Friesland
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Friesland
Friesland

Fryslân  (West Frisian)

Frisia
Coat of arms of Friesland
Coat of arms
Anthem: "De Alde Friezen"
"The Old Frisians"
Location of Friesland in the Netherlands
Location of Friesland in the Netherlands
Location of Friesland
Coordinates: 53°8?N 5°49?E / 53.133°N 5.817°E / 53.133; 5.817Coordinates: 53°8?N 5°49?E / 53.133°N 5.817°E / 53.133; 5.817
CountryNetherlands
CapitalLeeuwarden (Ljouwert)
Government
 o King's CommissionerArno Brok (VVD)
Area
 o Total5,749 km2 (2,220 sq mi)
 o Land3,342 km2 (1,290 sq mi)
 o Water2,407 km2 (929 sq mi)
Area rank3rd
Population
(January 2019)
 o Total647,672
 o Rank8th
 o Density110/km2 (290/sq mi)
 o Density rank11th
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNL-FR
Religion (2005)Protestant 30%
Roman Catholic 6%
Muslim 2%
HDI (2017)0.904[1]
very high · 10th
Websitewww.fryslan.frl

Friesland ( FREEZ-l?nd, also -⁠land, Dutch: ['frisl?nt] ; official West Frisian: Fryslân ['frisl?:n] ), historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country. It is situated west of Groningen, northwest of Drenthe and Overijssel, north of Flevoland, northeast of North Holland, and south of the Wadden Sea. In 2019, the province had a population of 647,672 and a total area of 5,749 km2 (2,220 sq mi).

The capital and seat of the provincial government is the city of Leeuwarden (West Frisian: Ljouwert), a city with 92,146 inhabitants. Since 2017, Arno Brok is the King's Commissioner in the province. A coalition of the Christian Democratic Appeal, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, the Labour Party and the Frisian National Party forms the executive branch. The province is divided into 18 municipalities. The area of the province was once part of the ancient, larger region of Frisia. The official languages of Friesland are West Frisian and Dutch.

Toponymy

In 1996 the States of Friesland resolved that the official name of the province should follow the West Frisian spelling rather than the Dutch spelling, resulting in "Friesland" being replaced by "Fryslân".[2] In 2004 the Dutch government confirmed this resolution, putting in place a three-year scheme to oversee the name change and associated cultural programme.[3]

The province of Friesland is occasionally referred to as "Frisia" by, amongst others, Hanno Brand, head of the history and literature department at the Fryske Akademy since 2009.[4] However, the English-language webpage of the Friesland Provincial Council refers to the province as "Fryslân".[5]

History

Prehistory

Map of the North Sea coast, ca. 150 AD. (erroneously shows late 20th century land masses)

The Frisii were among the migrating Germanic tribes that, following the breakup of Celtic Europe in the 4th century BC, settled along the North Sea. They came to control the area from roughly present-day Bremen to Brugge, and conquered many of the smaller offshore islands. What little is known of the Frisii is provided by a few Roman accounts, most of them military. Pliny the Elder said their lands were forest-covered with tall trees growing up to the edge of the lakes.[6] They lived by agriculture[7] and raising cattle.[8]

In his Germania, Tacitus would describe all the Germanic peoples of the region as having elected kings with limited powers and influential military leaders who led by example rather than by authority. The people lived in spread-out settlements.[9] He specifically noted the weakness of Germanic political hierarchies in reference to the Frisii, when he mentioned the names of two kings of the 1st century Frisii and added that they were kings "as far as the Germans are under kings".[10]

In the 1st century BC, the Frisii halted a Roman advance and thus managed to maintain their independence.[11] Some or all of the Frisii may have joined into the Frankish and Saxon peoples in late Roman times, but they would retain a separate identity in Roman eyes until at least 296, when they were forcibly resettled as laeti[12] (Roman-era serfs) and thereafter disappear from recorded history. Their tentative existence in the 4th century is confirmed by archaeological discovery of a type of earthenware unique to 4th-century Frisia, called terp Tritzum, showing that an unknown number of Frisii were resettled in Flanders and Kent,[13] likely as laeti under the aforementioned Roman coercion. The lands of the Frisii were largely abandoned by c. 400 as a result of the conflicts of the Migration Period, climate deterioration, and the flooding caused by a rise in the sea level.

Early Middle Ages

The Frisian realm in 716 AD

The area lay empty for one or two centuries, when changing environmental and political conditions made the region habitable again. At that time, during the Migration Period, "new" Frisians (probably descended from a merging of Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisii) repopulated the coastal regions.[14][15](p792) These Frisians consisted of tribes with loose bonds, centred on war bands but without great power. The earliest Frisian records name four social classes, the ethelings (nobiles in Latin documents; adel in Dutch and German) and frilings ( vrijen in Dutch and Freien in German), who together made up the "Free Frisians" who might bring suit at court, and the laten or liten with the slaves, who were absorbed into the laten during the Early Middle Ages, as slavery was not so much formally abolished, as evaporated.[a] The laten were tenants of lands they did not own and might be tied to it in the manner of serfs, but in later times might buy their freedom.[16](p202)

Under the rule of King Aldgisl, the Frisians came in conflict with the Frankish mayor of the palace Ebroin, over the old Roman border fortifications. Aldgisl could keep the Franks at a distance with his army. During the reign of Redbad, however, the tide turned in favour of the Franks; in 690, the Franks were victorious in the Battle of Dorestad.[17] In 733, Charles Martel sent an army against the Frisians. The Frisian army was pushed back to Eastergoa. The next year the Battle of the Boarn took place. Charles ferried an army across the Almere with a fleet that enabled him to sail up to De Boarn. The Frisians were defeated in the ensuing battle,[15](p795) and their last king Poppo was killed.[18] The victors began plundering and burning heathen sanctuaries. Charles Martel returned with much loot, and broke the power of the Frisian kings for good. The Franks annexed the Frisian lands between the Vlie and the Lauwers. They conquered the area east of the Lauwers in 785, when Charlemagne defeated Widukind. The Carolingians laid Frisia under the rule of grewan, a title that has been loosely related to count in its early sense of "governor" rather than "feudal overlord".[16](p205) About 100,000 Dutch drowned in a flood in 1228.[19]

Frisian freedom

Pier Gerlofs Donia in 1516 as depicted in a 19th-century painting by Johannes Hinderikus Egenberger

When, around 800, the Scandinavian Vikings first attacked Frisia, which was still under Carolingian rule, the Frisians were released from military service on foreign territory in order to be able to defend themselves against the heathen Vikings. With their victory in the Battle of Norditi in 884 they were able to drive the Vikings permanently out of East Frisia, although it remained under constant threat. Over the centuries, whilst feudal lords reigned in the rest of Europe, no aristocratic structures emerged in Frisia. This 'Frisian freedom' was represented abroad by redjeven who were elected from among the wealthier farmers or from elected representatives of the autonomous rural municipalities. Originally the redjeven were all judges, so-called Asega, who were appointed by the territorial lords.[20]

After significant territories were lost to Holland in the Friso-Hollandic Wars, Frisia saw an economic downturn in the mid-14th century. Accompanied by a decline in monasteries and other communal institutions, social discord led to the emergence of untitled nobles called haadlingen ("headmen"), wealthy landowners possessing large tracts of land and fortified homes[21] who took over the role of the judiciary as well offering protection to their local inhabitants. Internal struggles between regional leaders resulted in bloody conflicts and the alignment of regions along two opposing parties: the Fetkeapers and Skieringers. On 21 March 1498,[22] a small group of Skieringers from Westergo secretly met with Albert III, Duke of Saxony, the Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, in Medemblik requesting his help.[23] Albrecht, who had gained a reputation as a formidable military commander, accepted and soon conquered all Friesland. Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg appointed Albrecht hereditary potestate and gubernator of Friesland in 1499.[24]

In 1515, an army of peasant rebels and mercenaries known as the Arumer Zwarte Hoop started a peasants' revolt against the Habsburg authorities.[25] The leader was the farmer Pier Gerlofs Donia, whose farm had been burned down and whose kinfolk had been killed by a marauding Landsknecht regiment. Since the regiment had been employed by the Habsburg authorities to suppress the civil war of the Fetkeapers and Skieringers, Donia put the blame on the authorities. After this he gathered angry peasants and some petty noblemen from Frisia and Gelderland and formed the Arumer Zwarte Hoop.The rebels received financial support from Charles II, Duke of Guelders, who claimed the Duchy of Guelders in opposition to the House of Habsburg. Charles also employed mercenaries under command of his military commander Maarten van Rossum in their support. However, when the tides turned against the rebels after the Donia's death in 1520, Charles withdrew his support, without which the rebels could no longer afford to pay their mercenary army.[26] The revolt was put to an end in 1523 and Frisia was incorporated into the Habsburg Netherlands, bringing an end to the Frisian freedom.[25]

Modern times

The Frisian representative refusing to kneel before Philip II at his coronation

Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, became the first lord of the Lordship of Frisia. He appointed Georg Schenck van Toutenburg, who had crushed the peasants' revolt, as Stadtholder to rule over the province in his stead. When Charles abdicated in 1556, Frisia was inherited by Philip II of Spain along with the rest of the Netherlands. In 1566, Frisia joined the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule.

In 1577, George de Lalaing, Count of Rennenberg was appointed Stadtholder of Frisia and other provinces. A moderate, trusted by both sides, he tried to reconcile the rebels with the Crown. But in 1580, Rennenburg declared for Spain. The States of Frisia raised troops and took his strongholds of Leeuwarden, Harlingen and Stavoren. Rennenburg was deposed and Frisia became the fifth Lordship to join the rebels' Union of Utrecht. From 1580 onward, all stadtholders were members of the House of Orange-Nassau. With the Peace of Münster in 1648, Frisia became a full member of the independent Dutch Republic, a federation of provincies. In economic and therefor also political importance, Friesland was next in rank to the provinces of Holland and Zeeland.

In 1798, three years after the Batavian Revolution, the provincial lordship of Frisia was abolished and its territory was divided between the Eems and Oude IJssel departments. This was short-lived, however, as Frisia was revived, however as a department in 1802. When the Netherlands were annexed by the First French Empire in 1810, the department was in French renamed Frise. After Napoleon was defeated in 1813 and a new constitution was introduced in 1814, Friesland became a province of the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands, then of the unitary Kingdom of the Netherlands a year later.

Geography

View of the northern coast of Friesland

Friesland is situated at 53°8?N 5°49?E / 53.133°N 5.817°E / 53.133; 5.817 in the northwest of the Netherlands, west of the province of Groningen, northwest of Drenthe and Overijssel, north of Flevoland, northeast of the IJsselmeer and North Holland, and south of the North Sea. It is the largest province of the Netherlands if one includes areas of water; in terms of land area only, it is the third-largest province.

Most of Friesland is on the mainland, but it also includes a number of West Frisian Islands, including Vlieland, Terschelling, Ameland and Schiermonnikoog, which are connected to the mainland by ferry. The province's highest point is a dune at 45 metres (148 ft) above sea level, on the island of Vlieland.

There are four national parks of the Netherlands located in Friesland: Schiermonnikoog, De Alde Feanen, Lauwersmeer (partially in Groningen), and Drents-Friese Wold (also partially situated in Drenthe).

Urban areas

The ten urban areas in Friesland with the largest population are:[27]

Dutch name Frisian name Population
Leeuwarden Ljouwert 92,235
Drachten Drachten 45,080
Sneek Snits 33,960
Heerenveen It Hearrenfean 30,567
Harlingen Harns 14,660
Joure De Jouwer 13,070
Wolvega Wolvegea 12,830
Franeker Frjentsjer 12,810
Dokkum Dokkum 12,575
Lemmer De Lemmer 10,315

Municipalities

Municipalities of Friesland

The province is divided into 18 municipalities, each with local government (municipal council, mayor and aldermen).

Municipality Population[28] Total area[29] Population density[28][29] COROP
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Achtkarspelen 27,943 103.98 40.15 273 710 North Friesland
Ameland 3,683 268.50 103.67 63 160 North Friesland
Dantumadiel 18,895 87.53 33.80 221 570 North Friesland
De Fryske Marren 51,740 559.93 216.19 143 370 South West Friesland
Harlingen 15,822 387.67 149.68 632 1,640 North Friesland
Heerenveen 50,230 187.76 72.49 278 720 South East Friesland
Leeuwarden 122,293 255.62 98.70 513 1,330 North Friesland
Noardeast-Fryslân 45,181 516.45 199.40 120 310 North Friesland
Ooststellingwerf 25,531 226.11 87.30 114 300 South East Friesland
Opsterland 29,769 227.64 87.89 133 340 South East Friesland
Schiermonnikoog 947 199.07 76.86 22 57 North Friesland
Smallingerland 55,797 126.17 48.71 472 1,220 South East Friesland
Súdwest-Fryslân 84,092 841.56 324.93 183 470 South West Friesland
Terschelling 4,977 673.99 260.23 58 150 North Friesland
Tytsjerksteradiel 31,977 161.41 62.32 214 550 North Friesland
Vlieland 1,145 315.80 121.93 32 83 North Friesland
Waadhoeke 46,101 315.26 121.72 162 420 North Friesland
Weststellingwerf 25,713 228.45 88.21 116 300 South East Friesland

Climate

The province of Friesland has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb).

Climate data for Leeuwarden
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
14.4
(57.9)
20.4
(68.7)
26.0
(78.8)
28.7
(83.7)
32.5
(90.5)
31.4
(88.5)
32.8
(91.0)
29.1
(84.4)
23.8
(74.8)
16.4
(61.5)
14.2
(57.6)
32.8
(91.0)
Average high °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
5.4
(41.7)
8.6
(47.5)
12.4
(54.3)
16.2
(61.2)
18.5
(65.3)
21.0
(69.8)
21.1
(70.0)
18.0
(64.4)
13.7
(56.7)
9.0
(48.2)
5.6
(42.1)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
2.7
(36.9)
5.3
(41.5)
8.2
(46.8)
12.0
(53.6)
14.6
(58.3)
17.0
(62.6)
16.9
(62.4)
14.2
(57.6)
10.5
(50.9)
6.5
(43.7)
3.3
(37.9)
9.5
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
-0.2
(31.6)
1.9
(35.4)
3.8
(38.8)
7.4
(45.3)
10.2
(50.4)
12.6
(54.7)
12.5
(54.5)
10.2
(50.4)
7.1
(44.8)
3.6
(38.5)
0.6
(33.1)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) -19.9
(-3.8)
-16.3
(2.7)
-16.3
(2.7)
-5.9
(21.4)
-1.7
(28.9)
1.3
(34.3)
5.7
(42.3)
5.4
(41.7)
2.0
(35.6)
-6.0
(21.2)
-14.2
(6.4)
-19.2
(-2.6)
-19.9
(-3.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 68.9
(2.71)
51.1
(2.01)
58.1
(2.29)
38.2
(1.50)
57.3
(2.26)
68.2
(2.69)
74.5
(2.93)
82.7
(3.26)
84.3
(3.32)
81.4
(3.20)
82.1
(3.23)
73.0
(2.87)
819.8
(32.28)
Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute[30][31]

Demography

In 2010, Friesland had a population of 646,305 and a population density of 190/km2 (490/sq mi).

The years 1880-1900 show slower population growth due to a farm crisis during which some 20,000 Frisians emigrated to the United States.[32]

Historical population of Friesland[33][34]
Year Population
1714 129,243
1748 135,195
1796 161,513
1811 175,366
1830 204,909
1840 227,859
1850 243,191
1860 269,701
1870 300,863
1880 329,877
1890 335,558
1900 340,263
Year Population
1910 363,625
1920 385,362
1930 402,051
1940 424,462
1950 465,267
1960 478,206
1970 521,820
1982 592,314
1990 599,151
1999 621,222
2010 646,305

Bevolkingsontwikkeling Friesland.jpg

Anthropometry

Since the late Middle Ages, Friesland has been renowned for the exceptional height of its inhabitants, who were deemed among the tallest groups of Indo-Europeans.[] Even early Renaissance poet Dante Alighieri refers to the height of Frisians in his Divine Comedy when, in the canticle about Hell, he talks about the magnitude of an infernal demon by stating that "not even three tall Frieslanders, were they set one upon the other, would have matched his height".[35]

Economy

Friesland is mainly an agricultural province. The black and white Frisian cattle, black and white Stabyhoun and the black Frisian horse originated here. Tourism is another important source of income: the principal tourist destinations include the lakes in the southwest of the province and the islands in the Wadden Sea to the north. There are 195 windmills in the province of Friesland, out of a total of about 1200 in the entire country.

Culture

Languages

Friesland is the only one of the twelve provinces of the Netherlands to have its own language that is recognized as such, West Frisian. Before the 18th century, varieties of Frisian were also spoken in the provinces of North-Holland and Groningen, and together with the Frisian speakers in Ost-Friesland and North-Friesland a continuous linguistic area existed between Amsterdam en the present day Danish-German border.

According to a study carried out in 2007, West Frisian is the native language of the 54.3% of the inhabitants of the province of Friesland, followed by Dutch with 34.7%, and speakers of other regional languages, most of these restricted to Friesland, with 9.7%, and in the end other foreign languages with 1.4%. Frisian speakers are traditionally underrepresented in urban areas, and predominant in the countryside.[36]

West-Frisian is also spoken in a small adjacent part of the province of Groningen. Up to the 18th century Frisian was spoken in the, at that time Prussian and Hannoveran, lordships of Ost-Friesland (East-Friesland). Since then the Ost-Frisian population switched to East Frisian (Ostfriesisch), a Low German dialect. Only in some, formerly remoted, East-Frisian villages (Saterland) a variety of historically East Frisian (Seeltersk) is still in use but by an older generation. A collection of dialects named North Frisian, is or was spoken in North Friesland, alongside the North See Coast and on the islands of Slesvig-Holstein. The named Frisian languages are historically related to Old English which points at the fact that Anglians and Saxons, eventually accompanied by Frisians, came from these areas.

In Stellingwerf, in south-east Friesland, a dialect of Low Saxon is spoken.[37]

The language policy in Friesland is preservation. West Frisian is a mandatory subject in Friesland in primary and secondary schools of the Frisian speaking districts. The bilingual (Dutch-Frisian) and trilingual (Dutch-English-Frisian) schools in the province of Friesland use in some lessons West-Frisian as a language of instruction, besides Dutch in most other lessons and next to them English. Literacy in Frisian however, is not often a core aim and that makes the number of Frisians speakers able to write in Frisian only 12%.[38] The provincial government takes various initiatives to preserve the West Frisian language. All parents in Friesland receive, at their children's birth, information about language and multilingualism (ex. 'taaltaske'). To support the use of Frisian in public and at public events, the province also invests in the development of speech pathology materials and strives to create information technology devices for the West Frisian language. The Frisian government subsidizes the Afûk organization, which offers language courses and actively promotes Frisian in all sectors of society as well as the corporate domain which as a rule is dominated by Dutch and Modern English.[39] The province also promotes a wide range of art and entertainment in Frisian.[40]

Sports

Finish of the Elfstedentocht in 1956

The province is famous for its speed skaters, with mass participation in cross-country ice skating when weather conditions permit. When winters are cold enough to allow the freshwater canals to freeze hard, the province holds its traditional Elfstedentocht (Eleven cities tour), a 200-kilometre (120 mi) ice skating tour. A traditional sport is Frisian handball. Another Frisian practice is fierljeppen, a sport with some similarities to pole vaulting. A jump consists of an intense sprint to the pole (polsstok), jumping and grabbing it, then climbing to the top while trying to control the pole's forward and lateral movements over a body of water and finishing with a graceful landing on a sand bed opposite to the starting point. Because of all the diverse skills required in fierljeppen, fierljeppers are considered to be very complete athletes with superbly developed strength and coordination. In the warmer months, many Frisians practice wadlopen, the traditional art of wading across designated sections of the Wadden Sea at low tide.

There are currently two top level football clubs playing in Friesland: SC Cambuur from Leeuwarden (home stadium Cambuur Stadion) and SC Heerenveen (home stadium Abe Lenstra Stadion).

Politics

Seat of the provincial government in Leeuwarden

The King's Commissioner of Friesland is Arno Brok.[41] The States of Friesland have 43 seats. The Provincial Executive is a coalition of the Christian Democratic Appeal, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, the Labour Party and the Frisian National Party (FNP).

2019 provincial elections[42]
Party Votes Seats
Christian Democratic Appeal 49.704 8
Forum for Democracy 40.055 6
Labour Party 39.976 6
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy 28.073 4
Frisian National Party 23.662 4
GreenLeft 22.935 3
ChristianUnion 19.673 3
Party for Freedom 17.287 3
Socialist Party 15.426 2
Democrats 66 12.284 2
Party for the Animals 9.618 1
50PLUS 7.595 1
Total 298.241 43

Transport

The four motorways in the province are A6, A7 (E22), A31, and A32.[44]

The main railway station of Friesland is Leeuwarden, which connects the railways Arnhem-Leeuwarden, Harlingen-Nieuweschans, and Leeuwarden-Stavoren which are all (partially) located in the province.

Ameland Airport near Ballum[45] and Drachten Airfield near Drachten[46] are the two general aviation airports in the province. The Royal Netherlands Air Force uses Vlieland Heliport and the Leeuwarden Air Base.

Literature

  • Helma Erkelens, Taal fen it hert. Language of the Heart. About Frisian Language and Culture, Province of Fryslân, Leeuwarden 2004
  • John Hines & Nelleke IJssennagger (eds.), Frisians and their North Sea Neighbours: From the Fifth Century to the Viking Age, Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge/Rochester 2017
  • Goffe Jensma, 'Minorities and Kinships. The Case of Ethnolinguistic Nationalism in Friesland', in: P. Broomans et al. (eds.), The Beloved Mothertongue. Ethnolinguistic Nationalism in Small Nations: Inventories and Reflections, Peeters, Louvain-Paris-Dudley 2008, p. 63-78
  • Horst Haider Munske (ed.), Handbuch des Friesischen / Handbook of Frisian Studies, Max Niemeyer, Tübingen 2001
  • Oebele Vries, 'Frisonica libertas: Frisian Freedom as an Instance of Medieval Liberty', in: Journal of Medieval History 41 (2015), nr. 2, p. 229-248

Media

Friesch Dagblad[47] and Leeuwarder Courant[48] are daily newspapers mainly written in Dutch. Omrop Fryslân is the public broadcaster with radio and TV programs mainly in Frisian.[49]

Notes

  1. ^ Homans describes Frisian social institutions, based on the summary by Siebs, Benno E. (1933). Grundlagen und Aufbau der altfriesischen Verfassung. Untersuchungen zur deutschen staats- und Rechtsgeschichte (in German). 144. Breslau: Marcus. OCLC 604057407. Siebs' synthesis was extrapolated from survivals detected in later medieval documents.[16]

References

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Beslut fan Provinsjale Staeten van Friesland" [Resolution of the Provincial Council of Friesland]. Provinciaal Blad van Friesland (in Western Frisian) (7). 28 March 1996.
  3. ^ "Ook voor rijk heet Friesland Fryslân" [Friesland to be called Fryslân across the realm]. Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 10 November 2004. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ Brand, A. J. (2011). "Frisians". In Cole, J. E. (ed.). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-59884-302-6.
  5. ^ "provinsje Fryslan, provincie fryslan English". provinsje Fryslan/provincie fryslan. Retrieved 2012.[dead link]
  6. ^ Pliny the Elder & 79_3:340-341, Natural History, Bk XVI Ch 2: Wonders connected with trees in the northern regions.
  7. ^ Tacitus 117:253, The Annals, Bk XIII, Ch 54. Events of AD 54–58. This was confirmed by Tacitus when he said that in an incident where the Frisii had taken over land, they then settled into houses, sowed the fields, and cultivated the soil.
  8. ^ Tacitus 117:147-148, The Annals, Bk IV, Ch 72–74. Events of AD 15–16. Tacitus specifically refers to the herds of the Frisii.
  9. ^ Tacitus & 98:18-19, 23-24, 36-37, The Germany, Ch V, VII, XVI.
  10. ^ Tacitus 117:253, The Annals, Bk XIII, Ch 54. Events of AD 54–58.
  11. ^ Minahan, James (2000). One Europe, many nations : a historical dictionary of European national groups. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 264. ISBN 9780313309847.
  12. ^ Grane, Thomas (2007), "From Gallienuso Probus - Three decades of turmoil and recovery", The Roman Empire and Southern Scandinavia–a Northern Connection! (PhD thesis), Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, p. 109
  13. ^ Looijenga, Jantina Helena (1997), "History, Archaeology and Runes", in SSG Uitgeverij (ed.), Runes Around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150–700; Texts and Contexts (PhD dissertation) (PDF), Groningen: Groningen University, p. 40, ISBN 90-6781-014-2. Looijenga cites Gerrets' The Anglo-Frisian Relationship Seen from an Archaeological Point of View (1995) for this contention.
  14. ^ Bazelmans 2009:321-337, The case of the Frisians.
  15. ^ a b Halbertsma, Herrius (1982). "Summary" (PDF). Frieslands Oudheid (Thesis) (in Dutch and English). Groningen: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. pp. 791-798. OCLC 746889526.
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