General Ticket
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General Ticket

General ticket representation is a type of block voting in which voters opt for a party, or a team's set list of candidates, and the highest-polling one becomes the winner. It, unless tempered to apply to a specific proportion, arrives at a 100% return for one party's list who become representatives for the membership or representative positions which are the purpose of the election.

At (top-tier) national level it was used for as many as seven of the states, for any given regularly convened US Congress, in the US House of Representatives before 1967 but mainly before 1847; and in France, in the pre-World War I decades of the Third Republic which began in 1870. It is in use in the Parliament of Singapore as to its dominant type of constituencies, those being multi-member, however moderated by the inclusion of at least one person of a different race than the others in any "team" (which is not necessarily a party team) which is selected by voters.

As to the regional councils within countries it is used in France and Italy for a third and fifth of their councillors respectively, generally who then serve the region at-large.

In modern proportional systems, a full or partial return by the party-list system is common. The partial return is referred to as a return of additional members, who may serve regionally or cross-country at-large. Such modern systems award winners among more than the highest-polling party, if a low vote threshold is reached by a minority party, and often are counterweighted to do justice to the overall votes cast for smaller parties. This tempers a simple preference system as to smaller electoral districts used for the same chamber, body or assembly.

Examples

France

The scrutin de liste (Fr. scrutin, voting by ballot, and liste, a list) was, before World War I, a system of election of national representatives in France by which the electors of a department voted for a party-homogenous slate of deputies to be elected to serve it nationally. It was distinguished from the scrutin d'arrondissement, also called scrutin uninominal, under which the electors in each arrondissement returned one deputy.[1] It has been abolished since, as to the French Parliament.

It is used on two-round basis to elect ​ of the regional councillors, and favours the largest party of that council's election.

Italy

In Italy, this system applies to ​ of the regional councillors since 1995. As in the French version, its goal is to ensure that the assembly is controlled by the leading coalition of parties. There is one round of voting.

Singapore

In Singapore, the general ticket system, locally known as the party block vote, elects by far most members of the Parliament of Singapore from multi-member districts known as group representation constituencies (GRCs), on a first-past-the-post basis. This operates in parallel to elections from single-member district and nominations. It is moderated by the inclusion of at least one person of a different race than the others in any "team" (which is not necessarily a party team) which is selected by voters.

United States

For an at-large one-party return, many states adopted a general ticket. The state voted for and returned an at-large delegation to the House of Representatives. As in the Electoral College for Presidential elections this negates (outside of campaigning) the existence of any votes for any non-overall winning party's candidates. In terms of paper practices, these varied between issue of:

  • a single ballot, listing all candidates and party affiliations (by means of bloc voting)
  • separate ballots for each seat

This was quite common until reserved to special use by the 1842 Apportionment Bill and locally implementing legislation which took effect after the 1845–47 Congress. [2] Until the Congress ending in 1967 it took effect in rare instances, save for a two cases of ex-Confederate States – for one term – these had tiny delegations, were for top-up members to be at-large allocated pending redistricting, or were added to the union since the last census.

The following is a table of every instance of the use of the general ticket in the United States Congress.

Congress Dates State and
number of representatives
1st 1789-1791 Connecticut (5), New Jersey (4), New Hampshire (3), Pennsylvania (8)
2nd 1791-1793 Connecticut (5), New Jersey (4), New Hampshire (3)
3rd 1793-1795 Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Pennsylvania (13), Rhode Island (2)
4th 1795-1797 Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
5th 1797-1799 Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
6th 1799-1801 Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
7th 1801-1803 Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
8th 1803-1805 Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2), Tennessee (3)
9th 1805-1807 Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Jersey (5), Rhode Island (2)
10th 1807-1809 Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
11th 1809-1811 Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
12th 1811-1813 Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
13th 1813-1815 Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
14th 1815-1817 Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
15th 1817-1819 Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
16th 1819-1821 Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
17th 1821-1823 Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
18th 1823-1825 Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (5)
19th 1825-1827 Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
20th 1827-1829 Connecticut (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
21st 1829-1831 Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
22nd 1831-1833 Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
23rd 1833-1835 Connecticut (6), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
24th 1835-1837 Connecticut (6), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
25th 1837-1839 New Hampshire (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
26th 1839-1841 New Hampshire (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
27th 1841-1843 Alabama (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Hampshire (5), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
28th 1843-1845 New Hampshire (4), Georgia (8), Missouri (5), Mississippi (4)
29th 1845-1847 Iowa (2), New Hampshire (4), Missouri (5), Mississippi (4)
30th 1847-1849 Wisconsin (2)
31st 1849-1851 California (2)
32nd 1851-1853 California (2)
33rd 1853-1855 California (2)
34th 1855-1857 California (2)
35th 1857-1859 California (2), Minnesota (2)
36th 1859-1861 California (2), Minnesota (2)
37th 1861-1863 California (3), Minnesota (2)
38th to 42nd 1863-1873 California (3)
43rd to 47th 1873-1883 Florida (2), Kansas (3)
48th 1883-1885 Maine (4)
51st 1889-1891 South Dakota (2)
52nd 1891-1893 South Dakota (2)
53rd 1893-1895 South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
54th 1895-1897 South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
55th 1897-1899 South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
56th 1899-1901 South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
57th 1901-1903 South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
58th 1903-1905 North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
59th 1905-1907 North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
60th 1907-1909 North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
61st 1909-1911 North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2)
62nd 1911-1913 North Dakota (2), New Mexico (2), South Dakota (2)
63rd 1913-1915 Idaho (2), Montana (2), UT (2)
64th 1915-1917 Idaho (2), Montana (2)
65th to 72nd 1917-1933 Idaho (2), Montana (2)
73rd 1933-1935 Kentucky (9), Minnesota (9), Missouri (13), North Dakota (2), Virginia (9)
74th 1935-1937 North Dakota (2)
75th 1937-1939 North Dakota (2)
76th 1939-1941 North Dakota (2)
77th 1941-1943 North Dakota (2)
78th 1943-1945 Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
79th 1945-1947 Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
80th 1947-1949 Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
81st 1949-1951 New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
82nd 1951-1953 New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
83rd 1953-1955 New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
84th 1955-1957 New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
85th 1957-1959 New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
86th 1959-1961 New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
87th 1961-1963 New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
88th 1963-1965 Alabama (8), Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
89th 1965-1967 Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
90th 1967-1969 Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
91st 1969-1971 Hawaii (2)

See also

References

  1. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Scrutin de Liste". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 487.
  2. ^ Public Law 90-196, 2 U.S.C. § 2c)

Sources

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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