||round of 16|
|1992-93 Eredivisie||5th||UEFA Cup||1992-93||quarter-final|
|1991-92 Eredivisie||6th||-||1991-92||third round|
|1990-91 Eredivisie||6th||-||1990-91||second round|
|1989-90 Eredivisie||3rd||UEFA Cup||1989-90||round of 16|
|1988-89 Eredivisie||3rd||UEFA Cup||1988-89||round of 16|
|1987-88 Eredivisie||3rd||- (after losing UC play-offs)||1987-88||second round|
|1986-87 Eredivisie||7th||- (after losing UC play-offs)||1986-87||round of 16|
|1985-86 Eredivisie||14th||-||1985-86||second round|
|1984-85 Eredivisie||8th||-||1984-85||round of 16|
|1983-84 Eerste Divisie||2nd||Eredivisie (promotion)||1983-84||quarter-final|
|1982-83 Eredivisie||16th||Eerste Divisie (relegation)||1982-83||round of 16|
|1981-82 Eredivisie||12th||-||1981-82||round of 16|
|1980-81 Eredivisie||6th||-||1980-81||round of 16|
|1979-80 Eredivisie||6th||UEFA Cup||1979-80||round of 16|
|1978-79 Eredivisie||12th||Cup Winners' Cup||1978-79||final|
|1977-78 Eredivisie||4th||UEFA Cup||1977-78||second round|
|1976-77 Eredivisie||9th||Cup Winners' Cup||1976-77||winners|
|1975-76 Eredivisie||4th||-||1975-76||round of 16|
|1973-74 Eredivisie||2nd||UEFA Cup||1973-74||round of 16|
|1972-73 Eredivisie||3rd||UEFA Cup||1972-73||quarter-final|
|1971-72 Eredivisie||3rd||UEFA Cup||1971-72||first round|
|1970-71 Eredivisie||5th||-||1970-71||round of 16|
|1969-70 Eredivisie||4th||Inter-Cities Fairs Cup||1969-70||semi-final|
|1968-69 Eredivisie||3rd||Inter-Cities Fairs Cup||1968-69||round of 16|
|1966-67 Eredivisie||13th||-||1966-67||first round|
|1965-66 Eredivisie||11th||-||1965-66||group stage|
|1964-65 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1964-65 Eerste Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
|1963-64 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1963-64 Eerste Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
|1962-63 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1962-63 Eerste Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
|1961-62 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1961-62 Eerste Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
5th (group B)
|1960-61 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1960-61 Eerste Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
5th (group A)
|1959-60 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1959-60 Tweede Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
2nd (group B)
Eerste Divisie (promotion)
|not held||not held|
|1958-59 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1958-59 Tweede Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
3rd (group B)
|1957-58 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1957-58 Tweede Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
2nd (group B)
|1956-57 Eredivisie (as SC Enschede)
1956-57 Tweede Divisie (as Enschedese Boys)
15th (group A)
The players below had senior international cap(s) for their respective countries. Players whose name is listed in bold represented their countries while playing for FC Twente.
The women's section of Twente was founded in 2007 for the creation of the Eredivisie as new top level league in the Netherlands. Twente played the opening match of the league. After three midfield positions in the first three years, Twente won the championship in 2010-11 and played the UEFA Women's Champions League in 2011-12.