Former Yan
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Former Yan
Former Yan ()

Former Yan in 338 AD
Former Yan in 338 AD
Former Yan in 350 AD
Former Yan in 350 AD
CapitalJicheng () (337-341)
Longcheng (341-350)
Jicheng () (350-357)
Yecheng (357-370)
o 337-348
Murong Huang
o 348-360
Murong Jun
o 360-370
Murong Wei
Murong Huang's claim of princely title
23 November 337[1][2] 337
Murong Jun's claim of imperial title
4 January 353[3][4]
o Fall of Yecheng
11 December 370[5][6]
o Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Today part ofChina

The Former Yan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Qiányàn; 337-370) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.

Initially, Murong Huang and his son Murong Jun claimed the Jin Dynasty (265-420)-created title "Prince of Yan," but subsequently, in 352, after seizing most of the former Later Zhao territory, Murong Jun would declare himself emperor, and after that point, the rulers of the Former Yan declared themselves "emperors".


During the winter of 342, the Xianbei of Former Yan, ruled by the Murong clan, attacked and destroyed Goguryeo's capital, Hwando, capturing 50,000 Goguryeo men and women to use as slave labor in addition to taking the queen mother and queen prisoner,[7] and forced King Gogukwon to flee for a while. The Xianbei also devastated Buyeo in 346, accelerating Buyeo migration to the Korean peninsula.[8]

Their capital was Yan (Beijing) in 350, then Yecheng in 357, and finally Luoyang in 364.[9]

Rulers of the Former Yan

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Taizu ( Taìz?) Wenming ( Wénmíng) Mùróng Hu?ng 337-348 Yanwang ( Yànwáng) 337-348
Liezong ( Lièz?ng) Jingzhao ( J?ngzh?o) Mùróng Jùn 348-360 Yanwang ( Yànwáng) 348-353
Yuanxi ( Yuánx?) 353-357
Guangshou ( Gu?ngshoù) 357-360
Did not exist You (? Y?u) Mùróng W?i 360-370 Jianxi ( Jiànx?) 360-370

See also


  1. ^ "". Retrieved .
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 95.
  3. ^ "". Retrieved .
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 99.
  5. ^ "". Retrieved .
  6. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 102.
  7. ^ Chinul (1991). Buswell, Robert E. (ed.). Tracing Back the Radiance: Chinul's Korean Way of Zen. Translated by Robert E. Buswell (abridged ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 4. ISBN 0824814274. Retrieved 2014.
  8. ^ Tennant, Charles Roger. A History of Korea. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 9780710305329. Retrieved 2016. Soon after, the Wei fell to the Jin and Kogury? grew stronger, until in 313 they finally succeeded in occupying Lelang and bringing to an end the 400 years of China's presence in the peninsula, a period sufficient to ensure that for the next 1,500 it would remain firmly within the sphere of its culture. After the fall of the Jin in 316, the proto-Mongol Xianbei occupied the North of China, of which the Murong clan took the Shandong area, moved up to the Liao, and in 341 sacked and burned the Kogury? capital at Hwando. They took away some thousands of prisoners to provide cheap labour to build more walls of their own, and in 346 went on to wreak even greater destruction on Puy?, hastening what seems to have been a continuing migration of its people into the north-eastern area of the peninsula, but Kogury?, though temporarily weakened, would soon rebuild its walls and continue to expand.
  9. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.

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