Gediz River in its downstream section crossing ?zmir Province
|Aegean Region, Turkey|
|Length||401 km (249 mi)|
|Official name||Gediz Delta|
|Designated||15 April 1998|
The Gediz River (Turkish: Gediz Nehri, Turkish pronunciation: ['?ediz]) is the second-largest river in Anatolia flowing into the Aegean Sea. The ancient names Hermos and Hermus are sometimes still used.
The ancient Greek name of the river was Hermos (), Latinized as Hermus.
The name of the river Gediz may be related to the Lydian proper name Cadys; Gediz is also the name of a town near the river's sources. The name "Gediz" may also be encountered as a male given name in Turkey.
The Hermos separated Aeolia from Ionia, except for Ionic Phocaea, which was north of the Hermos. The valley of the Hermos was the heartland of the ancient Lydian Empire and overlooking the valley was the Lydian capital Sardis.
Gediz River rises from Murat Mountain and ?aphane Mountain in Kütahya Province and flows through U?ak, Manisa and ?zmir Provinces. It joins the sea in the northern section of the Gulf of Izmir, close to the gulf's mouth, near the village of Maltepe in Menemen district, south of the coastal town of Foça.
The Gediz Basin lies between northern latitudes of 38004'-39013' and southern longitudes of 26042'-29045'. It covers 2.2% of the total area of Turkey. Larger part of the alluvial plain called under the same name as the river (Gediz Plain) is within the area of Manisa Province and a smaller downstream section within ?zmir Province.
The Gediz Delta is important as a nature reserve and is home to rare bird species. However, the reserve suffers from water shortages due to heavy demands from irrigation projects, connected to the Demirköprü Dam.
High level of urbanization and industrialization along its basin also caused Gediz River to suffer severe pollution, particularly by sand and gravel quarries and leather industry. These factors contributed to the river's formerly rich fish reserves to become a thing of the past in recent years.