After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, the First Emperor ordered more than 460 scholars in the capital to be buried alive, though an account given by Wei Hong in the 2nd century added another 700 to the figure. Fusu counselled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability. However, he was unable to change his father's mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier where Meng Tian is stationed, in a de facto exile.
Moreover, after the death of the First Emperor, Fusu's youngest brother, Huhai, together with two high officials Zhao Gao and Li Si, forged his father's decree to rename Huhai as the successor and order Fusu to commit suicide. Some aides of Fusu, including Meng Tian, doubted the veracity of the decree, but Fusu either did not believe someone would dare to forge the decree or, with good reason, feared being killed anyway, and he committed suicide.
According to Records of the Grand Historian, Fusu had a son, Ziying, who was enthroned after Zhao Gao forced Huhai to commit suicide in 207 BCE. By that time, Li Si had already been eliminated by Zhao Gao. Ziying soon killed Zhao Gao.
There is no firm consensus on what Ziying's relationship to the Qin royal family really is. Some scholars (among them Professor Wang Liqun) pointed out that Fusu's son might be too young to plot the demise of Zhao Gao, as two sons of Ziying, also involved in the plot, should have been old enough. Qin Shi Huang only lived to be 49; Fusu might have only lived into his 30s.
Fusu appeared as the protagonist in the action role-playing game Prince of Qin. In the game, the plot has been altered such that Fusu did not commit suicide as he was supposed to in history. The game allows the player to explore what Fusu could have done if he did not die.
Fusu also appears in the Chinese animated series The Legend of Qin since the third season.
Fusu is a prominent character in Eugie Foster's short story "Mortal Clay, Stone Heart".
In the manga series Kingdom, he is identified as one of Ying Zheng's children, but unnamed.