France 98
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France 98

1998 FIFA World Cup
Coupe du Monde - France 98
1998 FIFA World Cup.svg
1998 FIFA World Cup official logo
Tournament details
Host country France
Dates 10 June - 12 July (33 days)
Teams 32 (from 5 confederations)
Venue(s) 10 (in 10 host cities)
Final positions
Champions  France
Runners-up  Brazil
Third place  Croatia
Fourth place  Netherlands
Tournament statistics
Matches played 64
Goals scored 171 (2.67 per match)
Attendance 2,784,687 (43,511 per match)
Top scorer(s) Croatia Davor ?uker (6 goals)
Best player Brazil Ronaldo
Best young player England Michael Owen
Best goalkeeper France Fabien Barthez
Fair play award  England
 France
1994
2002

The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It was held in France from 10 June to 12 July 1998. The country was chosen as the host nation by FIFA for the second time in the history of the tournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process. It was the second time that France staged the competition (the first was in 1938) and the ninth time that it was held in Europe.

Qualification for the finals began in March 1996 and concluded in November 1997. For the first time in the competition, the group stage was expanded from 24 teams to 32, with eight groups of four. 64 matches were played in 10 stadiums in 10 host cities, with the opening match and final staged at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis.

The tournament was won by host country France, who beat defending champions Brazil 3-0 in the final. France won their first title, becoming the seventh nation to win a World Cup, and the sixth (after Uruguay, Italy, England, West Germany and Argentina) to win the tournament on home soil. Croatia, Jamaica, Japan and South Africa made their first appearances in the finals.

Host selection

France was awarded the 1998 World Cup on 2 July 1992 by the executive committee of FIFA during a general meeting in Zürich, Switzerland. They defeated Morocco by 12 votes to 7.[1][2] Switzerland withdrew, due to being unable to meet FIFA's requirements. This made France the third country to host two World Cups, after Mexico and Italy in 1986 and 1990 respectively. France previously hosted the third edition of the World Cup in 1938. England, who hosted the competition in 1966 and won it, were among the original applicants, but later withdrew their application in favour of an ultimately successful bid to host UEFA Euro 1996.

Voting results[3]
Country Round 1
France France 12
Morocco Morocco 7

Bribery and corruption investigations

On 4 June 2015, while co-operating with the FBI and the Swiss authorities, Chuck Blazer confirmed that he and other members of FIFA's executive committee were bribed during the 1998 and 2010 World Cups host selection process. Blazer stated that "we facilitated bribes in conjunction with the selection of the host nation for the 1998 World Cup". Since France won the selection process it was initially thought the bribery came from its bid committee. It eventually transpired that the bribe payment was from the failed Moroccan bid.[4][5][6]

Qualification

The qualification draw for the 1998 World Cup finals took place in the Musée du Louvre, Paris on 12 December 1995.[7] As tournament hosts, France was exempt from the draw as was defending champion Brazil. 174 teams from six confederations participated, 24 more than in the previous round. Fourteen countries qualified from the European zone (in addition to hosts France). Ten were determined after group play - nine group winners and the best second-placed team; the other eight group runners-up were drawn into pairs of four play-off matches with the winners qualifying for the finals as well.[8]CONMEBOL (South America) and CAF (Africa) were each given five spots in the final tournament, while three spots were contested between 30 CONCACAF members in the North and Central America and the Caribbean zone. The winner of the Oceanian zone advanced to an intercontinental play-off against the runner-up of the Asian play-off, determined by the two best second placed teams.

Four nations qualified for the first time: Croatia, Jamaica, Japan and South Africa. The last team to qualify was Iran by virtue of beating Australia in a two-legged tie on 29 November 1997.[9] This was Team Melli's first appearance in the finals since 1978, the last time Tunisia also qualified for the tournament. Chile qualified for the first time since 1982, after serving a ban that saw them miss out on the two previous tournaments. Paraguay and Denmark returned for the first time since 1986. Austria, England, Scotland and Yugoslavia returned after missing out on the 1994 tournament, with the Balkan team now appearing under the name of FR Yugoslavia. Among the teams who failed to qualify were two-time winners Uruguay (for the second successive tournament); Sweden, who finished third in 1994; Russia (who failed to qualify for the first time since 1978 after losing to Italy in the play-off round); and the Republic of Ireland, who had qualified for the previous two tournaments.[10] As of 2018, this is the most recent time Austria, Scotland, Norway, Bulgaria, Romania, and Jamaica have qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time Portugal missed out. The highest ranked team not to qualify was Czech Republic (ranked 3rd), while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was Nigeria (ranked 74th).

List of qualified teams

The following 32 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings,[11] qualified for the final tournament.

Venues

France's bid to host the World Cup centered on a national stadium with 80,000 seats and nine other stadiums located across the country.[13] When the finals were originally awarded in July 1992, none of the regional club grounds were of a capacity meeting FIFA's requirements - namely being able to safely seat 40,000.[13] The proposed national stadium, colloquially referred to as the 'Grand stade' met with controversy at every stage of planning; the stadium's location was determined by politics, finance and national symbolism.[14] As Mayor of Paris, Jacques Chirac successfully negotiated a deal with Prime Minister Édouard Balladur to bring the Stade de France - as it was named now, to the commune of Saint-Denis just north of the capital city.[14] Construction on the stadium started in December 1995 and was completed after 26 months of work in November 1997 at a cost of ?2.67 billion.[15]

The choice of stadium locations was drafted from an original list of 14 cities.[16] FIFA and CFO monitored the progress and quality of preparations, culminating in the former providing final checks of the grounds weeks before the tournament commenced. Montpellier was the surprise inclusion from the final list of cities because of its low urban hierarchy in comparison to Strasbourg, who boasted a better hierarchy and success from its local football team, having been taken over by a consortium. Montpellier however was considered ambitious by the selecting panel to host World Cup matches. The local city and regional authories in particular had invested heavily into football the previous two decades and were able to measure economic effects, in terms of jobs as early as in 1997.[17] Some of the venues used for this tournament were also used for the previous World Cup in France in 1938. The Stade Vélodrome in Marseille, the Stade Municipal in Toulouse, the Gerland in Lyon, the Parc Lescure in Bordeaux and the Parc des Princes in Paris received the honour of hosting World Cup matches once again in 1998 as they had all done in 1938.

10 stadiums in total were used for the finals; in addition to nine matches being played at the Stade de France (the most used stadium in the tournament), a further seven matches took place in Paris Saint-Germain's Parc des Princes, bringing Paris's total matches hosted to 16. France played four of their seven matches in the national stadium; they also played in the country's second and third largest cities, Marseille (hosting 7 total matches) and Lyon (hosting 6 total matches), as well as a Round of 16 knockout match in the northern city of Lens (also hosting 6 total matches). Nantes, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Montpellier and Saint-Etienne also hosted 6 matches in total; all of the stadiums used also hosted knockout round matches.

Saint-Denis Marseille Paris Lyon
Stade de France Stade Vélodrome Parc des Princes Stade de Gerland
48°55?28?N 2°21?36?E / 48.92444°N 2.36000°E / 48.92444; 2.36000 (Stade de France) 43°16?11?N 5°23?45?E / 43.26972°N 5.39583°E / 43.26972; 5.39583 (Stade Vélodrome) 48°50?29?N 2°15?11?E / 48.84139°N 2.25306°E / 48.84139; 2.25306 (Parc des Princes) 45°43?26?N 4°49?56?E / 45.72389°N 4.83222°E / 45.72389; 4.83222 (Stade de Gerland)
Capacity: 80,000 Capacity: 60,000 Capacity: 48,875 Capacity: 44,000
Finale Coupe de France 2010-2011 (Lille LOSC vs Paris SG PSG).jpg Vue du virage Depé.jpg Paris-Parc-des-Princes.jpg Stade-Gerland-RWC2007.JPG
Lens
Stade Félix-Bollaert
50°25?58.26?N 2°48?53.47?E / 50.4328500°N 2.8148528°E / 50.4328500; 2.8148528 (Stade Félix-Bollaert)
Capacity: 41,300
Stade Felix-Bollaert.jpg
Nantes
Stade de la Beaujoire
47°15?20.27?N 1°31?31.35?W / 47.2556306°N 1.5253750°W / 47.2556306; -1.5253750 (Stade de la Beaujoire)
Capacity: 39,500
Stade de la Beaujoire.jpg
Toulouse Saint-Étienne Bordeaux Montpellier
Stadium de Toulouse Stade Geoffroy-Guichard Parc Lescure Stade de la Mosson
43°34?59.93?N 1°26?2.57?E / 43.5833139°N 1.4340472°E / 43.5833139; 1.4340472 (Stadium de Toulouse) 45°27?38.76?N 4°23?24.42?E / 45.4607667°N 4.3901167°E / 45.4607667; 4.3901167 (Stade Geoffroy-Guichard) 44°49?45?N 0°35?52?W / 44.82917°N 0.59778°W / 44.82917; -0.59778 (Parc Lescure) 43°37?19.85?N 3°48?43.28?E / 43.6221806°N 3.8120222°E / 43.6221806; 3.8120222 (Stade de la Mosson)
Capacity: 37,000 Capacity: 36,000 Capacity: 35,200 Capacity: 34,000
Stadium TFC LOSC mai2013 2.JPG Stade-GeoffroyGuichard-RWC2007.JPG Stade Chaban-Delmas.jpg Australie-Fidji.4.JPG

Innovations

Technologies

This was the first World Cup where fourth officials used electronic boards, instead of cardboard.[18]

Rule changes

This was the first World Cup since the introduction of golden goals,[18] banning of tackles from behind that endanger the safety of an opponent[19] and allowance of three substitutions per game.[20]

Match officials

34 referees and 33 assistants officiated in the 1998 World Cup.[21] As a result of the extension to 32 teams in the finals, there was an increase of 10 referees and 11 officials from the 1994 World Cup.[21]

Seeds

Squads

As with the preceding tournament, each team's squad for the 1998 World Cup finals consisted of 22 players. Each participating national association had to confirm their final 22-player squad by 1 June 1998.

Out of the 704 players participating in the 1998 World Cup, 447 were signed up with a European club; 90 in Asia, 67 in South America, 61 in Northern and Central America and 37 in Africa.[22] 75 played their club football in England - five more than Italy and Spain. Barcelona of Spain was the club contributing to the most players in the tournament with 13 players on their side.[22]

The average age of all teams was 27 years, 8 months - five months older than the previous tournament.[23]Samuel Eto'o of Cameroon was the youngest player selected in the competition at 17 years, 3 months, while the oldest was Jim Leighton of Scotland at 39 years, 11 months.[23]

Results

Group stage

All times are Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)

Group A

Defending champions Brazil won Group A after only two matches as the nation achieved victories over Scotland (2-1) and Morocco (3-0). Heading into the third game, Brazil had nothing to play for but still started its regulars against Norway, who was looking to upset Brazil once again. Needing a victory, Norway overturned a 1-0 deficit with 12 minutes remaining to defeat Brazil 2-1, with Kjetil Rekdal scoring[24] the winning penalty to send Norway into the knockout stage for the first time.

Norway's victory denied Morocco a chance at the Round of 16, despite winning 3-0 against Scotland. It was only Morocco's second ever victory at a World Cup, having recorded its only previous win 12 years earlier on 11 June 1986.

Scotland managed only one point, coming in a 1-1 draw against Norway, and failed to get out of the first round for an eighth time in the FIFA World Cup, a record that stands to this date.


Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Brazil 3 2 0 1 6 3 +3 6 Advance to knockout stage
2  Norway 3 1 2 0 5 4 +1 5
3  Morocco 3 1 1 1 5 5 0 4
4  Scotland 3 0 1 2 2 6 −4 1
Source: FIFA

Group B

Italy and Chile progressed to the second round, while Austria failed to score any win for the first time since 1958 and Cameroon failed to get out of the group stage for the second time in a row.

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Italy 3 2 1 0 7 3 +4 7 Advance to knockout stage
2  Chile 3 0 3 0 4 4 0 3
3  Austria 3 0 2 1 3 4 −1 2
4  Cameroon 3 0 2 1 2 5 −3 2
Source: FIFA

Group C

France, the host nation, swept Group C when the start of their path to their first FIFA World Cup trophy culminated with their 2-1 win over Denmark, who despite their loss, progressed to the second round.

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  France (H) 3 3 0 0 9 1 +8 9 Advance to knockout stage
2  Denmark 3 1 1 1 3 3 0 4
3  South Africa 3 0 2 1 3 6 −3 2
4  Saudi Arabia 3 0 1 2 2 7 −5 1
Source: FIFA
(H) Host.

Group D

Nigeria and Paraguay advanced to the Round of 16 after a surprise elimination of top seed Spain, while Bulgaria failed to repeat their surprise performance from the previous tournament.

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Nigeria 3 2 0 1 5 5 0 6 Advance to knockout stage
2  Paraguay 3 1 2 0 3 1 +2 5
3  Spain 3 1 1 1 8 4 +4 4
4  Bulgaria 3 0 1 2 1 7 −6 1
Source: FIFA

Group E

The Netherlands and Mexico advanced with the same record (The Netherlands placed first on goal difference); Belgium and eventual 2002 FIFA World Cup co-hosts South Korea failed to advance.

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Netherlands 3 1 2 0 7 2 +5 5 Advance to knockout stage
2  Mexico 3 1 2 0 7 5 +2 5
3  Belgium 3 0 3 0 3 3 0 3
4  South Korea 3 0 1 2 2 9 −7 1
Source: FIFA

Group F

Germany and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia advanced, each with 7 points (Germany took 1st through goal differential tiebreak). Iran and 1994 host United States failed to advance.

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Germany 3 2 1 0 6 2 +4 7 Advance to knockout stage
2  FR Yugoslavia 3 2 1 0 4 2 +2 7
3  Iran 3 1 0 2 2 4 −2 3
4  United States 3 0 0 3 1 5 −4 0
Source: FIFA

Group G

Romania and England became Group G top finishers as Colombia and Tunisia were unable to reach the last 16, despite Colombia having one win.

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Romania 3 2 1 0 4 2 +2 7 Advance to knockout stage
2  England 3 2 0 1 5 2 +3 6
3  Colombia 3 1 0 2 1 3 −2 3
4  Tunisia 3 0 1 2 1 4 −3 1
Source: FIFA

Group H

Argentina and World Cup debutants Croatia finished at the top of Group H while Jamaica (another debutant) and 2002 FIFA World Cup co-hosts Japan (another debutant) failed to advance.

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Argentina 3 3 0 0 7 0 +7 9 Advance to knockout stage
2  Croatia 3 2 0 1 4 2 +2 6
3  Jamaica 3 1 0 2 3 9 −6 3
4  Japan 3 0 0 3 1 4 −3 0
Source: FIFA

Knockout stage

The knockout stage comprised the 16 teams that advanced from the group stage of the tournament. For each game in the knockout stage, any draw at 90 minutes was followed by 30 minutes of extra time; if scores were still level, there was a penalty shoot-out to determine who progressed to the next round. Golden goal comes into play if a team scores during extra time, thus becoming the winner which concludes the game.

 
Round of 16Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
 
              
 
27 June - Paris
 
 
 Brazil4
 
3 July - Nantes
 
 Chile1
 
 Brazil3
 
28 June - Saint-Denis
 
 Denmark2
 
 Nigeria1
 
7 July - Marseille
 
 Denmark4
 
 Brazil (p)1 (4)
 
29 June - Toulouse
 
 Netherlands1 (2)
 
 Netherlands2
 
4 July - Marseille
 
 Yugoslavia1
 
 Netherlands2
 
30 June - St. Étienne
 
 Argentina1
 
 Argentina (p)2 (4)
 
12 July - Saint-Denis
 
 England2 (3)
 
 Brazil0
 
27 June - Marseille
 
 France3
 
 Italy1
 
3 July - Saint-Denis
 
 Norway0
 
 Italy0 (3)
 
28 June - Lens
 
 France (p)0 (4)
 
 France (aet)1
 
8 July - Saint-Denis
 
 Paraguay0
 
 France2
 
29 June - Montpellier
 
 Croatia1 Third place
 
 Germany2
 
4 July - Lyon11 July - Paris
 
 Mexico1
 
 Germany0 Netherlands1
 
30 June - Bordeaux
 
 Croatia3  Croatia2
 
 Romania0
 
 
 Croatia1
 

Round of 16

Attendance: 55,000

Brazil 4-1 Chile
César Sampaio Goal 11'27'
Ronaldo Goal 45+1' (pen.)70'
Report Salas Goal 68'
Attendance: 45,500
Referee: Marc Batta (France)


Attendance: 77,000



Attendance: 31,800

Quarter-finals




Germany 0-3 Croatia
Report Jarni Goal 45+3'
Vlaovi? Goal 80'
?uker Goal 85'
Attendance: 39,100

Semi-finals


France 2-1 Croatia
Thuram Goal 47'69' Report ?uker Goal 46'

Third place play-off

Croatia beat the Netherlands to earn third place in the competition. Davor ?uker scored the winner in the 35th minute to secure the golden boot.[25]

Attendance: 45,500

Final

The final was held on 12 July 1998 at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis. France defeated holders Brazil 3-0, with two goals from Zinedine Zidane and a stoppage time strike from Emmanuel Petit. The win gave France their first World Cup title, becoming the sixth national team after Uruguay, Italy, England, West Germany and Argentina to win the tournament on their home soil. They also inflicted the second-heaviest World Cup defeat on Brazil,[26] later to be topped by Brazil's 7-1 defeat by Germany in the semi-finals of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.[27]

The pre-match build up was dominated by the omission of Brazilian striker Ronaldo from the starting lineup only to be reinstated 45 minutes before kick-off.[28] He managed to create the first open chance for Brazil in the 22nd minute, dribbling past defender Thuram before sending a cross out on the left side that goalkeeper Fabien Barthez struggled to hold onto. France however took the lead after Brazilian defender Roberto Carlos conceded a corner from which Zidane scored via a header. Three minutes before half-time, Zidane scored his second goal of the match, similarly another header from a corner. The tournament hosts went down to ten men in the 68th minute as Marcel Desailly was sent off for a second bookable offence. Brazil reacted to this by making an attacking substitution and although they applied pressure France sealed the win with a third goal: substitute Patrick Vieira set up his club teammate Petit in a counterattack to shoot low past goalkeeper Cláudio Taffarel.[29]

French president Jacques Chirac was in attendance to congratulate and commiserate the winners and runners-up respectively after the match.[30] Several days after the victory, winning manager Aimé Jacquet announced his resignation from the French team with immediate effect.[31][32]

Brazil 0-3 France
Report Zidane Goal 27'45+1'
Petit Goal 90+3'
Attendance: 80,000

Statistics

Goalscorers

Davor ?uker received the Golden Boot for scoring six goals. In total, 171 goals were scored by 112 players:

6 goals
5 goals
4 goals
3 goals
2 goals
1 goal
Own goals

Awards

Players who were red-carded during the tournament

All-star team

The All-star team is a squad consisting of the 16 most impressive players at the 1998 World Cup, as selected by FIFA's Technical Study Group.[33]

Final standings

After the tournament, FIFA published a ranking of all teams that competed in the 1998 World Cup finals based on progress in the competition and overall results.[34]

R Team G P W D L GF GA GD Pts.
1  France C 7 6 1 0 15 2 +13 19
2  Brazil A 7 4 1 2 14 10 +4 13
3  Croatia H 7 5 0 2 11 5 +6 15
4  Netherlands E 7 3 3 1 13 7 +6 12
Eliminated in the quarter-finals
5  Italy B 5 3 2 0 8 3 +5 11
6  Argentina H 5 3 1 1 10 4 +6 10
7  Germany F 5 3 1 1 8 6 +2 10
8  Denmark C 5 2 1 2 9 7 +2 7
Eliminated in the round of 16
9  England G 4 2 1 1 7 4 +3 7
10  Yugoslavia F 4 2 1 1 5 4 +1 7
11  Romania G 4 2 1 1 4 3 +1 7
12  Nigeria D 4 2 0 2 6 9 -3 6
13  Mexico E 4 1 2 1 8 7 +1 5
14  Paraguay D 4 1 2 1 3 2 +1 5
15  Norway A 4 1 2 1 5 5 0 5
16  Chile B 4 0 3 1 5 8 -3 3
Eliminated in the group stage
17  Spain D 3 1 1 1 8 4 +4 4
18  Morocco A 3 1 1 1 5 5 0 4
19  Belgium E 3 0 3 0 3 3 0 3
20  Iran F 3 1 0 2 2 4 -2 3
21  Colombia G 3 1 0 2 1 3 -2 3
22  Jamaica H 3 1 0 2 3 9 -6 3
23  Austria B 3 0 2 1 3 4 -1 2
24  South Africa C 3 0 2 1 3 6 -3 2
25  Cameroon B 3 0 2 1 2 5 -3 2
26  Tunisia G 3 0 1 2 1 4 -3 1
27  Scotland A 3 0 1 2 2 6 -4 1
28  Saudi Arabia C 3 0 1 2 2 7 -5 1
29  Bulgaria D 3 0 1 2 1 7 -6 1
30  South Korea E 3 0 1 2 2 9 -7 1
31  Japan H 3 0 0 3 1 4 -3 0
32  United States F 3 0 0 3 1 5 -4 0

Symbols

Footix, the official mascot of the tournament

Mascot

The official mascot was Footix, a rooster first presented in May 1996.[35] It was created by graphic designer Fabrice Pialot and selected from a shortlist of five mascots.[36] Research carried out about the choice of having a cockerel as a mascot was greatly received: 91% associated it immediately with France, the traditional symbol of the nation.[35] Footix, the name chosen by French television viewers, is a portmanteau of "football" and the ending "-ix" from the popular Astérix comic strip.[35] The mascot's colours reflect those of the host nation's flag and home strip - blue for the jump suit, a red crest and with the words 'France 98' coloured in white.

Official song

The official song of the 1998 FIFA World Cup was "The Cup of Life," aka "La Copa de la Vida" recorded by Ricky Martin.[37][38]

Match ball

The match ball for the 1998 World Cup, manufactured by Adidas was named the Tricolore, meaning 'three-coloured' in French.[39] It was the eighth World Cup match ball made for the tournament by the German company and was the first in the series to be multi-coloured.[40] The tricolour flag and cockerel, traditional symbols of France were used as inspiration for the design.[40]

Marketing

Sponsorship

The sponsors of the 1998 FIFA World Cup are divided into two categories: FIFA World Cup Sponsors and France Supporters.[41][42]

Coca-Cola was one of the sponsors of FIFA World Cup 1998.

The absence of Budweiser (which was one of the sponsors in the previous two World Cups) is notable due to the Evin law, which forbids alcohol-related sponsorship in France, including in sports events (and thus, being replaced by Casio).[65]

Broadcasting

FIFA, through several companies, sold the broadcasting rights for the 1998 FIFA World Cup to many broadcasters. In the UK BBC and ITV had the broadcasting rights. The pictures and audio of the competition were supplied to the TV and radio channels by the company TVRS 98, the broadcaster of the tournament.[66]

The World Cup matches were broadcast in 200 countries. 818 photographers were credited for the tournament. In every match, a stand was reserved for the press. The number of places granted to them reached its maximum in the final, when 1,750 reporters and 110 TV commentators were present in the stand.[67]

Video games

The official video game, World Cup 98 was released by EA Sports on 13 March 1998 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation, Nintendo 64 and the Game Boy. It was the first international football game developed by Electronic Arts since obtaining the rights from FIFA in 1997 and received mostly favourable reviews.[68][69][70]

Many other video games, including International Superstar Soccer 98, World League Soccer 98, Actua Soccer 2 and Neo Geo Cup '98: The Road to the Victory were released in the buildup to the 1998 World Cup and evidently were based on the tournament. FIFA: Road to World Cup 98, also by EA Sports focused on the qualification stage.

Legacy

Honorary FIFA President João Havelange praised France's hosting of the World Cup, describing the tournament as one that would "remain with me forever, as I am sure they will remain with everyone who witnessed this unforgettable competition".[71]Lennart Johansson, the chairman of the organising committee for the World Cup and President of UEFA added that France provided "subject matter of a quality that made the world hold its breath".[72]

Cour des Comptes, the quasi-judicial body of the French government released its report on the organisation of the 1998 World Cup in 2000.[73]

See also

References

  1. ^ "France Gets 1998 World Cup". The New York Times. 3 July 1992. Retrieved 2012.
  2. ^ "France awarded 1998 World Cup". The Item. 2 July 1992. p. 3. Retrieved 2012.
  3. ^ "FIFA World Cup(TM) host announcement decision" (PDF). FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ Vicki Hodges, Giles Mole, JJ Bull, Luke Brown and Rob Crilly, "Fifa whistleblower Chuck Blazer - bribes accepted for 1998 and 2010 World Cups: as it happened", The Telegraph, 3 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015
  5. ^ Owen Gibson, Paul Lewis, "Fifa informant Chuck Blazer: I took bribes over 1998 and 2010 World Cups", The Guardian, 3 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015
  6. ^ Tarik El Barakah, "U.S. judge claims that Morocco bribed FIFA to host 1998 World Cup", Moroccow World News, 28 May 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2017
  7. ^ "New Overtime Rule For 1998 World Cup". New York Times. Associated Press. 1 June 1995. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ Shaw, Phil (13 December 1995). "Italy and Poland bar England's road to France". The Independent. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ "Celebration and heartbreak". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 29 November 1997. Retrieved 2012.
  10. ^ "Soccer: Roundup - 1998 World Cup qualifying; Belgium earns berth and eliminates Ireland". New York Times. 15 November 1997. Retrieved 2012.
  11. ^ "FIFA/Coca Cola World Ranking (20 May 1998)". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 27 January 2012.
  12. ^ "FIFA/Coca Cola World Ranking (20 May 1998)". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 27 January 2012.
  13. ^ a b Dauncey & Hare, p. 98.
  14. ^ a b Dauncey & Hare, p. 99.
  15. ^ Dauncey & Hare, p. 107.
  16. ^ Dauncey & Hare, p. 101.
  17. ^ Dauncey & Hare, p. 104.
  18. ^ a b France 1998. Sport24, 5 May 2010 12:12.
  19. ^ "FIFA to crack down on tackle from behind". FIFA.com. 6 March 1998. Retrieved 2018.
  20. ^ Substitute the subs rule? By Mitch Phillips, 5 November 2007 Reuters Soccer Blog.
  21. ^ a b "Referees and assistants for France 98 chosen". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 2 February 1998. Retrieved 2012.
  22. ^ a b "Players Facts & Figures: Eto's the youngest, Leighton the oldest". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 8 June 1998. Retrieved 2012.
  23. ^ a b FIFA, p. 15.
  24. ^ "Her er de ti beste sportsøyeblikkene". Dagsavisen.no. Archived from the original on 12 September 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  25. ^ "Debutant takes third place with win over the Netherlands". CNNSI. Associated Press. 11 July 1998. Retrieved 2012.
  26. ^ Paul, Oberjuerge (12 July 1998). "France plays perfect host; hoists World Cup in Paris". Gannett News Service. Paris: SoccerTimes. Archived from the original on 28 November 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  27. ^ "Match report". FIFA.com.
  28. ^ "World commentators decry Brazil, Ronaldo". CNNSI. Associated Press. 12 July 1998. Retrieved 2012.
  29. ^ "ZZ Top of the World". New Straits Times. 13 July 1998. Retrieved 2013.
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  31. ^ Barth, Elie (18 July 1998). "Il devrait succéder à Gérard Houllier comme directeur technique national". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 2012.
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