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School for young women
A finishing school is a school for young women that focuses on teaching social graces and upper-class cultural rites as a preparation for entry into society. The name reflects that it follows on from ordinary school and is intended to complete the education, with classes primarily on deportment and etiquette, with academic subjects secondary. It may consist of an intensive course, or a one-year programme. In the United States it is sometimes called a charm school.
Graeme Donald claims that the educational ladies' salons of the late 19th century led to the formal, finishing institutions evidenced in Switzerland around that time. At their peak, thousands of wealthy young women were sent to the dozens of finishing schools available. A primary goal was to teach students to acquire husbands.
The 1960s marked the decline of the finishing school. This can be attributed to the shifting conceptions of women's role in society, as well as succession issues within the typically family-run schools and sometimes commercial pressures driven by the high value of the properties the schools occupied. The 1990s saw a revival of the finishing school, although the business model has been radically altered.
Switzerland was known for its private finishing schools. Most resided in the French-speaking cantons near Lake Geneva. The country was favoured because of its reputation as a healthful environment, its multilinguality and cosmopolitan aura, and the region's political stability.
The finishing schools that made Switzerland renowned for such institutions were Brilliantmont, founded in 1882, now an international secondary school, and Château Mont-Choisi, founded in 1885, which closed in 1995 or 1996. Both were in Lausanne.
The Maharani of Jaipur studied at Brillantmont. In her memoir, she claimed the time to be a happy one, in which she wrote letters to her later husband and pursued skiing and other sports. Actress Gene Tierney also attended Brillantmont, speaking only French and holidaying with fellow students in Norway and England.
Queen Anne-Marie of Greece attended Institut Le Mesnil after completing her high school education at the nearby Le Chatelard School also in Montreux. Le Chatelard today offers education in the American model of junior high and high school up to the age of 17. They today include Savoir Vivre and Cordon Bleu courses along the lines of the traditional Finishing Schools but these are in supplement not in replacement of academic subjects.
Institut Château Beau-Cedre was in Clarens and closed in 2002. The school had flourished through the 1990s but struggled when adopting a new business model. Queen Elizabeth briefly entertained the thought of sending Princess Anne to Château Beau-Cedre, but elected not to. Although it hasn't admitted students since the early 2000s it is still registered as an educational business in the Montreux area.
Vieux Chalet in Château-d'OEx was a finishing school run by the parents of the current owner.
The Institute Surval Mont Fleuri that became Surval Montreux in 2012 was founded in the mid 20th Century as a finishing school admitting pupils from the age of 16 - 24. It developed an academic program following either the UK or US school systems that could be taken as a stand-alone option or precursor to the finishing program. In later years it accepted student aged 13-19 for high School and 16-24 for finishing until the early 2010s when the curriculum changed to focus on high school teaching for an international audience. A cultural enrichment course was added for students aged 16-19 years old in a modernised revival of the traditional finishing certificate concentrating on languages, literary studies and business skills.
In London there were a number of schools in the 20th century including The Cygnet's House, the Monkey Club, St James and Lucie Clayton. The latter two merged in 2005 to become St James and Lucie Clayton College and were joined by a third secretarial college Queens to become the current Quest Professional college in London's Victoria. Quest Professional offers a number of business administration related courses for students aged 16-25 years old and is coeducational.
Eggleston Hall was located in County Durham and taught young ladies aged 16-20 from the 1960s until the late 1980s.
Evendene Court in Malvern began as a small school in the late 19th century teaching young ladies the duties of their families household staff by requiring them to complete domestic work themselves. Courses lasted typically 6 weeks. By 1900 the school had become popular and extended to several buildings and included a working dairy farm for pupils to learn practical farming. During the Second World War it adopted more traditional finishing school subjects for young women not able to travel to Europe. Pupil numbers remained high until the mid-1990s with a broader curriculum covering Cordon Bleu cookery, self presentation and secretarial skills. It closed in 1999.
Paddock Wood Finishing School in Lightwater founded by a second world war Monegasque-French resistance leader and charity worker. It ran from the 1940s until 1982 after the founder stumbled upon a large clientele of diplomat's children wanting to perfect their English. Despite high student numbers in the 1970s, the Iranian Revolution and political turmoil in Central and South America in the late 1970s and early 1980s saw the numbers of pupils fall dramatically in just a couple of years prior to its closure.
Winkfield Place in Ascot specialised in culinary expertise and moved to a new location in Surrey the 1990s before closing in 1998. It was founded by women's educator Constance Spry as a flower arranging and domestic science school and had an international reputation. It taught girls across 3 terms of an academic year with the possibility of studying Cordon Bleu in a fourth term as with Harrow House below.
About a decade after these schools had closed a diverse group of public relations and image consultancy firms started to appear in London offering largely 1- or 2-day finishing courses and social skills at commercial rate fees far higher that those charged by the colleges that closed mostly by the millennium (Lucie Clayton had been the exception). They appeal often to new international money and corporate clientele. Some partner with 5 star hotels to offer their courses but none are taught by a body teaching staff in a school or college environment like their predecessors. The model is more business and commercial than before.
The old former finishing schools were stand-alone organisations lasting for 15-50 years (often run by families) with a curriculum that varied from one school to another based around the particular philosophy of their proprietor, much like the older British private school model in the 18th and 19th centuries. Contrary to popular belief today, many did offer a small number of O-level and A level subjects and allowed pupils to do retakes or study languages and commercially applicable skills (cooking, secretarial and later business studies) as well as traditional subjects including self-presentation, etiquette, French, art and deportment. However many young women were gently pressured to attend these rather than university up until the late 1970s particularly in elite Catholic schools.
Through much of their history, United States finishing schools emphasised social graces and de-emphasised scholarship: society encouraged a polished young lady to hide her intellectual prowess for fear of frightening away suitors. For instance, Miss Porter's School in 1843 advertised itself as Miss Porter's Finishing School for Young Ladies--even though its founder was a noted scholar offering a rigorous curriculum that educated the illustrious classicist Edith Hamilton.
Today, with a new cultural climate and a different attitude to the role of women, the situation has reversed: Miss Porter's School downplays its origins as a finishing school, and emphasises the rigour of its academics. Likewise, Finch College on Manhattan's Upper East Side was "one of the most famed of U.S. girls' finishing schools", but its last President chose to describe it as a liberal arts college, offering academics as rigorous as Barnard or Bryn Mawr. It closed in 1976.
The term finishing school is occasionally used, or misused, in American parlance to refer to certain small women's colleges, primarily on the East Coast, that were once known for preparing their female students for marriage. Since the 1960s, many of these schools have closed as a result of financial difficulties stemming from changing societal norms, making it easier for women to pursue academic and professional paths not open to previous generations.
^In 1900 the President of Stamford University, David Starr Jordan, asserted "a college education did not, by itself, disqualify a woman for matrimony."Richard Norton Smith (1997). The Colonel, The Life and Legend of Robert R. McCormick. Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 72. ISBN0-395-53379-1.; see also Burlington Howard Ball (1996). Hugo L. Black : Cold Steel Warrior. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 20-. ISBN978-0-19-536018-9. "[Hugo Black was] a traditional southern, sexist male who believed...that women should not go out of their way to read the classics. Instead, they should go to finishing school and prepare themselves for the rewarding, nurturing role of wife and mother...[H]e wanted [his daughter Jo Jo] to go to Sweet Briar College because, according to him, scholarship should never play too big a role in a woman's life".
^"Finch & Current Events". Time Magazine. March 30, 1942.(describing Finch as a finishing school)
^Arenson, Karen W. (January 26, 1997). "Rodney O. Felder Dies at 69; Finch College's Last President". New York Times. Retrieved 2014. Finch was founded in 1900 as a two-year finishing school for women. Dr. Felder and others at the school maintained, however, that it had become as academically demanding as Barnard, Bryn Mawr and other colleges.
^Penelope Green (April 23, 2015). "The Independent Women of Sweet Briar". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015. [The 20th Century was] an era marked by conflicting cultures: one that was still defined by hostess houses, white gloves and the 'ring before spring' doctrine that cast women's colleges as mere finishing schools, and one with a commitment to educating women for roles far from the home.
^Increased opportunities for women reduce need for single sex schools