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Fukui faces the Sea of Japan, and has a western part (formerly Wakasa) which is a narrow plain between the mountains and the sea, and a larger eastern part (formerly Echizen) with wider plains including the capital and most of the population. The province lays within Japan's "Snow country".
Fukui is one of the less populated prefectures of Japan; in September 2015 there were an estimated 785,508 people living in 281,394 households. As seen in most of Japan, Fukui is facing the problem of both an aging and decreasing population; 28.6% of the population were over the age of 65 in July 2015 and the population has decreased 2.6% from the 806,000 measured in the October 2010 national census.
Residents of Fukui Prefecture have a distinctive accent, Fukui-ben.
Fukui has long been a center for papermaking in Japan (along with Kyoto). Its Echizen Papermaking Cooperative is a world-famous collection of papermakers making paper in the traditional Echizen style.
Fukui is also renowned for its clean water and crops, which result in delicious sake, rice, and soba noodles.
In August 2010 Fukui launched its own dating website entitled Fukui Marriage-Hunting Café in hopes of helping the declining population growth of Japan increase. Couples who meet in the site and continue on to marry receive monetary aid from the government as well as gifts.
Fukui Prefecture was the subject of the 2011 book For Fukui's Sake: Two years in rural Japan, which documents the experiences of a British teacher, who lived and worked in ?no, Fukui.