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In anatomy and osteology, a foramen (;[1][2] plural foramina, or foramens ) is an open hole that is present in extant or extinct amniotes. Foramina inside the body of animals typically allow muscles, nerves, arteries, veins, or other structures to connect one part of the body with another.


The skulls of vertebrates have foramina through which nerves, arteries, veins, and other structures pass. For example, a human skull has parietal foramen.


Within the vertebral column (spine) of vertebrates, including the human spine, each bone has an opening at both its top and bottom to allow nerves, arteries, veins, etc. to pass through.


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