The Duke of Bailén
|President of the Regency Council|
1 February 1810 - 29 May 1810
|Pedro de Quevedo y Quintano|
|1st President of the House of Peers|
10 April 1834 - 12 July 1835
|The Duke of Ahumada|
Francisco Javier Castaños y Urioste
22 April 1758
|Died||22 April 1852 (aged 93)|
|Resting place||Pantheon of Illustrious Men (1852-1963)|
Parish Church of the Incarnation, Bailén (1963-present)
|Profession||Army general and politician|
|Awards||Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece|
Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III
|Years of service||1774-1852|
|Battles/wars||War of the Pyrenees|
Anglo-Spanish War (1796-1808)
Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, 1st Duke of Bailén (22 April 1758 – 24 September 1852) was a Spanish general and politician who excelled during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. From July to September 1834, he served as the first president of the Senate of Spain, at that time called House of Peers.
Castaños was one of the most important military officers during the Peninsular War, reaching the position of Chair of the Regency Council of Spain and the Indies (de facto head of state) in 1810. In 1833, Queen Regent Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, in the name of her daughter, Queen Isabella II, granted him with the title of Duke of Bailén, to honour his actions in the Peninsular War and, specially, in the Battle of Bailén, where the Napoleonic army was defeated at open field for the first time, which also caused the flight of Spain from King Joseph Bonaparte.
Castaños was born at Madrid.
Castaños is remembered for his victory over the French under Dupont, whom he surrounded and compelled to surrender at the decisive Battle of Bailen in 1808, being on that moment in command of the "Army of the South", the biggest Spanish military unit during the Napoleonic War. Though just months later lead his army to a decisive defeat at the Battle of Tudela. After this he served under Wellington in several engagements, and was commander of the Spanish army, if required, to invade France in 1815.
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