Famennian
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Famennian
System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Carboniferous Mississippian Tournaisian younger
Devonian Upper/
Late
Famennian 358.9 372.2
Frasnian 372.2 382.7
Middle Givetian 382.7 387.7
Eifelian 387.7 393.3
Lower/
Early
Emsian 393.3 407.6
Pragian 407.6 410.8
Lochkovian 410.8 419.2
Silurian Pridoli no faunal stages defined older
Subdivision of the Devonian system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

The Famennian is the latter of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian epoch. It lasted from 372.2 million years ago to 358.9 million years ago. It was preceded by the Frasnian stage and followed by the Tournaisian stage.

It was during this age that tetrapods first appeared. In the seas, a novel major group of ammonoid cephalopods called clymeniids appeared, underwent tremendous diversification and spread worldwide, then just as suddenly went extinct.

The beginning of the Famennian is marked by a major extinction event, the Kellwasser Event, and the end with a smaller but still quite severe extinction event, the Hangenberg Event.

North American subdivisions of the Famennian include the Chautauquan, Canadaway, Conneaut, Conneautan, Conewango and Conewangan.

Name and definition

The Famennian stage was proposed in 1855 by Belgian geologist André Hubert Dumont and was accepted for the upper stage of the Upper Devonian by the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy in 1981.[2] It is named after Famenne, a natural region in southern Belgium.

Famennian life

Vertebrates

Placoderms

Placoderms of the Fammenian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Dinichthys Ohio Shale, Ohio & Louisiana Limestone, Missouri A giant predatory arthrodire placoderm. It was previously used as a wastebasket taxon for many unrelated large arthrodires, including species now assigned to Eastmanosteus, Titanichthys and the similar but not closely related Dunkleosteus.
Dinichthys herzi.jpg
Diplognathus.jpg
Dunkleosteus terrelli - MUSE.jpg
Dunkleosteus intermedius.jpg
Dunkleosteus marsaisi, this species might belong to Eastmanosteus instead.
Gorgonichthys clarki reconstruction.jpg
Groenlandaspis pennsylvanica.JPG
Gymnotrachelus hydei.jpg
Selenosteus brevis.jpg
Stenosteus angustopectis.jpg
Titanichthys agassizi.jpg
Diplognathus Upper Famennian Cleveland Shale, Ohio An arthrodire placoderm of the superfamily Dinichthyloidea.
Dunkleosteus Lost Burro Formation & Ohio Shale, North America
Belgium[3]
Morocco[4]
A dunkleosteid arthrodire with many species, some of them being among the largest placoderms to have existed.
Eastmanosteus licharevi Lipetsk, Russia A poorly known species of dunkleosteid arthrodire in the genus Eastmanosteus.
Gorgonichthys Upper Famennian Cleveland Shale, Ohio A giant yet relatively lightly build arthrodire placoderm of the superfamily Dinichthyloidea. Gorgonichthys clarki is estimated to have reached 6 meters in length.
Groenlandaspis Cosmopolitan, except eastern Asia An arthrodire placoderm
Gymnotrachelus Cleveland Shale, Ohio A superficially barracuda-like selenosteid arthrodire placoderm.
Heintzichthys Europe[]
North America[]
An arthrodire placoderm of the superfamily Dinichthyloidea.
Selenosteus Cleveland Shale, Ohio A selenosteid arthrodire placoderm.
Stenosteus Cleveland Shale, Ohio A selenosteid arthrodire placoderm.
Titanichthys Late Devonian Morocco; North America A giant, possibly filter-feeding, arthrodire placoderm of the superfamily Dinichthyloidea.

Cartilaginous fish

Cartilaginous fish of the Fammenian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Stethacanthus Shar'yu River, Chernyshev Ridge, Russia
Cleveland Shale, Ohio

Ray-finned fish

Actinopterygii of the Fammenian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Tegeolepis Late Devonian Ohio, United States[]

Lobe-finned fish

Coelacanths
Actinistia of the Fammenian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Serenichthys Witpoort Formation, Eastern Cape, South Africa A basal actinistian of the family Diplocercidae
Tetrapodomorphs (non-ichthyostegalian)
Tetrapodomorph fish of the Fammenian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Cabonnichthys Canowindra, Australia A genus of tristichopterid fish
Gooloogongia loomesi reconstruction.jpg
Hyneria.jpg
Gooloogongia Canowindra, Australia A genus of rhizodontid fish that reached about 90 cm in length.
Hyneria Upper Famennian Catskill Formation & Red Hill Shale, Pennsylvania Hyneria was a large tristichopterid fish, estimated at 2.5-3.7 m in total length
Mandageria Mandagery Sandstone, Canowindra, Australia A genus of tristichopterid fish
Ichthyostegalia
Ichthyostegalians of the Fammenian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Acanthostega Britta Dal Formation, East Greenland
Acanthostega BW.jpg
Hynerpeton BW.jpg
Ichthyostega BW.jpg
Tulerpeton12DB.jpg
Ventastega BW.jpg
Densignathus Upper Famennian Catskill Formation & Red Hill Shale, Pennsylvania
Hynerpeton Upper Famennian Catskill Formation & Red Hill Shale, Pennsylvania
Ichthyostega Evieux Formation, Belgium
Britta Dal Formation, East Greenland
Jakubsonia Lower Famennian Russia
Metaxygnathus Cloghnan Shale, New South Wales, Australia Previously thought to be a lobe-finned fish.
Sinostega Zhongning Formation, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China The first Devonian tetrapod to be found in Asia
Tulerpeton Andreyevka, Tula Oblast, Russia
Ventastega Ketleri Formation, Courland Peninsula, Latvia
Ymeria Celsius Bjerg Group, Greenland A smaller close relative of Ichtyostega.

References

  1. ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale
  2. ^ Thorez, Jacques; Dreesen, Roland; Streel, Maurice (2006). "Frasnian". Geologica Belgica. 9 (1-2): 27-45. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ Denison, Robert (1978). "Placodermi". Handbook of Paleoichthyology. 2. Stuttgart New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-89574-027-4.
  4. ^ Murray, A.M. (2000). "The Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic fishes of Africa". Fish and Fisheries. 1 (2): 111-145. doi:10.1046/j.1467-2979.2000.00015.x.

See also



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Famennian
 



 



 
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