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Advance-deposit wagering (ADW) is a form of horse race gambling in which the bettor must fund their account before being allowed to place bets. ADW is often conducted online or by phone.
A race for which entries are restricted to horses meeting certain earnings or other race criteria. The track operator's designated official (usually the Racing Secretary) establishes specific conditions that determine what weights are to be carried by any competing horse based on factors from the horse's previous performances including races won and/or earnings.
Adjustments in weight "allowed" in a race. Examples include those granted because an apprentice is riding, for three-year-olds running against older horses, or for female horses running against male horses.
Allowance optional claiming
See Optional claiming
A horse officially entered in a race, but because the field is too large, the horse is not allowed to start unless other horses are scratched prior to a set deadline.
A young jockey, sometimes called a "bug," who is still in training. An apprentice is required to ride a given number of winners in a specified period of time before completing their apprenticeship.
Also sometimes called the backstretch (see "backstretch", below), an area with restricted access, usually behind the track, where the stables and residential living areas for staff are located.
The straightway on the farther side of an elliptical or oval racecourse. It typically runs parallel to the grandstand and the homestretch where the finish line is located. Also refers to the stabling area adjacent to the racetrack (see "backside", above).
Bearing In (or out)
When a horse does not run straight on the course. There are many causes, including fatigue, infirmity, reaction to being whipped, or the rider's inability to control the horse.
In a sales catalogue, black type is boldface print and indicates a stakes winner if the name is in all caps, or a stakes-placed runner if in upper and lower mixed case letters.
A finish "so close that a blanket would cover all the contestants involved."
A hood designed with partial cups behind the horse's eyes that limit a horse's rear and side vision to varying degrees, depending on design. Blinkers may prevent a horse from swerving away from objects or other horses.
People who specialize in buying and selling horses on behalf of clients and offer advice on purchasing horses.See also: Pinhooking
A mare who produces many high quality offspring who also have a significant impact on the breed.
1) The list of mares that a stallion will breed in a given breeding season. A full book is when the maximum number of mares the stallion is deemed able to breed has been reached. 2) A jockey's riding commitments for races. An agent usually is the person who manages and books the races a jockey is to ride.
A horse that runs a poor race directly following a career-best or near-best performance.
Break or broke
To leave the starting gate in the initial strides of a race.
When a horse wins a race for the first time in its career.
Deliberately restraining or easing off a horse for a short distance, allowing the horse to conserve or renew the horse's stamina or strength.
1. To win easily. 2. A timed workout where the horse is not being asked for full speed; less effort than handily; or can refer to a light training workout over a short distance that is used to gauge a horse's racing potential and performance.
A horse that has a serious physical problem during a race, usually limping or unable to put a limb on the ground, resulting in either being removed from the track in a horse ambulance or, in the worst cases, euthanized.
Bullet or bullet work
The best workout time at a track on a given day at a specific distance. The past performance listings indicate this work by a printer's "bullet" in front of that particular workout time.
Butazolidin or bute
See Phenylbutazone, below.
The horse who runs a particular race at the best win odds; the favorite. A bettor who routinely places wagers on favorites is called a "Chalk Player." The horse with the second-lowest win odds is sometimes called "Second Chalk" and so on. If all the races run so far have been won by horses with relatively low win odds, then today's results so far are called "Chalky."
Formally, and especially when capitalized, a Champion is a racehorse who has won an Eclipse Award in America, or an equivalent award in other racing jurisdictions. Informally, the term may be used for the winner of a major race.
A detailed list of statistics about a race. The chart lists the position of each horse at various points of the race, the margin between horses, plus the odds for the race, and each horse's sex, age, weight carried, owner, and trainer. The chart also describes the purse, race conditions, payouts for various winning bets, times and other data.
An extension to a straightaway on either the homestretch or the backstretch used for establishing a distance to eliminate the need to begin the race on a turn.
Circle the field
When a horse is forced to go very wide around other horses in order to move into a winning position.
Race in which any competing horse is subject to be purchased for a preset price. A claim is made before the race and can only be acted upon by a licensed owner or their agent. The price is set by the conditions of the race. If the horse wins prize money during the race, the money goes to the previous owner. Prior to 1925 they were called a Selling race.
A horse that performs best during the final part of the race, usually coming from behind against most of its race competitors.
The turn to the right of the grandstand, so called because the clubhouse is usually to the right of the general stands
Conditions are requirements for horses to be entered into a specific race, such as age, sex, number of wins, and amount of money won. Racetracks publish a Conditions Book listing the upcoming stakes that set the eligibility requirements and any restrictions for each race.
The owner and trainer of a horse. The term can also be extended to other members of a racing team or partnership.
1. A race designed to create equality by the horses being assigned different, specific weights determined by the track handicapper based on an assessment of each entrant's potential. 2. The process of selecting winners based on past performances. 3. The amount of weight, sometimes called an impost, carried by the horse.
Working or racing with moderate effort, more than a breeze.
When the jockey urges a horse just with their hands and does not use the whip.
The amount wagered in the various pari-mutuel pools for either a specified race, program (ie, all races at a given track on a given day), meeting or year.
To finish in the top four placings, literally, to appear on the tote board.
Homestretch or stretch
The final straight section of the track leading to the finish line.
In the money
1. For a horse to finish in the top three placings, where bettors win money. 2. Less often, for the horse to finish in the top four, where the horses win prize money.
1) When track stewards review the race to determine if there was an infraction of the rules. 2) When the "inquiry" sign is placed on the tote board. Inquiries lodged by a jockey are called objections.
Two-year-old horses. Also refers to certain races for two-year-olds.
Used to describe the distance between horses during a race and at the finish line. One length is approximately 8 feet or 2.4 m and represents the length of one horse.
Specific race for horses that have never won a race, usually by age, but not always.
The distance between horses at a given point in the race, usually measured in lengths (see above). For the leader, it is the distance ahead of the second place horse. For other horses, it is the distance by which they trailed the leader. Shown in past performance charts as the small number after the horse's position at a given call.
When there is not enough money left in the parimutuel pool to pay the legally required minimum on each winning bet. This usually happens when one horse is very heavily bet upon. In these cases, the racing association usually is the entity that makes up the difference.
The approximate odds before wagering begins and exact odds are established.
A racehorse that runs well on a muddy racetrack.
The speed of a race. To run a horse "off the pace" means that the horse will not be in the lead for the early part of the race but will advance to the front shortly before the finish of the race.
A horse with early speed sent to the front early in a race to set a fast pace, often to tire out other horses and help a stablemate who runs off the pace win by closing at the end. In contrast, a frontrunner is trying to win the race. Compare: closer, stalker.
Saddling and parading area where horses can be seen prior to the race.See also: paddock for agricultural uses.
A list of the horses in a race showing each horse's previous racing record, earnings, pedigree and so on.
Markers placed at specific locations around the track marking the distance from the finish line, named after the distance remaining, not the distance run, i.e. the quarter pole, eighth pole, sixteenth pole each measure the distance left in the race. One-sixteenth poles are black and white striped. Eighth poles are green and white. Quarter poles are red and white.
1. The starting point of a race 2. Post position (see below) 3. (verb) To reference or record a win.
When the horses in a race travel from the paddock to the starting gate ("post"), past the grandstands.
The number of the individual stalls in the starting gate where horses will begin a race. The first stall (#1 or inside position) is next to the rail at most racetracks with higher numbers on the outside of the track. Post position can be a hindrance or tactical advantage for horses depending on their racing style.
The specified time of day a horse race will start.
A workout or race that is used to prepare for a future engagement.
To pull back on the reins to slowly stop a horse. Jockeys will typically ease a horse to a stop after passing the finish line or if there is a problem with the horse, such as injury, that necessitates a withdrawal from a race.
A pole to signal that the finish line is one-quarter of a mile away. Quarter poles are red and white striped.
Generic left-handed racetrack diagram: A = finish line, B = grandstand, C/black = chute, Yellow = homestretch, Red = Clubhouse turn, Blue = backstretch, Green = Far turn, gray inside line = rail and the white center is the infield. Black dots note standard locations of the poles that measure distance to the finish.
A program for a race day that lists the individual races and the name, age, and sex of each horse scheduled to compete along with their recent performances plus the name of their jockey, trainer and owner.
Female horse (mare) who has competed in sanctioned Thoroughbred races.
When a racetrack is scheduled over a designated number of specific days to run horse races.
A flat surface made of dirt, grass (turf) or synthetic material, usually arranged in an oval, where races are conducted. Races can either be run in a counterclockwise (left-handed) or clockwise (right-handed) direction around the track. Left-handed, dirt tracks are the predominant form in the United States, mostly due to tradition. Tracks typically consist of two turns, a backstretch, a straight (or homestretch) arranged around a central infield and various surrounding structures such as the finish line and stands for spectators.
Inside fence on a racetrack. Less often, both the inside and outside fences bordering the racetrack.
A horse that is fractious and hard for the jockey to handle.
When a horse is not whipped but rather works out or wins with a strong hand ride.
To remove a horse from a race before it is run.
Packing down a track surface when it rains so that the water drains off the surface.
To finish in third position. Betting on a horse to show pays out if the horse finishes third or better.
The silk or nylon jacket and cap worn by a jockey to indicate the owner of the horse, so people watching the race can distinguish each horse. Each owner's unique colors are registered with the national and/or regional racing authority. The first use of registered "colours" occurred in 1762 at Newmarket Racecourse in England 
A race where a fee must be paid to enter, which may include a fee for nominating, paying additional fees to maintain eligibility, then fees for entry and starting. The track often adds additional money to the total purse.see also: Graded stakes race
A horse whose running style is to stay just behind the leaders. Compare: Closer, front-runner, pacesetter.
A horse that can run long distances. In North America, this refers to distances of 12 furlongs or longer. Horses who finish strongly in races at 10 furlongs may also be considered stayers.
Steward or track steward
Racetrack official responsible for enforcement of racing regulations.
The fastest time on a specific racetrack it has taken any Thoroughbred to complete a set race distance on a specific surface. Many tracks have more than one surface (typically dirt and turf), so there are separate track records maintained for each course, also known as a course record.
The races on the same day that precede a major or important race.
Race with only one horse going to the post. As a result, the sole starter needs only to gallop the distance of the race to be the official winner, but covering the distance is required by racing rules.
Washy, Washed out
A horse that is sweating profusely due to nerves.
^Kiesler, Joseph; Vaughn, Lisa M.; Kaur, Gupreet (2013). ""Voicing" the Social Determinants of Health on the Backside of a Horse Racetrack". Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 24 (3): 1074-1088. doi:10.1353/hpu.2013.0153. PMID23974382. S2CID45579062.