Federal Districts of Russia
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Federal Districts of Russia

The federal districts (Russian: ?, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not provisioned by the Constitution of Russia and are not the constituent units of the country, but exist purely for the convenience of governing and operation by federal government agencies. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy titled a Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District.

The federal districts and positions of Plenipotentiary Representatives were originally created in 2000 by Presidential Decree "to ensure implementation of the President of the Russian Federation of its constitutional powers".[1] Plenipotentiary Representatives are appointed by the President and are employees of the Presidential Administration.[]

List of federal districts

Map of Russian districts, 2018-11-04.svg
Federal district[2][3] Establishment
date
Area
(km²)[4]
Population
(2010 census)
Population density
(per km2)
HDI
(2017)[3]
Nominal GDP (2017)
(RUB/USD)[5]
GDP per capita (2017)[5] Federal
subjects
Administrative
center
Central May 18, 2000 650,200 38,438,600 59 0.838 26,164 billion
($448B)
666,426 ?
($11,423)
18 Moscow
Northwestern May 18, 2000 1,687,000 13,583,800 8 0.827 8,195 billion
($140B)
588,507 ?
($10,088)
11 Saint Petersburg
Southern[a][6] May 18, 2000 427,800 16,141,100[b] 33 0.793 5,362 billion
($92B)
326,244 ?
($5,592)
8 Rostov-on-Don
North Caucasian January 19, 2010 170,400 9,496,800 55 0.785 1,865 billion
($32B)
190,285 ?
($3,262)
7 Pyatigorsk
Volga May 18, 2000 1,037,000 29,900,400 29 0.797 11,027 billion
($189B)
372,654 ?
($6,388)
14 Nizhny Novgorod
Ural May 18, 2000 1,818,500 12,082,700 7 0.833 10,678 billion
($183B)
864,540 ?
($14,819)
6 Yekaterinburg
Siberian May 18, 2000 4,361,800 17,178,298 4 0.788 7,758 billion
($133B)
401,809 ?
($6,887)
10 Novosibirsk
Far Eastern May 18, 2000 6,952,600 8,371,257 1 0.801 3,878 billion
($66B)
628,172 ?
($10,767)
11 Vladivostok

Source:[8]

  1. ^ Includes Crimea, annexed by Russia in 2014; recognized as a part of Ukraine by most of the international community.
  2. ^ Population figures from the Crimean Census in 2014.[7] Crimea was annexed by Russia in 2014, after the 2010 Russian Census.

History

President Vladimir Putin established seven federal districts in May 2000.[9]

On January 19, 2010 the new North Caucasian Federal District split from the Southern Federal District.[8]

On March 2014, after the Russian military intervention in and annexation of Crimea, the Crimean Federal District was established.[10] The legality of this annexation is disputed by an overwhelming majority of countries.[11] On July 28, 2016 the Crimean Federal District was abolished and merged into the Southern Federal District in order to improve governance.[12]

In November 2018, Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai were removed from the Siberian Federal District and added to the Far Eastern Federal District in accordance with a decree issued by Putin.[13] The Administrative Center of the Far Eastern Federal District was moved from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok in December 2018.[14]

Presidential plenipotentiary envoys

See also

References

  1. ^ ? ? 13.05.2000 N 849 "? ? ? ? ? " Archived August 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Graph.document.kremlin.ru (2000-05-13). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  2. ^ "Russia: Federal Districts and Major Cities". City Population. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Subnational Human Development Index (SD-201) (Russian Federation)". Global Data Lab. Radboud University Nijmegen. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "1.1. -? ? ? 2014 ?." [MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS 2014]. Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators - 2015 (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ a b "? ?::". mrd.gks.ru. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ Putin signs set of laws on reunification of Crimea, Sevastopol with Russia
  7. ^ "Results of Census: Population of Crimea is 2.284 Million People". Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  8. ^ a b ? . ? No849  13 2000 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ». ? ? ? 13 2000 ?. : " ? ", No20, . 2112, 15 2000 ?. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  9. ^ "The Russian Federation". BackGround Places. Russia Profile. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  10. ^ "? ". RBC. March 21, 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  11. ^ "NATO Secretary-General: Russia's Annexation of Crimea Is Illegal and Illegitimate". Brookings. March 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  12. ^ " ? ? " (in Russian). Interfax. July 28, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  13. ^ " - ?". publication.pravo.gov.ru. Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ https://meduza.io/news/2018/12/13/putin-perenes-stolitsu-dalnevostochnogo-federalnogo-okruga-vo-vladivostok
  15. ^ a b c " ? ? ? ? " (in Russian). Meduza. June 26, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  16. ^ "Putin asks Federation Council to relieve Gutsan of office as deputy prosecutor general (Part 2) - Interfax". www.interfax.com. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ , ; (August 31, 2013). ? ? (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. Retrieved 2014.
  18. ^ " ? " (in Russian). Echo of Moscow. July 28, 2016. Retrieved 2016.

External links


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