In matrix theory, the Frobenius covariants of a square matrix A are special polynomials of it, namely projection matrices Ai associated with the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A.:pp.403,437-8 They are named after the mathematician Ferdinand Frobenius.
Each covariant is a projection on the eigenspace associated with the eigenvalue ?i. Frobenius covariants are the coefficients of Sylvester's formula, which expresses a function of a matrix f(A) as a matrix polynomial, namely a linear combination of that function's values on the eigenvalues of A.
Let A be a diagonalizable matrix with eigenvalues ?1, …, ?k.
The Frobenius covariant Ai, for i = 1,…, k, is the matrix
The Frobenius covariants of a matrix A can be obtained from any eigendecomposition A = SDS-1, where S is non-singular and D is diagonal with Di,i = ?i. If A has no multiple eigenvalues, then let ci be the ith right eigenvector of A, that is, the ith column of S; and let ri be the ith left eigenvector of A, namely the ith row of S-1. Then Ai = ciri.
If A has an eigenvalue ?i appear multiple times, then Ai = ?jcjrj, where the sum is over all rows and columns associated with the eigenvalue ?i.:p.521
Consider the two-by-two matrix:
This matrix has two eigenvalues, 5 and -2; hence (A-5)(A+2)=0.
The corresponding eigen decomposition is
Hence the Frobenius covariants, manifestly projections, are
Note trA1=trA2=1, as required.