Sir Ghillean Tolmie Prance (born 13 July 1937) is a prominent British FRS FLS FRSB botanist and ecologist who has published extensively             on the  taxonomy of families such as Chrysobalanaceae and Lecythidaceae, but drew particular attention in documenting the pollination ecology of . Victoria amazonica  Prance is a former Director of the  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
Prance was born on 13 July 1937 in
Brandeston, Suffolk, England. He was educated at  Malvern College and Keble College, Oxford. In 1957, he achieved BSc Biology. In 1963 he received a D. Phil. in Forest Botany from the  Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford. 
Prance worked from 1963 at The
New York Botanical Garden, initially as a research assistant and, on his departure in 1988, as Director of the Institute of Economic Botany and Senior Vice-President for Science. Much of his career at the New York Botanical Garden was spent conducting extensive fieldwork in the Amazon region of Brazil. In 1973 he coordinated the first Botany Postgraduate Degree held in the Amazon, at  National Institute of Amazonian Research, in Manaus. He was Director of the  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew from 1988 to 1999. 
He has remained very active in his retirement, notably involving himself with the
Eden Project. Prance, a devout Christian, is currently the chair of A Rocha and was president of  Christians in Science 2002-08. 
He is actively involved on environmental issues, a trustee of the Amazon Charitable Trust,
and a Vice-President of the  Nature in Art Trust. He has been president of the UK  Wild Flower Society for several years.  
Prance was knighted in 1995. He has been a Fellow of the
Linnean Society since 1961, a Fellow of the Royal Society since 1993 and was awarded the Victoria Medal of Honour in 1999.
He was awarded the  Patron's Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1994. 
In 2000 he was made a Commander of the
Order of the Southern Cross by the President of Brazil. In 2012 he was awarded the  Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays and Neck Ribbon by the Government of Japan. 
Two photographic portraits of Prance are held at the
National Portrait Gallery, London. 
A biography of Prance was written by Clive Langmead.
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Sinon, Stephen (August 2000). "Records of the Herbarium (RG4) GHILLEAN T. PRANCE RECORDS (1963-1988)". Archives and Manuscript Collections. New York Botanical Garden . Retrieved 2014.
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"Ghillean Prance (1937-)". Kew, History & Heritage. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013 . Retrieved 2014.
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Langmead, Clive (2001). A Passion for Plants: Life and Vision of Ghillean Prance, Director of Kew Gardens. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. ISBN . 1-900347-76-8
Bebber, D. P.; Carine, M. A.; Wood, J. R. I.; Wortley, A. H.; Harris, D. J.; Prance, G. T.; Davidse, G.; Paige, J.; Pennington, T. D.; Robson, N. K. B.; Scotland, R. W. (2010). "Herbaria are a major frontier for species discovery". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (51): 22169-22171. Bibcode: 2010PNAS..10722169B. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1011841108. PMC . 3009773 PMID 21135225.
Prance, G. T. (2002). "Species survival and carbon retention in commercially exploited tropical rainforest". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 360 (1797): 1777-1785. Bibcode: 2002RSPTA.360.1777P. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2002.1041. PMID 12460497.
Brown, S.; Swingland, I. R.; Hanbury-Tenison, R.; Prance, G. T.; Myers, N. (2002). "Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: Issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 360 (1797): 1593-1605. Bibcode: 2002RSPTA.360.1593B. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2002.1021. PMID 12460486.
Prance, G. T. (2000). "Ethnobotany and the future of conservation". Biologist (London, England). 47 (2): 65-68. PMID 11190230.
Prance, G. (1999). "The poisons and narcotics of the Amazonian Indians". Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. 33 (4): 368-376. PMID 10472027.
Morton, C.; Mori, S.; Prance, G.; Karol, K.; Chase, M. (1997). "Phylogenetic relationships of Lecythidaceae: A cladistic analysis using rbcL sequence and morphological data". American Journal of Botany. 84 (4): 530-540. doi: 10.2307/2446029. PMID 21708605.
Dalton, H.; Goodwin, B.; Ho, M. W.; McGlade, J.; Prance, G.; Saunders, P.; Sherratt, D.; Smith, J. M.; Whittenbury, R. (1997). "Patent threat to research". Nature. 385 (6618): 672. Bibcode: 1997Natur.385..672D. doi: 10.1038/385672a0. PMID 9034179.
Prance, G. T. (1991). "What is ethnobotany today?". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 32 (1-3): 209-216. doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(91)90120-3. PMID 1881159.
Prance, G. T. (1982). "Threatened Plants". Science. 216 (4549): 977-978. Bibcode: 1982Sci...216..977S. doi: 10.1126/science.216.4549.977. PMID 17809062.
Mori, S. A.; Orchard, J. E.; Prance, G. T. (1980). "Intrafloral Pollen Differentiation in the New World Lecythidaceae, Subfamily Lecythidoideae". Science. 209 (4454): 400-403. Bibcode: 1980Sci...209..400M. doi: 10.1126/science.209.4454.400. PMID 17747812.
Fidalgo, O.; Prance, G. T. (1976). "The ethnomycology of the Sanama Indians". Mycologia. 68 (1): 201-210. doi: 10.2307/3758915. PMID 934181.
Prance, G. T. (1973). "The mycological diet of the Yanomam Indians". Mycologia. 65 (1): 248-250. doi: 10.2307/3757814. PMID 4734424.
Prance, Anne E.; Sandved, Kjell Bloch; Prance, Ghillean T. (1993). Bark: the formation, characteristics, and uses of bark around the world. Portland, Or: Timber Press. ISBN . 0-88192-262-5
Sandved, Kjell Bloch; Prance, Ghillean T. (1985). Leaves, the formation, characteristics, and uses of hundreds of leaves found in all parts of the world. [New York]: Crown. ISBN . 0-517-55152-7
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"Professor Sir Ghillean Prance". Trustees. Amazon Charitable Trust. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014 . Retrieved 2014.
"História do PPG-Ecologia do INPA". ppginpa.eco.br. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. December 2016 . Retrieved 2018.
"International Trustees". A Rocha . Retrieved 2013.
"Presidents". Christians in Science . Retrieved 2013.
"Nature in Art Trust". Nature in Art Trust . Retrieved 2010.
Wild Flower Society: Floral fixation, The Independent, 23 August, 2010
The Wild Flower Society website
"List of Past Gold Medal Winners" (PDF). Royal Geographical Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011 . Retrieved 2015.
"Decorations for two worthy recipients celebrated at the Embassy". uk.emb-japan.go.jp. Embassy of Japan in the UK. December 2012 . Retrieved 2017.
"Sir Ghillean Tolmie Prance (1937-), Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens". Collections. [[National Portrait Gallery, London|]], London . Retrieved 2014.
IPNI. . Prance