Fathers of Confederation
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Fathers of Confederation

The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown Conference of 1864 (23 attendees), the Quebec Conference of 1864 (33 attendees), and the London Conference of 1866 (16 attendees), preceding Canadian Confederation. Only ten people attended all three conferences.

Of the 36 Fathers, 11 were Freemasons, notably Macdonald, but including Bernard, Campbell, Carter, Chandler, Galt, Gray, Haviland, Henry, Pope, and Tilley.[1]

Table of participation

The following table lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.[2][3]

Participant[3] Portrait Province (Current) Charlottetown Quebec City London
Sir Adams George Archibald
Adams George Archibald.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
George Brown
Brown-sm.jpg
Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Alexander Campbell
Sir Alexander Campbell.jpg
Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Frederick Carter
FrederickCarter.jpg
Newfoundland and Labrador No Yes No
Sir George-Étienne Cartier
George-Etienne Cartier.jpg
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Edward Barron Chandler
Edward Barron Chandler.jpg
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Jean-Charles Chapais
Jean-Charles Chapais.jpg
Quebec No Yes No
James Cockburn
James Cockburn.jpg
Ontario No Yes No
George Coles
GeorgeColes.jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Robert B. Dickey
Robert B. Dickey.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes No
Charles Fisher
CharlesFisher23.jpg
New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
Sir Alexander Galt.jpg
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
John Hamilton Gray
John Hamilton Gray (1811-1887).jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
John Hamilton Gray
John Hamilton Gray (New Brunswick).jpg
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Thomas Heath Haviland
Thomas Heath Haviland 2.jpg
Prince Edward Island No Yes No
William Alexander Henry
William Alexander Henry.jpg
Nova Scotia No Yes Yes
Sir William Pearce Howland
WilliamPearceHowland23.jpg
Ontario No No Yes
John Mercer Johnson
John Mercer Johnson.jpeg
New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin
HectorLangevin23.jpg
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Andrew Archibald Macdonald
Andrew Archibald Macdonald.jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John A. Macdonald
Macdonald-sm.jpg
Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Jonathan McCully
Jonathan McCully.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
William McDougall
William McDougall.jpg
Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Thomas D'Arcy McGee
McGee-sm.jpg
Quebec Yes Yes No
Peter Mitchell
Peter Mitchell.jpg
New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Oliver Mowat
Oliver Mowat.jpg
Ontario No Yes No
Edward Palmer
Edward Palmer.jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
William Henry Pope
William Henry Pope.jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
John William Ritchie
John William Ritchie.jpg
Nova Scotia No No Yes
Sir Ambrose Shea
Ambrose Shea.jpg
Newfoundland and Labrador No Yes No
William H. Steeves
William Henry Steeves.jpg
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché
Étienne-Paschal Taché.jpg
Quebec No Yes No
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
Samuel Leonard Tilley.jpg
New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Charles Tupper
CharlesTupper1870.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Edward Whelan
Edward Whelan2.jpg
Prince Edward Island No Yes No
Robert Duncan Wilmot
Robert Duncan Wilmot.jpg
New Brunswick No No Yes

Group photographs

Other possible claimants to title

Four other individuals have been labelled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.[4] The leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Michael Jenkyns (July 2017). "Canada's Sesquicentennial - Freemasonry and Confederation". Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the Province of Ontario. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Fathers of Confederation". CanadianHistory. 2008. Archived from the original on 2010-08-21. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Archived from the original on 2010-06-11. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Harrison, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN 0-8020-8842-2. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved .
  5. ^ The Heritage Centre. "Louis Riel The Provisional Government". Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  6. ^ Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN 1-55035-708-5. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Argyle, Ray (2012). Joey Smallwood, Schemer and Dreamer. Dundurn Press. ISBN 9781459703698.

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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