Floruit
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Floruit

Floruit (, ), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.[1][2] In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished.[1]

Etymology and use

Latin: fl?ruit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin verb fl?re?, fl?r?re "to bloom, flower, or flourish", from the noun fl?s, fl?ris, "flower".[3][2]

Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such. It is used in genealogy and historical writing when a person's birth or death dates are unknown.[4] For example, if there are wills attested by John Jones in 1204 and 1229, and a record of his marriage in 1197, a record concerning him might be written as "John Jones (fl. 1197-1229)".

The term is often used in art history when dating the career of an artist. In this context, it denotes the period of the individual's artistic activity.[5]

In some cases, it can be replaced by the words "active between [date] and [date]", depending on context and if space or style permits.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "floruit". Oxford English Living Dictionaries: English. Oxford University Press. 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ a b flo·ru·it. American Heritage Dictionary (5th [online] ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2017 [2011]. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Cassell's Latin Dictionary
  4. ^ Adeleye, Gabriel; Kofi Acquah-Dadzie; Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough (1999). World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions: a Resource for Readers and Writers. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 147. ISBN 0-86516-423-1. Retrieved 2010.
  5. ^ Johnson, W. McAllister (1990), Art History: Its Use and Abuse, University of Toronto Press, p. 307, ISBN 0-86516-423-1, retrieved 2010

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