|Elevation||223 m (732 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-HR|
Farrukhnagar is a town and municipality in Gurgaon district of Haryana state, India. It is one of the nine administrative blocks of Gurgaon district situated 21 kilometres (13 mi) from Gurgaon and shares its border with Jhajjar district. It is part of the Ahirwal region.
Established in 1732 by Faujdar Khan, the first Nawab of Farrukhnagar and a governor of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar, Farrukhnagar flourished due to its salt trade until the late 19th century, and was abandoned in the early 20th century, during the British Raj. Today, Mughal era monuments such as Sheesh Mahal, Baoli and Jama Masjid built by Faujdar Khan are popular visitor attractions. The town is connected to Garhi Harsaru, south of Gurgaon, by the railway line. The Sultanpur National Park is situated in Farrukhnagar block on Gurgaon Road. Pataudi Palace, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the town, is the nearest palace.
Founded by Faujdar Khan, the first Nawab of Farrukhnagar and a governor of the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar, in 1732, Farrukhnagar flourished due to its salt trade for many years.
Khan built the fort surrounding the octagonal town, with five gated entrances, his palace known as Sheesh Mahal, a notable structure in Mughal architecture around 1761, also the Jama Masjid and Dilli Darwaza (Delhi Gate). The successive Nawabs ruled over a large tract of land in the area, for over 70 years until they were overthrown by the Jat ruler of Bharatpur.
One of the many old havelis in Farrukhnagar, reminder of the days it flourished with salt mines
Meanwhile later Farrukhnagar was captured by Suraj Mal of Bharatpur, a Jat state in around 1757, defeating Musa Khan son of Kamgar, though, after Maharaja Suraj Mal's death in 1763, the jagir was later restored back to Musa Khan ca 1771.
Upon annexation by the British Raj, the principality remained with Nawabs, but after Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan of Farrukhnagar, took part in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, along with the Nawabs of Jhajjar, Rao Tula Ram of Rewari and Raja Nahar Singh of Ballabgarh, Bhatti chieftains of Hissar and Sirsa, and the Meo tribesmen, their jagir was confiscated in 1858 and made part of the Empire. During the rebellion their combined forces took over Rohtak completely from British forces for a while, and attacked and plundered the civil station, burning all official records. After the Rebellion failed, forces of Punjab levies moved in and Raja Nahar Singh of Bahadurgarh and Nawab Abdur Rehman Khan of Jhajjar were captured and tried, while the former was executed in Delhi, the latter escaped with a sentence of exile to Lahore. A memorial was recently raised to commemorate the martyrs of the rebellion in the city.
For their participation in 1857 rebellion, three main chiefs of Haryana were tried and hanged at Kotwali in Chandani Chowk of Old Delhi. Nahar Singh, the Raja of Ballabhgarh, was hanged on 9 January 1958. Abdur Rehman, Nawab of Jhajjar, was hanged on 23 January 1858. Ahmad Ali, Nawab of Farrukhnagar, was hanged on 23 January 1858. The Chaudharys and Lambardars of villages who participated in rebellion were also deprived of their land and property, including 368 people of Hisar and Gurugram were hanged or transported for life, and fine was imposed on the people of Thanesar (Rs 2,35,000), Ambala (Rs. 25, 3541) and Rohtak (Rs. 63,000 mostly on Ranghars, Shaikhs and Muslim Kasai).
The town was once an important trading center for salt manufactured from saline water obtained from wells of 12 village estates located near the town. This salt was called Sultanpur Salt after the location of the most important salt-works of the region.
Sultanpur was the centre of salt production for use in Delhi and the United Provinces until the late 19th century, exporting annually 680,000 maunds or 18,350 tons (1 maund = 37 kg approx.) over the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Salt was produced by extracting brine from about 40 wells using bullocks and drying in open plots. Since salt was one of the major sources of government's revenue, the office of the Salt Superintendent at Sultanpur supervised the levy of Rs. 2 per maund (about 37 kg). With the levy of the heavy salt tax and acquisition of the Sambhar salt works in Rajputana (present Rajasthan) by the government, the Sultanpur salt became uneconomical and by 1903-04 the salt industry was struggling for survival with salt export having fallen to 65,000 maunds or 1,750 tons leading to severe setback to the economy of Sultanpur area. Finally, in 1923 the British shut down the office of the salt superintendent at Sultanpur, had all the mounds of salt thrown back into the wells and shut down the salt industry leading to considerable economic misery to the people.
Farrukhnagar became a municipality in 1967. Efforts to revive the salt mining by the government failed, after a massive flood in the 1970s watered down the saline level in the wells.
The area saw steep rise in land prices starting from the 1990s onwards due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation in the Gurgaon district, as a result small section large landowners amassed great wealth in short period, which also encouraged public splurging. In 2007, the town made news in the global media, when a local jat farmer hired a private helicopter to ferry his son to his wedding, barely 20 km away. In the recent years, heritage structures in the town have attracted interest from various organisations including ASI and INTACH, which is proposing a "heritage walk" around town, and also plans to develop it as a heritage village.
A branch line was laid in 1901 to Garhi Harsaru Junction railway station on Rajputana-Malwa Railway (Delhi-Ajmer railway), 12 km away. From Farrukhnagar railway station, the metre gauge train used to transport salt by steam engines. It was closed in 2004 for gauge conversion. The converted broad gauge track became operational in 2011. There has been a proposal to extend the track to Jhajjar where it will join Rewari-Jhajjar-Rohtak railway line.
Baoli Ghaos Ali Shah