Galileo (spacecraft)
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Galileo Spacecraft
Galileo
Artwork Galileo-Io-Jupiter.JPG
Artist's concept of Galileo at Io with Jupiter in the background; the high-gain antenna is fully deployed
NamesJupiter Orbiter Probe
Mission typeJupiter orbiter
OperatorNASA
COSPAR ID
SATCAT no.20298
Websitesolarsystem.nasa.gov/galileo/
Mission duration
  • Planned: 8 years, 1 month, 19 days
  • Jupiter orbit: 7 years, 9 months, 13 days
  • Final: 13 years, 11 months, 3 days
Distance travelled4,631,778,000 km (2.88 billion mi)[1]
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer
Launch mass
  • Total: 2,560 kg (5,640 lb)[2]
  • Orbiter: 2,220 kg (4,890 lb)[2]
  • Probe: 340 kg (750 lb)[2]
Dry mass
  • Orbiter: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb)[2]
  • Probe: 340 kg (750 lb)[2]
Payload mass
  • Orbiter: 118 kg (260 lb)[2]
  • Probe: 30 kg (66 lb)[2]
Power
  • Orbiter: 570 watts[2]
  • Probe: 730 watt-hours[2]
Start of mission
Launch dateOctober 18, 1989, 16:53:40 (1989-10-18UTC16:53:40) UTC[3]
Rocket Atlantis
STS-34/IUS
Launch siteKennedy LC-39B
Entered serviceDecember 8, 1995, 01:16 UTC SCET
End of mission
DisposalControlled entry into Jupiter
Decay dateSeptember 21, 2003, 18:57:18 (2003-09-21UTC18:57:19) UTC
Jupiter orbiter
Spacecraft componentOrbiter
Orbital insertionDecember 8, 1995, 01:16 UTC SCET
Jupiter atmospheric probe
Spacecraft componentProbe
Atmospheric entryDecember 7, 1995, 22:04 UTC SCET
Impact site06°05?N 04°04?W / 6.083°N 4.067°W / 6.083; -4.067 (Galileo Probe)
at entry interface
Galileo mission patch.png  

Galileo was an American robotic space probe that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies. Named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, it consisted of an orbiter and an entry probe. It was delivered into Earth orbit on October 18, 1989 by Atlantis. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, and became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory built the Galileo spacecraft and managed the Galileo program for NASA. West Germany Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm supplied the propulsion module. NASA's Ames Research Center managed the atmospheric probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company. At launch, the orbiter and probe together had a mass of 2,562 kg (5,648 lb) and stood 6.15 m (20.2 ft) tall.

Spacecraft are normally stabilized either by spinning around a fixed axis or by maintaining a fixed orientation with reference the Sun and a star. Galileo did both. One section of the spacecraft rotated at 3 revolutions per minute, keeping Galileo stable and holding six instruments that gathered data from many different directions, including the fields and particles instruments. The mission operations team used software containing 650,000 lines of code in the orbit sequence design process; 1,615,000 lines in the telemetry interpretation; and 550,000 lines of code in navigation.

Development

Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system, with more than twice the mass of all the other planets combined.[4] Consideration of sending a probe to Jupiter began as early as 1959.[5] NASA's Scientific Advisory Group (SAG) for Outer Solar System Missions considered the requirements for Jupiter orbiters and atmospheric probes. It noted that the technology to build a heat shield for an atmospheric probe did not yet exist, and facilities to test one under the conditions found on Jupiter would not be available until 1980.[6] NASA management designated the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the lead center for the Jupiter Orbiter Probe (JOP) project.[7] The JOP would be the fifth spacecraft to visit Jupiter, but the first to orbit it, and the probe would be the first to enter its atmosphere.[8]

In the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), Galileo is prepared for mating with the Inertial Upper Stage booster.

An important decision made at this time was to use a Mariner program spacecraft like that used for Voyager for the Jupiter orbiter, rather than a Pioneer. Pioneer was stabilized by spinning the spacecraft at 60 rpm, which gave a 360-degree view of the surroundings, and did not require an attitude control system. By contrast, Mariner had an attitude control system with three gyroscopes and two sets of six nitrogen jet thrusters. Attitude was determined with reference to the Sun and Canopus, which were monitored with two primary and four secondary sensors. There was also an inertial reference unit and an accelerometer. This allowed it to take high resolution images, but the functionality came at a cost of increased weight. A Mariner weighed 722 kilograms (1,592 lb) compared to just 146 kilograms (322 lb) for a Pioneer.[9]

John R. Casani, who had headed the Mariner and Voyager projects, became the first project manager.[10] He solicited suggestions for a more inspirational name for the project, and the most votes went to "Galileo" after Galileo Galilei, the first person to view Jupiter through a telescope. His 1610 discovery of what is now known as the Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter was an important evidence of the Copernican model of the solar system. It was also noted that the name was that of a spacecraft in the Star Trek television show. The new name was adopted in February 1978.[11]

During testing, contamination was discovered in the system of metal slip rings and brushes used to transmit electrical signals around the spacecraft, and they were returned to be refabricated. The problem was traced back to a chlorofluorocarbon used to clean parts after soldering. It had been absorbed, and was then released in a vacuum environment. It mixed with debris generated as the brushes wore down, and caused intermittent problems with electrical signal transmission. Problems were also detected in the performance of memory devices in an electromagnetic radiation environment.[12]

The components were replaced, but then a read disturb problem arose, in which reads from one memory location disturbed those in adjacent locations. This was found to have been caused by the changes made to make the components less sensitive to electromagnetic radiation. Each component had to be removed, retested, and replaced. All of the spacecraft components and spare parts received a minimum of 2,000 hours of testing. The spacecraft was expected to last for at least five years--long enough to reach Jupiter and perform its mission. On December 19, 1985, it departed the JPL in Pasadena, California, on the first leg of its journey, a road trip to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.[12]

Launch of STS-34 with Galileo on board

Due to the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, the May launch date could not be met.[13] The mission was re-scheduled October 12, 1989. The Galileo spacecraft would be launched by the STS-34 mission in the Atlantis.[14] The spacecraft was delivered to the Kennedy Space Center by a high-speed truck convoy that departed the JPL in the middle of the night. There were fears that the spacecraft might be hijacked by anti-nuclear activists or terrorists, so the route was kept secret from the drivers, who drove through the night and the following day and only stopped for food and fuel.[15]

As the launch date of Galileo neared, anti-nuclear groups, concerned over what they perceived as an unacceptable risk to the public's safety from the plutonium in the Galileo radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, sought a court injunction prohibiting Galileo launch.[16] RTGs were necessary for deep space probes because they had to fly distances from the Sun that made the use of solar energy impractical.[17]

The launch was delayed twice more: by a faulty main engine controller that forced a postponement to October 17, and then by inclement weather, which necessitated a postponement to the following day,[18] but this was not a concern since the launch window extended until November 21.[19]Atlantis finally lifted off at 16:53:40 UTC on October 18, and went into a 343 kilometers (213 mi) orbit.[18]Galileo was successfully deployed at 00:15 UTC on October 19.[13] Following the IUS burn, the Galileo spacecraft adopted its configuration for solo flight, and separated from the IUS at 01:06:53 UTC on October 19.[20] The launch was perfect, and Galileo was soon headed towards Venus at over 14,000 km/h (9,000 mph).[21]Atlantis returned to Earth safely on October 23.[18]

Spacecraft

Galileo main components

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory built the Galileo spacecraft and managed the Galileo mission for NASA. West Germany Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm supplied the propulsion module. NASA's Ames Research Center managed the atmospheric probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company.[2] At launch, the orbiter and probe together had a mass of 2,562 kg (5,648 lb) and stood 6.15 m (20.2 ft) tall.[2] Spacecraft are normally stabilized either by spinning around a fixed axis or by maintaining a fixed orientation with reference the Sun and a star. Galileo did both. One section of the spacecraft rotated at 3 revolutions per minute, keeping Galileo stable and holding six instruments that gathered data from many different directions, including the fields and particles instruments.[22] Back on the ground, the mission operations team used software containing 650,000 lines of code in the orbit sequence design process; 1,615,000 lines in the telemetry interpretation; and 550,000 lines of code in navigation.[2]

Command and Data Handling (CDH)

The CDH subsystem was actively redundant, with two parallel data system buses running at all times.[23] Each data system bus (a.k.a. string) was composed of the same functional elements, consisting of multiplexers (MUX), high-level modules (HLM), low-level modules (LLM), power converters (PC), bulk memory (BUM), data management subsystem bulk memory (DBUM), timing chains (TC), phase locked loops (PLL), Golay coders (GC), hardware command decoders (HCD) and critical controllers (CRC).[24]

The CDH subsystem was responsible for maintaining the following functions:

  1. decoding of uplink commands
  2. execution of commands and sequences
  3. execution of system-level fault-protection responses
  4. collection, processing, and formatting of telemetry data for downlink transmission
  5. movement of data between subsystems via a data system bus.[25]

The spacecraft was controlled by six RCA 1802 COSMAC microprocessor CPUs: four on the spun side and two on the despun side. Each CPU was clocked at about 1.6 MHz, and fabricated on sapphire (silicon on sapphire), which is a radiation-and static-hardened material ideal for spacecraft operation. This microprocessor was the first low-power CMOS processor chip, quite on a par with the 8-bit 6502 that was being built into the Apple II desktop computer at that time.[26]

The Galileo Attitude and Articulation Control System (AACSE) was controlled by two Itek Advanced Technology Airborne Computers (ATAC), built using radiation-hardened 2901s. The AACSE could be reprogrammed in flight by sending the new program through the Command and Data Subsystem.[27]

Galileo attitude control system software was written in the HAL/S programming language,[28] also used in the Space Shuttle program.[29] Memory capacity provided by each BUM was 16K of RAM, while the DBUMs each provided 8K of RAM. There were two BUMs and two DBUMs in the CDH subsystem and they all resided on the spun side of the spacecraft. The BUMs and DBUMs provided storage for sequences and contain various buffers for telemetry data and interbus communication. Every HLM and LLM was built up around a single 1802 microprocessor and 32K of RAM (for HLMs) or 16K of RAM (for LLMs). Two HLMs and two LLMs resided on the spun side while two LLMs were on the despun side. Thus, total memory capacity available to the CDH subsystem was 176K of RAM: 144K allocated to the spun side and 32K to the despun side.[30]

Each HLM was responsible for the following functions:

  1. uplink command processing
  2. maintenance of the spacecraft clock
  3. movement of data over the data system bus
  4. execution of stored sequences (time-event tables)
  5. telemetry control
  6. error recovery including system fault-protection monitoring and response.[30]

Each LLM was responsible for the following functions:

  1. collect and format engineering data from the subsystems
  2. provide the capability to issue coded and discrete commands to spacecraft users
  3. recognize out-of-tolerance conditions on status inputs
  4. perform some system fault-protection functions.[30]


Propulsion

Propulsion module

The propulsion subsystem consisted of a 400 N main engine and twelve 10 N thrusters, together with propellant, storage and pressurizing tanks and associated plumbing. The 10 N thrusters were mounted in groups of six on two 2-meter booms. The fuel for the system was 925 kg (2,039 lb) of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Two separate tanks held another 7 kg (15 lb) of helium pressurant. The propulsion subsystem was developed and built by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm and provided by West Germany, the major international partner in Project Galileo.[26]

Electrical power

At the time, solar panels were not practical at Jupiter's distance from the Sun; the spacecraft would have needed a minimum of 65 square meters (700 sq ft) of panels. Chemical batteries would likewise be prohibitively large due to technological limitations. The solution was two radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which powered the spacecraft through the radioactive decay of plutonium-238. The heat emitted by this decay was converted into electricity through the solid-state Seebeck effect. This provided a reliable and long-lasting source of electricity unaffected by the cold environment and high-radiation fields in the Jovian system.[26][31]

Each GPHS-RTG, mounted on a 5-meter long (16 ft) boom, carried 7.8 kilograms (17 lb) of . Each RTG contained 18 separate heat source modules, and each module encased four pellets of plutonium(IV) oxide, a ceramic material resistant to fracturing.[31] The plutonium was enriched to about 83.5 percent plutonium-238. [32] The modules were designed to survive a range of potential accidents: launch vehicle explosion or fire, re-entry into the atmosphere followed by land or water impact, and post-impact situations. An outer covering of graphite provided protection against the structural, thermal, and eroding environments of a potential re-entry into Earth's atmosphere. Additional graphite components provided impact protection, while iridium cladding of the fuel cells provided post-impact containment.[31] The RTGs produced about 570 watts at launch. The power output initially decreased at the rate of 0.6 watts per month and was 493 watts when Galileo arrived at Jupiter.[33]

Instrumentation overview

Scientific instruments to measure fields and particles were mounted on the spinning section of the spacecraft, together with the main antenna, power supply, the propulsion module and most of Galileo computers and control electronics. The sixteen instruments, weighing 118 kg (260 lb) altogether, included magnetometer sensors mounted on an 11 m (36 ft) boom to minimize interference from the spacecraft; a plasma instrument for detecting low-energy charged particles and a plasma-wave detector to study waves generated by the particles; a high-energy particle detector; and a detector of cosmic and Jovian dust. It also carried the Heavy Ion Counter, an engineering experiment to assess the potentially hazardous charged particle environments the spacecraft flew through, and an extreme ultraviolet detector associated with the UV spectrometer on the scan platform.[2]

The despun section's instruments included the camera system; the near infrared mapping spectrometer to make multi-spectral images for atmospheric and moon surface chemical analysis; the ultraviolet spectrometer to study gases; and the photopolarimeter-radiometer to measure radiant and reflected energy. The camera system was designed to obtain images of Jupiter's satellites at resolutions 20 to 1,000 times better than Voyager best, because Galileo flew closer to the planet and its inner moons, and because the more modern CCD sensor in Galileo camera was more sensitive and had a broader color detection band than the vidicons of Voyager.[2]

Instrumentation details

Despun section

Solid State Imager (SSI)
Solid-State Imager

The SSI was an 800-by-800-pixel solid state camera consisting of an array of silicon sensors called a charge-coupled device (CCD). The optical portion of the camera was a modified flight spare of the Voyager narrow-angle camera, built as a Cassegrain telescope.[34] Light was collected by the primary mirror and directed to a smaller secondary mirror that channeled it through a hole in the center of the primary mirror and onto the CCD. The CCD sensor was shielded from radiation, a particular problem within the harsh Jovian magnetosphere. The shielding was accomplished by means of a 10 mm (0.4 in) thick layer of tantalum surrounding the CCD except where the light enters the system. An eight-position filter wheel was used to obtain images at specific wavelengths. The images were then combined electronically on Earth to produce color images. The spectral response of the SSI ranged from about 400 to 1100 nm. The SSI weighed 29.7 kg (65 lb) and consumed, on average, 15 watts of power.[35][36]

Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS)
Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

The NIMS instrument was sensitive to 0.7-to-5.2-micrometer wavelength infrared light, overlapping the wavelength range of the SSI. The telescope associated with NIMS was all reflective (using only mirrors and no lenses) with an aperture of 229 mm (9 in). The spectrometer of NIMS used a grating to disperse the light collected by the telescope. The dispersed spectrum of light was focused on detectors of indium, antimonide and silicon. The NIMS weighed 18 kg (40 lb) and used 12 watts of power on average.[37][38]

Ultraviolet Spectrometer / Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS/EUV)
Ultraviolet Spectrometer

The Cassegrain telescope of the UVS had a 250 mm (9.8 in) aperture and collected light from the observation target. Both the UVS and EUV instruments used a ruled grating to disperse this light for spectral analysis. This light then passed through an exit slit into photomultiplier tubes that produced pulses or "sprays" of electrons. These electron pulses were counted, and these count numbers constituted the data that were sent to Earth. The UVS was mounted on Galileo scan platform and could be pointed to an object in inertial space. The EUV was mounted on the spun section. As Galileo rotated, EUV observed a narrow ribbon of space perpendicular to the spin axis. The two instruments combined weighed about 9.7 kg (21 lb) and used 5.9 watts of power.[39][40]

Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR)

The PPR had seven radiometry bands. One of these used no filters and observed all incoming radiation, both solar and thermal. Another band allowed only solar radiation through. The difference between the solar-plus-thermal and the solar-only channels gave the total thermal radiation emitted. The PPR also measured in five broadband channels that spanned the spectral range from 17 to 110 micrometers. The radiometer provided data on the temperatures of Jupiter's atmosphere and satellites. The design of the instrument was based on that of an instrument flown on the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. A 100 mm (4 in) aperture reflecting telescope collected light and directed it to a series of filters, and, from there, measurements were performed by the detectors of the PPR. The PPR weighed 5.0 kg (11.0 lb) and consumed about 5 watts of power.[41][42]

Spun section

Dust Detector Subsystem (DDS)
Dust Detector Subsystem

The Dust Detector Subsystem (DDS) was used to measure the mass, electric charge, and velocity of incoming particles. The masses of dust particles that the DDS could detect go from 10-16 to 10-7 grams. The speed of these small particles could be measured over the range of 1 to 70 kilometers per second (0.6 to 43.5 mi/s). The instrument could measure impact rates from 1 particle per 115 days (10 megaseconds) to 100 particles per second. Such data was used to help determine dust origin and dynamics within the magnetosphere. The DDS weighed 4.2 kg (9.3 lb) and used an average of 5.4 watts of power.[43][44]

Energetic Particles Detector (EPD)

The Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) was designed to measure the numbers and energies of ions and electrons whose energies exceeded about 20 keV (3.2 fJ). The EPD could also measure the direction of travel of such particles and, in the case of ions, could determine their composition (whether the ion is oxygen or sulfur, for example). The EPD used silicon solid-state detectors and a time-of-flight detector system to measure changes in the energetic particle population at Jupiter as a function of position and time. These measurements helped determine how the particles got their energy and how they were transported through Jupiter's magnetosphere. The EPD weighed 10.5 kg (23 lb) and used 10.1 watts of power on average.[45][46]

Heavy Ion Counter (HIC)
Heavy Ion Counter

The HIC was, in effect, a repackaged and updated version of some parts of the flight spare of the Voyager Cosmic Ray System. The HIC detected heavy ions using stacks of single crystal silicon wafers. The HIC could measure heavy ions with energies as low as 6 MeV (1 pJ) and as high as 200 MeV (32 pJ) per nucleon. This range included all atomic substances between carbon and nickel. The HIC and the EUV shared a communications link and, therefore, had to share observing time. The HIC weighed 8.0 kg (17.6 lb) and used an average of 2.8 watts of power.[47][48]

Magnetometer (MAG)
Magnetometer

The magnetometer (MAG) used two sets of three sensors. The three sensors allowed the three orthogonal components of the magnetic field section to be measured. One set was located at the end of the magnetometer boom and, in that position, was about 11 m (36 ft) from the spin axis of the spacecraft. The second set, designed to detect stronger fields, was 6.7 m (22 ft) from the spin axis. The boom was used to remove the MAG from the immediate vicinity of Galileo to minimize magnetic effects from the spacecraft. However, not all these effects could be eliminated by distancing the instrument. The rotation of the spacecraft was used to separate natural magnetic fields from engineering-induced fields. Another source of potential error in measurement came from the bending and twisting of the long magnetometer boom. To account for these motions, a calibration coil was mounted rigidly on the spacecraft to generate a reference magnetic field during calibrations. The magnetic field at the surface of the Earth has a strength of about 50,000 nT. At Jupiter, the outboard (11 m) set of sensors could measure magnetic field strengths in the range from ±32 to ±512 nT, while the inboard (6.7 m) set was active in the range from ±512 to ±16,384 nT. The MAG experiment weighed 7.0 kg (15.4 lb) and used 3.9 watts of power.[49][50]

Plasma Subsystem (PLS)
Plasma Wave Subsystem

The PLS used seven fields of view to collect charged particles for energy and mass analysis. These fields of view covered most angles from 0 to 180 degrees, fanning out from the spin axis. The rotation of the spacecraft carried each field of view through a full circle. The PLS measured particles in the energy range from 0.9 to 52,000 eV (0.14 to 8,300 aJ). The PLS weighed 13.2 kg (29 lb) and used an average of 10.7 watts of power.[51][52]

Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS)

An electric dipole antenna was used to study the electric fields of plasmas, while two search coil magnetic antennas studied the magnetic fields. The electric dipole antenna was mounted at the tip of the magnetometer boom. The search coil magnetic antennas were mounted on the high-gain antenna feed. Nearly simultaneous measurements of the electric and magnetic field spectrum allowed electrostatic waves to be distinguished from electromagnetic waves. The PWS weighed 7.1 kg (16 lb) and used an average of 9.8 watts.[53][54]

Galileo Probe

The 339-kilogram (747 lb) probe was built by Hughes Aircraft Company[55] at its El Segundo, California plant and measured about 1.3 meters (4.3 ft) across. Inside the probe's heat shield, the Descent Module with its scientific instruments was protected from extreme heat and pressure during its high-speed journey into the Jovian atmosphere, entering at 47.8 kilometers per second (29.7 mi/s).[56]

Notes

  1. ^ "The Final Day on Galileo - Sunday, September 21, 2003". NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory via Spaceref.com. September 19, 2003. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Galileo Jupiter Arrival" (PDF) (Press Kit). NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory. December 1995.
  3. ^ Beyer, P. E.; O'Connor, R. C.; Mudgway, D. J. (May 15, 1992). "Galileo Early Cruise, Including Venus, First Earth, and Gaspra Encounters" (PDF). The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report. NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory: 265-281. TDA Progress Report 42-109.
  4. ^ "In Depth | Jupiter". NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ Meltzer 2007, pp. 9-10.
  6. ^ Meltzer 2007, pp. 29-30.
  7. ^ Meltzer 2007, pp. 32-33.
  8. ^ Dawson & Bowles 2004, pp. 190-191.
  9. ^ Meltzer 2007, pp. 30-32.
  10. ^ "NASA's 50 Year Men and Women". NASA. Retrieved 2020.
  11. ^ Meltzer 2007, p. 38.
  12. ^ a b Meltzer 2007, pp. 68-69.
  13. ^ a b Meltzer 2007, p. 78.
  14. ^ Carr, Jeffrey (November 10, 1988). "Four New Shuttle Crews Named (STS-32, STS-33, STS-34, STS-35)" (PDF) (Press release). NASA. 88-049. Retrieved 2020.
  15. ^ Meltzer 2007, p. 69.
  16. ^ Broad, William J. (October 10, 1989). "Groups Protest Use of Plutonium on Galileo". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ Sagan, Carl (October 9, 1989). "Galileo: To Launch or not to Launch?". Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ a b c "Mission Archives: STS-34". NASA. February 18, 2010. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ Sawyer, Kathy (October 17, 1989). "Galileo Launch Nears". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ "PDS: Mission Information". NASA. Retrieved 2020.
  21. ^ "Galileo Travels 292,500 Miles Toward Venus". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2020.
  22. ^ "Galileo In Depth". NASA. Retrieved 2020.
  23. ^ Siewiorek & Swarz 1998, p. 683.
  24. ^ Tomayko 1988, pp. 198-199.
  25. ^ Tomayko 1988, pp. 193-198.
  26. ^ a b c "Galileo Engineering". RESA. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008.
  27. ^ Tomayko 1988, pp. 198-201.
  28. ^ Tomayko 1988, p. 199.
  29. ^ Tomayko 1988, p. 110.
  30. ^ a b c Tomayko 1988, pp. 190-198.
  31. ^ a b c "What's in an RTG?". NASA. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  32. ^ Bennett, Hemler & Schock 1994, p. 4.
  33. ^ Taylor, Cheung & Seo 2002, p. 86.
  34. ^ "Solid-State Imaging (SSI)". NASA. Retrieved 2020.
  35. ^ "SSI - Solid State Imaging". NASA. Archived from the original on July 1, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  36. ^ "SSI Imaging Team". NASA. Archived from the original on August 2, 2009.
  37. ^ "NIMS - Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer". NASA. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  38. ^ "NIMS Team". UCLA. Archived from the original on October 10, 1999.
  39. ^ "EUVS - Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer". NASA. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  40. ^ "EUV Team". University of Colorado at Boulder. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020.
  41. ^ "PPR - Photopolarimeter-Radiometer". NASA. Archived from the original on June 14, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  42. ^ "PPR Team". Lowell Observatory. Archived from the original on July 21, 2004.
  43. ^ "DDS - Dust Detector Subsystem". NASA. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved 2011.
  44. ^ "Cosmic Dust: Messengers from Distant Worlds". High Energy Stereoscopic System. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved 2012. DSI via Stuttgart University
  45. ^ "EPD - Energetic Particles Detector". NASA. Archived from the original on June 21, 2020. Retrieved 2011.
  46. ^ "Galileo EPD". Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Retrieved 2020.
  47. ^ "HIC - Heavy Ion Counter". NASA. Archived from the original on July 2, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  48. ^ "HIC Team". Caltech. Retrieved 2020.
  49. ^ "MAG - Magnetometer". NASA. Archived from the original on February 18, 2020. Retrieved 2011.
  50. ^ "MAG Team". UCLA. Archived from the original on July 21, 2004.
  51. ^ "PLS - Plasma Subsystem". NASA. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  52. ^ "PLS Team". University of Iowa. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007..
  53. ^ "PWS - Plasma Wave Subsystem". NASA. Archived from the original on December 11, 2009. Retrieved 2011.
  54. ^ "Galileo PWS". University of Iowa. Retrieved 2020.
  55. ^ "Hughes Science/Scope Press Release and Advertisement, retrieved from Flight Global Archives May 23, 2010". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2011.
  56. ^ Douglas Isbell and David Morse (January 22, 1996). "Galileo Probe Science Results". JPL. Retrieved 2016.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

References

External links


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