Felinae
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Felinae

The Felinae is a subfamily of the family Felidae. This subfamily comprises the small cats having a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not roar.[2]

Other authors proposed an alternative definition for this subfamily: as comprising only the living conical-toothed cat genera with two tribes, the Felini and Pantherini; thus excluding all fossil cat species.[3][4]

Characteristics

The members of the Felinae have retractile claws that are protected by at least one cutaneous lobe. Their larynx is kept close to the base of the skull by an ossified hyoid.[5] They can purr owing to the vocal folds being shorter than 6 mm (0.24 in).[6][7] The cheetah Acinonyx does not have cutaneous sheaths for guarding claws.[8]

Taxonomy

The term Felini was first used in 1817 by Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim, at the time for all the cat species that had been proposed as belonging to the genus Felis.[9] In 1917, Reginald Innes Pocock also subordinated the following genera to the Felinae that had been proposed in the course of the 19th century: Lynx, Puma, Leptailurus, Prionailurus, Pardofelis, Leopardus, Herpailurus, Neofelis and four more.[5]

The Felinae and Pantherinae probably diverged about 11.5 million years ago. The genera within the Felinae diverged between 10.67 and 4.23 million years ago.[10][11]

Today, the following genera and species are recognised as belonging to the Felinae:[2]

Subfamily Felinae
Genus Species Image
Acinonyx Brookes, 1828 Cheetah4.jpg
Caracal Gray, 1843 Caracl (01), Paris, décembre 2013.jpg
Catopuma Severtzov, 1858 Asian golden cat at Edinburgh Zoo.jpg
Felis Linnaeus, 1758[12] Jammlich crop.jpg
Herpailurus Severtzov, 1858 Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi) Puma yagouaroundi.jpg
Leopardus Jardine, 1834 Ocelot.jpg
Leptailurus Severtzov, 1858 Serval (L. serval) Serval in Tanzania.jpg
Lynx Kerr, 1792 Lynx-canadensis.jpg
Otocolobus Brandt, 1841 Pallas's cat (O. manul)     - panoramio.jpg
Pardofelis Severtzov, 1858 Marbled cat (P. marmorata) Marbled cat borneo.jpg
Prionailurus Severtzov, 1858 Close-up of a Leopard Cat in Sundarban.jpg
Puma Jardine, 1834 Cougar sitting.jpg
+Asilifelis Werdelin, 2011[15] +A. coteae
+Diamantofelis Morales, Pickford, Soria & Fraile, 1998[16] +D. ferox
+Katifelis Adrian, Werdelin & Grossman, 2018[17] +K. nightingalei
+Leptofelis Salesa et al., 2012 +L. vallesiensis
+Miracinonyx Adams, 1979[18]
  • +M. inexpectatus
  • +M. trumani
Miracinonyx inexpectatus.jpg
+Namafelis Morales, Pickford, Fraile, Salesa & Soria, 2003[19] +N. minor
+Pratifelis Hibbard, 1934 +P. martini
+Pristifelis Salesa et al., 2012 +P. attica
+Sivapanthera Kretzoi, 1929[20]
  • +S. arvernensis
  • +S. brachygnathus
  • +S. linxiaensis
  • +S. padhriensis
  • +S. pleistocaenicus
  • +S. potens

Phylogeny

The phylogenetic relationships of Felinae are shown in the following cladogram:[21]

 Felinae 
Bay cat lineage
 Catopuma 

Catopuma badia (Bay cat)

Catopuma temminckii (Asian golden cat)

 Pardofelis 

Pardofelis marmorata (Marbled cat) Pardofelis marmorata (white background).png

Caracal lineage
 Caracal 

Caracal caracal (Caracal) Felis caracal - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(White Background).jpg

Caracal aurata (African golden cat)

 Leptailurus 

Leptailurus serval (Serval) Felis serval - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

Ocelot lineage
 Leopardus 

Leopardus geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat)

Leopardus guttulus (Southern tiger cat)

Leopardus guigna (Kodkod)

Leopardus tigrinus (Oncilla)

Leopardus colocolo (Pampas cat)

Leopardus jacobita (Andean mountain cat)

Leopardus pardalis (Ocelot) Felis pardalis - 1834 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(White Background).jpg

Leopardus wiedii (Margay)

+Leopardus vorohuensis

Lynx lineage
 Lynx 

Lynx lynx (Eurasian lynx)  ?.png

Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx)

Lynx canadensis (Canada lynx)

Lynx rufus (Bobcat)

+Lynx issiodorensis (Issoire lynx)

+Lynx rexroadensis

+Lynx thomasi

Puma lineage
 Acinonyx 

Acinonyx jubatus (Cheetah) Acinonyx jubatus (white background).jpg

+Acinonyx pardinensis (Giant cheetah)

+Acinonyx aicha

+Acinonyx intermedius

 +Sivapanthera 

+Sivapanthera brachygnathus

+Sivapanthera pleistocaenicus

+Sivapanthera potens

+Sivapanthera linxiaensis

+Sivapanthera padhriensis

+Sivapanthera arvernensis

 Herpailurus 

Herpailurus yagouaroundi (Jaguarundi) Lydekker - Eyra White background.jpg

 +Miracinonyx 

+Miracinonyx inexpectatus

+Miracinonyx trumani

 Puma 

+Puma pardoides (Eurasian puma) De vroeg-pleistocene sabeltandkat, Homotherium crenatidens (2008) Puma pardoides.png

+Puma pumoides

Puma concolor (Cougar) Felis concolor - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

Leopard cat lineage
 Prionailurus 

Prionailurus javanensis (Sunda leopard cat)

Prionailurus viverrinus (Fishing cat)

Prionailurus bengalensis (Leopard cat) Felis torquata - 1834 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

Prionailurus planiceps (Flat-headed cat)

Prionailurus rubiginosus (Rusty-spotted cat)

 Otocolobus 

Otocolobus manul (Pallas's cat)

 +Pristifelis 

+Pristifelis attica

 Felis 

Felis chaus (Jungle cat) Felis chaus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(White Background).jpg

Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat)

Felis margarita (Sand cat)

+Felis lunensis (Martelli's cat)

Felis silvestris (European wildcat) Anatomie descriptive et comparative du chat (1845) Pl-I (white background & colourised).jpg

Felis bieti (Chinese mountain cat)

Felis lybica (African wildcat) Felis caligata - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

Felis catus (Cat) Felis obscura - 1834 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - (white background).jpg

Domestic cat lineage    

See also

References

  1. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Felinae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532-545. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O'Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11: 11-63.
  3. ^ Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D. W.; Loveridge, A. J. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 59-82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.
  4. ^ Werdelin, L. (2013). "Subfamily Felinae - Cats". In Kingdon, J.; Happold, D.; Butynski, T.; Hoffmann, M.; Happold, M.; Kalina, J. (eds.). Mammals of Africa. 5. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 144-210. ISBN 978-1-4081-2251-8.
  5. ^ a b Pocock, R. I. (1917). "The classification of the existing Felidae". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Series 8. XX (119): 329-350. doi:10.1080/00222931709487018.
  6. ^ Hast, M. H. (1989). "The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats". Journal of Anatomy. 163: 117-121. PMC 1256521. PMID 2606766.
  7. ^ Peters, G. (2002). "Purring and similar vocalizations in mammals". Mammal Review. 32 (4): 245-271. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2907.2002.00113.x.
  8. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1917). "VII.--On the external characters of the Felidæ". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 8. 19 (109): 113-136. doi:10.1080/00222931709486916.
  9. ^ Fischer, G. (1817). "Adversaria Zoologica. Fasciculus primus. Quaedam ad Mammalium systema et genera illustranda". Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou. 5: 357-446.
  10. ^ Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment" (PDF). Science. 311 (5757): 73-77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
  11. ^ Li, G.; Davis, B. W.; Eizirik, E.; Murphy, W. J. (2016). "Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)". Genome Research. 26 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1101/gr.186668.114. PMC 4691742. PMID 26518481.
  12. ^ a b Linnaeus, C. (1758). "Felis". Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). 1 (Tenth reformed ed.). Holmiae: Laurentii Salvii. pp. 42-44.
  13. ^ Stephens, J. J. (1959). "A new Pliocene cat from Kansas". Academy of Science, Arts and Letters (44): 41-46.
  14. ^ Werdelin, L. (1981). "The evolution of lynxes" (PDF). Annales Zoologici Fennici (18): 37-71.
  15. ^ Werdelin, L. (2011). "A new genus and species of Felidae (Mammalia) from Rusinga Island, Kenya, with notes on early Felidae of Africa". Estudios Geológicos. 67 (2): 217-222. doi:10.3989/egeol.40463.184.
  16. ^ Morales, J.; Pickford, M.; Soria, D.; Fraile, S. (1998). "New carnivores from the basal Middle Miocene of Arrisdrift, Namibia". Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 91: 27-40.
  17. ^ Adrian, B.; Werdelin, L.; Grossman, A. (2018). "New Miocene Carnivora (Mammalia) from Moruorot and Kalodirr, Kenya". Palaeontologia Electronica. 21 (1): 21.1.10A. doi:10.26879/778.
  18. ^ Adams, D. B. (1979). "The Cheetah: Native American". Science. 205 (4411): 1155-1158. Bibcode:1979Sci...205.1155A. doi:10.1126/science.205.4411.1155. PMID 17735054.
  19. ^ Morales, J.; Pickford, M.; Fraile, S.; Salesa, M. J.; Soria, D. (2003). "Creodonta and Carnivora from Arrisdrift, early Middle Miocene of southern Namibia". Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Namibia. 19: 177-194.
  20. ^ Kretzoi, M. (1929). "Materialien zur phylogenetischen Klassifikation der Ailuroïden". In Csiki, E. (ed.). Xe Congrès international de zoologie, tenu à Budapest du 4 au 10 septembre 1927. Volume 2. Budapest: Imprimerie Stephaneus. pp. 1293-1355.
  21. ^ Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D. W.; Loveridge, A. J. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 59-82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.

External links

  • Media related to Felinae at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Felinae at Wikispecies

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Felinae
 



 



 
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