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Foreign Relations of the Palestinian National Authority
From 2011, the PLO's diplomatic effort has been focused on the so-called Palestine 194 campaign, which aims to gain membership for the State of Palestine in the United Nations. It seeks to effectively gain collective recognition for a Palestinian state based on the 1967 borders, with East Jerusalem as its capital.
On 15 November 1988, in support of the First Intifada, the PLO declared the establishment of the State of Palestine, which was widely recognised by many foreign governments, although often statements made were of an equivocal nature - at times referring to the PLO or the State of Palestine or one acting on behalf of the another, or by the generic "Palestine". Many countries and organisations "upgraded" representation from the PLO to the new State, though in practice the same PLO offices, personnel and contacts continued to be used. In February 1989 at the United Nations Security Council, the PLO representative claimed recognition from 94 states. Since then, additional states have publicly extended recognition.
Both the PLO (representing itself, the State of Palestine, or the PNA) and the PNA now maintain an extensive network of diplomatic relations, and participate in multiple international organisations with status of member state, observer, associate, or affiliate. The designation "Palestine", adopted in 1988 by the UN for the PLO, is currently also used as reference to the PNA and the State of Palestine by states and international organisations, in many cases regardless of the level of recognition and relations they have with any of these entities.
Countries with standing relations with the PLO and the PNA.
The PLO maintains a network of missions and embassies, and represents the PNA abroad. Most of the 138 states that have recognised the State of Palestine have elevated the PLO representation in their country to the status of embassy. A number of other states have granted some form of diplomatic status to a PLO delegation, falling short of full diplomatic recognition. In some cases, as a matter of courtesy, these delegations and missions have been granted diplomatic privileges, and are often referred to as "embassies" with their heads as "ambassadors".
In the United States, an unofficial PLO information office was established in New York in 1964 and run by Sadat Hassan, who served as Permanent Representative of Yemen to the United Nations. The Palestine Information Office was then registered with the Justice Department as a foreign agent and operated until 1968, when it was closed. The PLO was designated a terrorist organization by the United States in 1987, but in 1988 a presidential waiver was issued which permitted contact with the organization. A PLO office was reopened in 1989 as the Palestine Affairs Center. The PLO Mission office, in Washington D.C., was opened in 1994, and represented the PLO in the United States. On 20 July 2010, the United States Department of State agreed to upgrade the status of the PLO Mission in the United States to "General Delegation of the PLO".
The Palestine Liberation Organization and the Palestinian National Authority are represented in various international organizations as member, associate or observer. Because of inconclusiveness in sources, in some cases it is impossible to distinguish whether the participation is executed by the PLO as representative of the Palestinian state, the PLO as a non-state entity, or the PNA. Often, the designation by the international organisation is usually simply with "Palestine".
In 1964, the first summit of the League of Arab States, held in Cairo in January, resulted in a mandate for the creation of a Palestinian entity. Subsequently, in May, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established during a meeting of the Palestinian National Congress in Arab-controlled Jerusalem. The organisation's establishment was formally approved at the Arab League's second summit, held in Alexandria in October. The PLO was granted full membership in 1976. Its seat was assumed by the State of Palestine following the declaration of independence in 1988.[specify]
The Palestine Liberation Organization was granted observer status at the United Nations General Assembly in 1974 through General Assembly Resolution 3237. In the UNGA's regional groupings, the PLO gained full membership in the Group of Asian states on 2 April 1986.[note 9] Acknowledging the proclamation of the State of Palestine, the UN re-designated this observer to be referred to as "Palestine" in 1988 (General Assembly Resolution 43/177) and affirmed "the need to enable the Palestinian people to exercise their sovereignty over their territory occupied since 1967". In July 1998, the General Assembly adopted a new Resolution (52/250) conferring upon Palestine additional rights and privileges, including the right to participate in the general debate held at the start of each session of the General Assembly, the right of reply, the right to co-sponsor resolutions and the right to raise points of order on Palestinian and Middle East issues. By this resolution, "seating for Palestine shall be arranged immediately after non-member States and before the other observers." This Resolution was adopted by a vote of 124 in favour, 4 against (Israel, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, United States) and 10 abstentions.
The vote was a historic benchmark for the sovereignState of Palestine and its citizens, whilst it was a diplomatic setback for Israel and the United States. Status as an observer state in the UN will allow the State of Palestine to join treaties and specialised UN agencies, such as the International Civil Aviation Organisation, the Law of the Seas Treaty and the International Criminal Court. It shall permit Palestine to claim legal rights over its territorial waters and air space as a sovereign state recognised by the UN. It shall also provide the citizens of Palestine with the right to sue for control of their territory in the International Court of Justice and with the legal right to bring war-crimes charges, mainly those relating to the unlawful Israeli occupation of the State of Palestine, against Israel in the International Criminal Court.
As of 2013, after Palestine was granted UN observer status, the UN authorised the PLO to title its representative office to the UN as 'The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations', and Palestine has started to re-title its name accordingly on postal stamps, official documents and passports, whilst it has instructed its diplomats to officially represent 'The State of Palestine', as opposed to the 'Palestine National Authority'. Additionally, on 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents", thus recognising the PLO-proclaimed State of Palestine as being sovereign over the territories of Palestine and its citizens under international law. Hussein Ibish, senior research fellow, American Task Force on Palestine, mentioned that the terminology that was usually used regarding the Palestinian United Nations application was that the Palestinians seek recognition from the United Nations, which he claims is meaningless, He wrote that: "the United Nations doesn't recognize states; states recognize each other. The United Nations has member states."
The PLO currently holds observer status at the World Health Organization (WHO), but applied for full membership status for the State of Palestine in 1989. The United States, which provided one-quarter of the WHO's funding at the time, informed the WHO that its funding would be withheld if Palestine was admitted as a member state. Yasser Arafat described the U.S. statement as "blackmail". The PLO was asked to withdraw its application by the WHO director general. The WHO subsequently voted to postpone consideration of the application and no decision on the application has been made yet. John Quigley writes that Palestine's efforts to gain membership in several international organisations connected to the United Nations was frustrated by U.S. threats to withhold funding from any organisation that admitted Palestine. On 31 October 2011, following the admission of Palestine to UNESCO, the Minister of Health Fathi Abu Moghli announced that the PNA will now seek membership at the WHO. However, following protests by the UN Secretary-General, al-Malki announced on 3 November that at this point the PLO would not seek membership in other UN agencies until the issue of membership has been resolved at the Security Council.
The ICC rejected the request in April 2012. According to the Jerusalem Post, "had the ICC accepted the PA's recognition of its jurisdiction, it would have also tacitly accepted its statehood." In September 2012 the ICC prosecutor Fatou Bensouda suggested that the issue may be re-visited following the vote at the UNGA.
"I would like to inform you that, before delivering this statement, I, in my capacity as President of the State of Palestine and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, submitted to H.E.Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations an application for the admission of Palestine on the basis of the 4 June 1967 borders, with Al-Kuds Al-Sharif as its capital, as a full member of the United Nations."
In 2011 the Security Council's membership committee deadlocked on the issue and had been "unable to make a unanimous recommendation to the Security Council". Its report was the result of seven weeks of meetings, detailing myriad disagreements between the council members on whether Palestine fulfills the requirements set forth in the U.N. charter for members countries.
In 1989, the Palestine Liberation Organization, on behalf of the State of Palestine, submitted a letter of accession to the Geneva Conventions. However, Switzerland, as the depositary state, determined that because the question of Palestinian statehood had not been settled within the international community, it was therefore incapable of recognising Palestine as a "power" that could accede to the Conventions.
"Due to the [uncertainty] within the international community as to the existence or the non-existence of a State of Palestine and as long as the issue has not been settled in an appropriate framework, the Swiss Government, in its capacity as depositary of the Geneva Conventions and their additional Protocols, is not in a position to decide whether this communication can be considered as an instrument of accession in the sense of the relevant provisions of the Conventions and their additional Protocols."
After the victory of the Change and Reform list (led by Hamas) in the 2006 elections, many governments, including the United States, as well as the European Union, cut ties with the organs of the PLC, but not those connected to the PNA President, Mahmoud Abbas. The boycott led to the withholding of foreign aid, upon which much of the Palestinian economy is dependent, promised to the PNA. The European Union set up a mechanism to transfer some aid to PNA employees, many of whom had gone unpaid for months, that bypassed the government. After Abbas' sacking of Prime Minister Ismail Haniya as a response by Hamas' takeover of the Gaza Strip in June 2007, the boycott was lifted.
^The members of the institutions of the State of Palestine meet inside its claimed territory without having control over any part of it.
^ abPalestine Liberation Organization delegation has been IPU observer since the 117th session of the IPU Governing Council in 1975. At various sessions in 1996, 1997 and 1998 it was decided that the Palestine National Council does not fulfill the conditions for membership laid down in Article 3 of the IPU Statutes, but in 1998 the rights of the observer delegation of Palestine were strengthened. Following the approval of the amendment to Article 3 in 2008 the PNC was accepted as IPU member.
^Palestine was accorded membership in ESCWA pursuant to ECOSOC Resolution 2089 (LXIII) dated 22 July 1977. Full powers for the signature of the Agreements were issued by the leaders of the PLO and the PNA.
^The ICJ noted that Palestine gave a unilateral undertaking, by declaration of 7 June 1982, in the name of the 'State of Palestine' to apply the Fourth Geneva Convention - and that Switzerland, as depositary State, considered that unilateral undertaking valid.
^ abPeleg, Ilan (1998). The Middle East peace process: interdisciplinary perspectives. SUNY Press. p. 124. ISBN978-0-7914-3541-0. "... foreign policy formation of non-state actors as well as states. ... Since its inception in 1964, the PLO as a non-state actor has exercised a number of roles that approximate those utilized by nation-states."
^Tessler, Mark A. (1994). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (2nd, illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press, p. 722: "Within two weeks of the PNC meeting, at least fifty-five nations, including states as diverse as the Soviet Union, China, India, Greece, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, Malta, and Zambia, had recognized the Palestinian state."
^ abBrownlie, Ian; Goodwin-Gill, Guy S.; Talmon, Stefan; Jennings, Robert (1999). The reality of international law: essays in honour of Ian Brownlie (Illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 121. ISBN978-0-19-826837-6.: "The PLO, which has been recognized to possess an independent international personality as representative of the Palestinian people, has been delegated the power to act on behalf of the PA in the international arena with regard to specific substantive areas."
^ abTalmon, 1998, p. 158, footnote #236: "It is of interest to note that most States that have recognized the 'State of Palestine' after its proclamation on 15 Nov. 1988 have elevated the PLO office in their country to the status of embassy."
^ abGovernment of Ireland. "Press statement on upgrade of relations"(PDF) (Press release). Archived from the original(PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011. "The Irish government has upgraded the status of the General Delegation of Palestine in Ireland to the Mission of Palestine, headed by an Ambassador."
^Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993 (Illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 624. ISBN978-0-19-829643-0.: "The Palestinian National Council also empowered the central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and the executive committee to perform the functions of government until such time as a government-in-exile was established."
^European Institute for Research on Mediterranean and Euro-Arab Cooperation (November 2001). "PLO Executive Committee". medea.be. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 2011. "The Executive Committee of the PLO, in practice the "government in exile" of the State of Palestine"
^Hass, Amira (15 November 2009). "Palestinian PM: Declaration of statehood just a formality". Haaretz.com. Haaretz Daily Newspaper Ltd. Retrieved 2011. "The Palestinians already declared independence unilaterally on Nov. 15, 1988. The declaration was recognized by dozens of countries, but never implemented on the ground."
^Jones, Ken (January 2011). "Top Ten Governments Currently In Exile". Unlimitedtopten.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 2011. "The state of Palestine was proclaimed in 1988, but in exile. A declaration of a "State of Palestine" was approved on 15 November 1988, by the Palestinian National Council, the legislative body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). The declaration was ignored, and eventually rejected, by the State of Israel. Israel controls the territories since 1967 Six-Day War when it captured them from Egypt and Jordan. Currently, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) envision the establishment of a State of Palestine to include all the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, living in peace with Israel under a democratically elected and transparent government. The PNA, however, does not claim sovereignty over any territory and therefore is not the government of the "State of Palestine" proclaimed in 1988."
^"Palestinians 'may declare state'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 2011. "Saeb Erekat, disagreed arguing that the Palestine Liberation Organisation had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration. We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence,"
^Government of Afghanistan. "Afghan Diplomatic Missions". Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Canberra. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Embassy of Afghanistan in Damascus ... non-resident envoy to: Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine".
^Government of Albania (January 2011). "Diplomatic list"(PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original(PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Embassy of the State of Palestina".
^Government of Algeria (28 December 2010). "Algerie-Palestine-Diplomatie" (in French). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 2011. "Ambassadeur extraordinaire et plénipotentiaire de l'Etat de Palestine".
^Gobernio de la provincia de Salta (30 September 2009). "Almuerzo países Árabes". Delegación de la Casa Salta. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 2011. "Embajador Estado de Palestina".
^ abcdefghiGeneral Delegation of Palestine to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific. "Profiles". Palestinian National Authority. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 2010. "The Head of the General Delegation of Palestine to Australia and New Zealand and Ambassador to East Timor, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu.".
^Government of Azerbaijan. "Politics". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 2010. "The Republic of Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with Palestine since 15.04.1992".
^Government of Belgium. "Palestinian territories". Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 2011. "Belgian representation, ... Location of the attaché: Jerusalem".
^ abGovernment of Colombia. "Autoridad Nacional Palestina" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. Retrieved 2010. "Se establecieron relaciones diplomáticas el 3 de octubre de 1988. La Misión Especial de Palestina en Colombia fue establecida en 1996. La Embajada de Colombia en El Cairo es concurrente ante la Autoridad Palestina, y la Sección Consular de la Embajada en Tel Aviv atiende asuntos de carácter consular."
^Government of the Czech Republic. "Palesina" (in Czech). MFA of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 2013.: "Do té doby v ?SSR existovalo od r. 1976 zastoupení Organizace pro osvobození Palestiny (OOP), od r. 1983 s diplomatickým statutem."
^ abGovernment of Estonia. "Diplomatic relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 2010. "Estonia recognises the Palestine Liberation Authority [sic] as the representative of the Palestinian people on the international level."
^Consulate General of France in Jerusalem. "Histoire" (in French). Government of the French Republic. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2011. "L'autonomie du Consulat général a également pour conséquence de lui donner un rôle inhabituel de représentation politique auprès des autorités palestiniennes. Avant même l'établissement de l'Autorité Palestinienne en 1994, le Consulat général menait, dans les Territoires occupés, une politique de coopération".
^Government of Gambia. "Congratulatory message from President Arafat". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Ambassade de l'Etat De Palestine, Dakar-SENEGAL ... Yasser Arafat, President de l'Etat de Palestine, President du Comite Executif de I'O.L.P., President de l'Autorite Nationale Palestinienne".
^ abVatican Information Service (11 November 2004). "Holy See Joins in Pain of Palestinian People for Arafat Death". Retrieved 2011. "The Palestine Liberation Organization will, therefore, open an office of representation at the Holy See, with its own director. The apostolic nuncio in Tunisia will be responsible for contacts with the leaders of the Palestine Liberation Organization."
^Online Hotels Budapest. "List of Embassies". Retrieved 2009. "Embassy of the State of Palestine in Hungary".
^Government of Hungary. "Hungarian Embassies & Consulates in Asia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Palestinian National Authority - Representative Office ... Ambassador ... Accredited in: the territory of the Palestinian National Authority".
^ ab"India-Palestine Relations"(PDF). Ministry of External Affairs - India. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 2010. "In 1947, India voted against the partition of Palestine at the UN GA. India was first Non-Arab State to recognize PLO ... in 1974. India was one of the first countries to recognize the State of Palestine in 1988. In 1996, India opened its Representative Office to the Palestine Authority in Gaza, which later was shifted to Ramamllah in 2003".
^ abcGovernment of Indonesia. "Bilateral Cooperation - Palestine". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Indonesia's formal recognition towards the recently established State of Palestine the very next day, on 16 November 1988 ... One year later, Indonesia and Palestine agreed to advance their bilateral relations through the signing of a Joint Communique on the Commencement of Indonesia-Palestine Diplomatic Relations at Ambassadorial Level, on 19 October 1988 ... Indonesia assigned its Head of Mission to the Republic of Tunisia as the Ambassador non-resident for Palestine until 1 June 2004, when the assignment was relegated to the Indonesia's Ambassador for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Amman."
^ abGovernment of Indonesia. "Mission - Palestine". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia to Yordania and accredited to the State of Palestine ... Embassy of the State of Palestine".
^Government of Italy. "Consulate General of Italy in Jerusalem" (in Italian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011. "Consulate General of Italy (West Jerusalem) ... Consulate General of Italy (East Jerusalem)".
^Government of Mauritius. "Diplomatic Corp". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regional Integration and International Trade. Archived from the original on 16 January 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Embassy of the State of Palestine".
^Government of Paraguay; Ministry of Foreign Affairs (28 January 2011). "Reconocimiento del Estado de Palestina" (Press release) (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 2011. "... estableció relaciones diplomáticas con Palestina el 25 de marzo de 2005 mediante el intercambio de Notas Reversales, acto que implicó su reconocimiento. ... Por esta declaración la República del Paraguay reitera expresamente el reconocimiento de ese Estado como libre e independiente con las fronteras del 4 de junio de 1967."
^Embassies & consulates in the Philippines. Best of the Philippines. 1995. ISBN971-91516-0-9., p219: "The State of Palestine is recognized by over one hundred states including the Republic of the Philippines. In September 1989, diplomatic relations were established between the two governments leading to the opening of the Embassy of the State of Palestine in Manila, May 1990."
^ abGovernment of South Africa. "Palestine (The State of)". Department of International Relations and Cooperation. Retrieved 2010. "The establishment of full diplomatic relations with the State of Palestine was announced on 15 February 1995. ... South African Representation in Palestine - The South African Representative to the Palestinian National Authority ... State of Palestine Representation in South Africa - Embassy of the State of Palestine".
^Government of South Africa. "Foreign Representatives in South Africa". Department of International Relations and Cooperation. Retrieved 2010. "Palestine (State of) - (Embassy of the State of) ... National Day: 29 November".
^ abc"Bilateral relations". Sovereign Order of Malta - official site. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 2012. "The Order of Malta has relations at Ambassador level with: Palestinian Authority".
^Government of Spain. "Lista del Cuerpo Diplomatico"(PDF) (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affais and of Cooperation. Archived from the original(PDF) on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 2011. "Delegacion General de Palestina".
^Consulate General of Sweden in Jerusalem. "About the Consulate General". Government of Sweden. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 2011. "The Consulate General also follows and reports about the Israeli-Palestinian peace process through contacts with the Palestinian Authority."
^Government of Switzerland. "Diplomatic Corps"(PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. p. 353. Archived from the original(PDF) on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 2011. "Délégation générale de Palestine".
^Government of Turkey. "Consulate General of Turkey, Jerusalem, Palestine". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011. "Today, the jurisdiction of the Consulate General covers West Bank and Gaza Strip governed by the Palestinian National Authority. The city of Jerusalem with its surrounding areas as defined by the special status (corpus seperatum) in the United Nations General Assembly Resolution No.181 in 1947, is also covered by the Consulate General."
^British Consulate-General in Jerusalem. "UK in Jerusalem, About us". Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 2011. "Other locations - Find more information about other offices for the British Consulate in Palestinian Territories - Gaza".
^British Consulate-General in Jerusalem. "UK in Jerusalem, Other locations". Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 2011. "The British Information & Services Office (BISO) in Gaza, is affiliated with the British Consulate General in Jerusalem."
^U.S. Consulate in Jerusalem. "About the Consulate". Government of the United States. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010. Retrieved 2010. "The mission was designated a Consulate General in 1928. It now represents the United States in Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip as an independent mission, with the Consul General serving as chief of mission."
^Anon. "Jerusalem - History". The Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 2011. "United States maintains a consulate in east Jerusalem that deals with Palestinians in the territories and works independently of the embassy, reporting directly to Washington."
^"Vietnam-Palestine Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Vietnam. Retrieved 2009. "1968: Viet Nam established ties with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)... 19th November 1988: Viet Nam recognized the State of Palestine and officially transformed the PLO's resident Representative Office into the Embassy of the State of Palestine."
^Al-Bab (June 2002). "Palestinian Organisations". Arab Gateway. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 2011.: "PLO also contains the ...; Palestinian Red Crescent Soc (established Jord 65, part of PLO from 1969)".
^ abInter-Parliamentary Union. "THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL DECIDES ON PALESTINE'S AFFILIATION TO THE IPU". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2012.: "Palestine National Council...was not created by decision of a Parliament constituted in conformity with the laws of a sovereign State whose population it represents and on whose territory it functions ... does not have legislative power or the right to oversee the action of government."
^Inter-Parliamentary Union. "AMENDMENTS TO THE STATUTES AND RULES OF THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION"(PDF). Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2011.: "Membership - Article 3, add a new Article 3.1 bis as follows: Ibis. The parliament constituted in conformity with the basic law of a territorial entity whose aspirations and entitlement to statehood are recognized by the United Nations, and which enjoys the status of Permanent Observer to that Organization with substantial additional rights and privileges, may also become a Member of the Inter-Parliamentary Union."
^United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2002). "Government structures". United Nations. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 2010.: "At present, the PLO is a full member of the Asian Group of the United Nations".
^Palestine/PLO (being a GA observer only) is not included in the list of "Members of the General Assembly, arranged in current regional groups"Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Further, a recent document of UN-HABITAT, which classifies countries by explicit lists according to the "United Nations Regional Groups" (see: "UN-HABITAT's Global Report on Human Settlements"Archived 15 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine (2007), pp. 329-330), along with a more recent document of UN-AIDS - which classifies countries by explicit lists according to the "Regional Groups that are used by the UN General Assembly, ECOSOC, and its subsidiary bodies" (see: UNAIDS, The Governance HandbookArchived 9 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine (2010), pp. 28-29), do not include Palestine/PLO in any Regional Group, but instead write: "the General Assembly conferred upon Palestine, in its capacity as observer, additional rights and privileges of participation. These included the right to participation in the general debate of the General Assembly, but did not include the rights to vote or put forward candidates" (see: UN-HABITAT's Global Report on Human Settlements, p. 335, 2nd footnote; UNAIDS, The Governance Handbook, p. 29, 4th footnote).
^Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 624. ISBN9780198296430. "The Palestinian National Council also empowered the central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and the executive committee to perform the functions of government until such time as a government-in-exile was established."