Fo%C4%8Da
Get Fo%C4%8Da essential facts below. View Videos or join the Fo%C4%8Da discussion. Add Fo%C4%8Da to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Fo%C4%8Da
Fo?a

?
Fo?a - Panorama.jpg
Foca Sveta Sava IMG 0701.JPG
 ? , ? 023.JPG
Coat of arms of Fo?a
Coat of arms
Location of Fo?a within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Location of Fo?a within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Fo?a is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Fo?a
Fo?a
Location of Fo?a within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Coordinates: 43°30?23?N 18°46?29?E / 43.50639°N 18.77472°E / 43.50639; 18.77472Coordinates: 43°30?23?N 18°46?29?E / 43.50639°N 18.77472°E / 43.50639; 18.77472
Country
Entity Republika Srpska
Government
 o MayorRadislav Ma?i? (SDS)
 o Municipality1,134.58 km2 (438.06 sq mi)
Population
(2013 census)
 o Town
12,334
 o Municipality
18,288
 o Municipality density16/km2 (42/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code(s)58
Websitewww.opstinafoca.rs.ba

Fo?a (Serbian Cyrillic: ?, pronounced [fôt?a]) is a town and a municipality located in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the banks of Drina river. As of 2013, the town has a population of 12,234 inhabitants, while the municipality has 18,288 inhabitants.

Fo?a houses some faculties (including the Medical and Orthodox Theological Faculty of Saint Basil of Ostrog) from the Isto?no Sarajevo University. It is also home to the "Seminary of Saint Peter of Sarajevo and Dabar-Bosna", one of seven seminaries in the Serbian Orthodox Church. Fo?a was also, until 1992, home to one of Bosnia's most important Islamic high schools, the Madrassa of Mehmed-pa?a. The Sutjeska National Park, which is the oldest National Park in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is located in the municipality.

History

The old clock tower of Fo?a

Early history

The town was known as Hot?a during medieval times. It was then known as a trading centre on route between Ragusa (now Dubrovnik) and Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey). Alongside the rest of Gornje Podrinje, Fo?a was part of the Serbian Empire until 1376, when it was attached to the Kingdom of Bosnia under King Tvrtko. After Tvrtko's death, the town was ruled by the dukes of Hum, most notably was Herzog Stjepan. Fo?a was the seat of the Ottoman Sanjak of Herzegovina established in 1470, and served as such until 1572, when the seat was moved to Pljevlja.

World War II

In 1941, the Usta?e killed the leading Serbs in Fo?a.[1] Between December 1941 and January 1942 over two thousand Bosnian Muslims were killed in Fo?a by the Chetniks as act of vengeance for repression over Serbs by Muslims in ranks of Usta?e.[2] Additionally Chetniks attacked Usta?e and in Fo?a in August 1942.[2]

On 13 February 1943, Pavle ?uri?i? reported to Dra?a Mihailovi? the actions undertaken by the Chetniks in the Fo?a, Pljevlja, and ?ajni?e districts: "All Muslim villages in the three mentioned districts were totally burned so that not a single home remained in one piece. All property was destroyed except cattle, corn, and senna."[3]

In the operation Chetnik losses "were 22 dead, of which 2 through accidents, and 32 wounded. Among the Muslims, around 1,200 fighters and up to couple of thousands of civilian victims of both nationalitys."[3] ?uri?i? said what remained of the Muslim population fled and that actions were taken to prevent their return.[3] The municipality is also the site of the legendary Battle of Sutjeska between the Tito's Yugoslav Partisans and the German army. A monument to the Partisans killed in the battle was erected in the village of Tjenti?te.

Bosnian War

In 1992, at the onset of the Bosnian War, the city fell under the control of the Army of Republika Srpska. From 7 April 1992 to January 1994, Serb military, police and paramilitary forces enacted a campaign of ethnic cleansing in the area of Fo?a against Bosniak civilians . By one estimate, around 21,000 non-Serbs left Fo?a after July 1992.[4] Most of them settled in the town of Ro?aje in Montenegro until the war ended. Only about 10 Muslims remained at the end of the conflict.[5] Thirteen mosques including the Alad?a Mosque were destroyed and the 22,500 Muslims who made up the majority of inhabitants fled.[6] The Tribunal Judges determined beyond a reasonable doubt that the purpose of the Serb campaign in Fo?a was, among others, "to cleanse the Fo?a area of Muslims" and concluded that "to that end the campaign was successful.[5]

In numerous verdicts, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) ruled that the ethnic cleansing, killings, mass rapes, and the deliberate destruction of Bosniak property and cultural sites constituted crimes against humanity. According to the Research and Documentation Center (IDC), 2,707 people were killed or went missing in the Fo?a municipality during the war. Among them were 1,513 Bosniak civilians and 155 Serb civilians.[7] Additionally, Bosnian Serb authorities set up rape camps in which hundreds of women were raped.[8][9] Numerous Serb officers, soldiers and other participants in the Fo?a massacres were accused and convicted of war crimes by the ICTY.

Post-war period

In 1995 the Dayton Agreement created a territorial corridor linking the once-besieged city of Gora?de to the Federation entity; as a consequence, the northern part of Fo?a was separated to create the municipality of Fo?a-Ustikolina.[] The ethnically-cleansed town was renamed Srbinje (Serbian Cyrillic: ), "place of the Serbs". In 2004, the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared the name change unconstitutional, and reverted it back to Fo?a.

Since the war around 4,000 Bosniaks have returned to their homes in Fo?a, and several mosques have been re-built.[6] This has taken place largely due to the administration of Zdravko Krsmanovi?, who was mayor from 2004 to 2012. In the 2012 elections, however, Krsmanovi? was defeated and a new mayor, Radisav Ma?i?, was elected with support of parties SDS and SNSD.[]

The Alad?a Mosque was rebuilt from 2014 and reopened in May 2019.[10]

In October 2004, members of the Association of Women Victims of War (Udruzenje ?ene-?rtve Rata) attempted to lay a plaque in front of the Partizan sports hall (used in 1992 also as a rape camp) to commemorate the terrible crimes that occurred there. [11][12] Around 300 Bosnian Serbs, including members of the RS Association of the Prisoners of War, prevented the plaque from being affixed.[13]

The Partizan sport hall was reconstructed by UNDP,[14] with EU funding, following a selection by the Fo?a municipal council,[15] also with the participation of elected representatives of local returnees. [16]

In 2018 and 2019, the association of war victims have been commemorating rape as a weapon of war by congregating in front of Karama's House in Miljevina and of the Partizan sport hall in Foca on the International Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict (19 June). [17]

Settlements

interior of the Alad?a Mosque in Fo?a by Hugo Charlemont. In: The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in Word and Picture (Die österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild - "Kronprinzenwerk"), Vol. 22: Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vienna 1901, p. 421. During the Bosnian war, all of the mosques of Fo?a were destroyed

Aside from the town of Fo?a, the municipality includes the following settlements:

Demographics

Population

Population of settlements - Fo?a municipality
Settlement 1948. 1953. 1961. 1971. 1981. 1991. 2013.
Total 39,171 39,178 47,173 48,741 44,661 35,389 18,288
1 Brod 600 371
2 ?e?evo 504 323
3 Fo?a 6,763 9,257 11,530 14,335 12,334
4 Miljevina 1,763 973
5 Orahovo 308 326
6 Patkovina 600 298
7 Prevra? 426 203
8 ?tovi? 458 201
9 Trbue 544 207

Ethnic composition

Ethnic composition - Fo?a town
2013. 1991. 1981. 1971.
Total 12,334 (100,0%) 14,335 (100,0%) 11,530 (100,0%) 9,257 (100,0%)
Serbs 7,901 (55,12%) 5,663 (49,12%) 4,148 (44,81%)
Bosniaks 5,526 (38,55%) 4,414 (38,28%) 4,309 (46,55%)
Others 522 (3,641%) 49 (0,425%) 77 (0,832%)
Yugoslavs 312 (2,176%) 677 (5,872%) 50 (0,540%)
Croats 74 (0,516%) 87 (0,755%) 152 (1,642%)
Montenegrins 632 (5,481%) 514 (5,553%)
Albanians 8 (0,069%) 7 (0,076%)


Ethnic composition - Fo?a municipality
2013. 1991. 1981. 1971.
Total 18,288 (100,0%) 35,389 (100,0%) 44,661 (100,0%) 48,741 (100,0%)
Serbs 16,739 (91,53%) 18,315 (45,21%) 18,908 (42,34%) 21,458 (44,02%)
Bosniaks 1,270 (6,944%) 20,790 (51,32%) 23,316 (52,21%) 25,766 (52,86%)
Others 224 (1,225%) 851 (2,101%) 148 (0,331%) 164 (0,336%)
Croats 55 (0,301%) 94 (0,232%) 141 (0,316%) 218 (0,447%)
Yugoslavs 463 (1,143%) 1,156 (2,588%) 102 (0,209%)
Montenegrins 947 (2,120%) 990 (2,031%)
Albanians 20 (0,045%) 13 (0,027%)
Slovenes 10 (0,022%) 15 (0,031%)
Roma 8 (0,018%)
Macedonians 7 (0,016%) 15 (0,031%)

Economy

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2018):[18]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 280
Mining and quarrying 40
Manufacturing 188
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 70
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 84
Construction 124
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 375
Transportation and storage 158
Accommodation and food services 184
Information and communication 53
Financial and insurance activities 58
Real estate activities -
Professional, scientific and technical activities 48
Administrative and support service activities 9
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 647
Education 467
Human health and social work activities 619
Arts, entertainment and recreation 138
Other service activities 46
Total 3,588

Twin towns - sister cities

Fo?a is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ Stenton, Michael (2000). Radio London and Resistance in Occupied Europe: British Political Warfare 1939-1943. Oxford University Press. p. 327. ISBN 0-19-820843-X.
  2. ^ a b Tomasevich, Jozo (1975). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: The. Stanford University Press. p. 258. ISBN 0-8047-0857-6.
  3. ^ a b c Hoare, Marko Attila (2006). Genocide and Resistance in Hitler's Bosnia: The Partisans and the Chetniks. Oxford University Press. pp. 331-32. ISBN 0-19-726380-1.
  4. ^ Blumenthal & McCormack 2008, p. 55.
  5. ^ a b "Facts about Fo?a" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.
  6. ^ a b Charter, David (28 May 2009). "World Agenda: US hopes for Bosnia rest on town mayor's shoulders". London, UK: The Times.
  7. ^ Ivan Tu?i? (February 2013). "Pojedina?an popis broja ratnih ?rtava u svim op?inama BiH". Prometej.ba. Retrieved 2014.
  8. ^ "ICTY: Blagojevic and Jokic judgement" (PDF). Retrieved .
  9. ^ "ICTY: Kunarac, Kova? and Vukovi? judgement" (PDF). Retrieved .
  10. ^ East Journal
  11. ^ "Bosnian Serbs reject rape plaque". BBC News. 1 October 2004.
  12. ^ "Rape as a Crime Against Humanity". Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved .
  13. ^ OHR Media Roundup
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Glas Srpske
  16. ^ European Parliament
  17. ^ 2018 Start BiH, 2019 Oslobodjenje, 2019 Klix
  18. ^ "Cities and Municipalities of Republika Srpska" (PDF). rzs.rs.ba. Republika Srspka Institute of Statistics. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 2019.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Fo%C4%8Da
 



 



 
Music Scenes