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Goran Had%C5%BEi%C4%87
Goran Had?i?
Goran Had?i?.jpg
Had?i? at his initial appearance before the ICTY
2nd President[1] of Republic of Serbian Krajina

26 February 1992 - 26 January 1994
Zdravko Ze?evi?
Milan Babi?
Milan Marti?
Prime Minister of SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia[2]

1991 - 26 February 1992
Veljko D?akula
President of the Coordinating Committee of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia[2]

1996 - 15 January 1998
Slavko Dokmanovi?
Personal details
Born7 September 1958
Pa?etin, PR Croatia, FPR Yugoslavia
Died12 July 2016(2016-07-12) (aged 57)
Novi Sad, Serbia
NationalitySerb
Political partySerb Democratic Party
League of Communists of Yugoslavia

Goran Had?i? (Serbian Cyrillic: , pronounced [ran x?d?i:t?]; 7 September 1958 - 12 July 2016) was a Croatian Serb nationalist politician of the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina,[3] in office during the Croatian War of Independence. He was accused of crimes against humanity and of violation of the laws and customs of war by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.[4]

Had?i? was indicted on fourteen counts.[4] The charges include criminal involvement in the "deportation or forcible transfer of tens of thousands of Croat and other non-Serb civilians" from Croatian territory between June 1991 and December 1993, including 20,000 from Vukovar; the forced labour of detainees; the "extermination or murder of hundreds of Croat and other non-Serb civilians" in ten Croatian towns and villages including Vukovar; and the "torture, beatings and killings of detainees", including 264 victims seized from Vukovar Hospital.[5][6]

The Tribunal's last remaining fugitive,[7] Had?i? was captured by Serbian authorities on 20 July 2011.[8] His trial was abandoned in 2014 due to his terminal brain cancer diagnosis; he died at the age of 57 on 12 July 2016.

Early life

Had?i? was born in the village of Pa?etin,[9] at the time in SR Croatia, SFR Yugoslavia; and in his youth was politically active as a member of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.[5] Prior to the Croatian War of Independence, Had?i? worked as a warehouseman. He was president of the local community of Pa?etin. In the Spring of 1990, as a representative of the League of Communists Party for Democratic Changes, he was elected to the Municipal Committee of Vukovar.[5]

On 10 June 1990 he joined the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) and was elected president of the party's branch in Vukovar. In March 1991 he was president of the Municipal Committee of Vukovar, a member of the Main Committee and Executive Committee of the Serb Democratic Party in Knin, and president of the Regional Committee of the Serb Democratic Party for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia. Before 25 June 1991, he was a leader of the Serbian National Council of Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia and of the Serbian Democratic Forum, which covered Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia.[5]

Croatian War

Had?i? was involved in the Plitvice Lakes incident in late March 1991, beginning the Croatian War of Independence.[10] On 25 June 1991, a group of eastern Slavonian Serbs organized a congress (Velika narodna skup?tina Slavonije Baranje i Zapadnog Srema) where they decided to constitute a "Serb Autonomous Oblast" (SAO) of the region, the SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia, and also to separate the region from the Republic of Croatia, which was still part of Yugoslavia. Had?i? was elected as a candidate to lead the entity's government.[5]

Had?i? in 1992

On 26 February 1992 the two Slavonian SAOs formally joined the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK), while the Assembly of the RSK replaced Milan Babi? with Had?i? as the new Premier of the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Babi? was deposed because he argued against the Vance peace plan, unlike Milo?evi?. Had?i? was reported to have boasted that he was "a messenger for Slobodan Milo?evi?". He held the leadership position until December 1993.[5]

In September 1993, when Croatia started Operation Medak Pocket, Had?i? sent an urgent request to Belgrade for reinforcements, arms and equipment. The request was ignored by the Serbian officials, although some 4,000 paramilitaries under the command of Arkan (Serb Volunteer Guard), arrived, to bolster the RSK army. In February 1994, Had?i?'s presidency ended when Milan Marti? was elected President. In 1995, he threatened to have the eastern Slavonian district secede from Krajina because of plans to unite Krajina with Republika Srpska.[11]

After Operation Storm in August 1995, parts of RSK in eastern Slavonia remained outside the Croatian government's control. Between 1996 and 1997, Had?i? was President of the Srem-Baranja district, after which the region was peacefully reintegrated into Croatia under the provisions of the Erdut Agreement. Had?i? subsequently moved to Serbia in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 2000, he attended the funeral of indicted war criminal ?eljko Ra?natovi?-Arkan in Belgrade, calling him a "big hero".[12]

Croatian war crimes charges

Had?i? was prosecuted and tried in absentia in Croatia on two counts: in 1995 he was convicted for rocket attacks on ?ibenik and Vodice, and sentenced to 20 years in prison; in 1999 he was convicted for war crimes in Tenja, near Osijek, and sentenced to an additional 20 years imprisonment.[13] In 2001, Interpol put him on its Most Wanted Fugitives list and issued a Red corner notice.[14]

In 2002, Croatia's state attorney brought another indictment against Had?i?, the so-called Vukovar Three (Veselin ?ljivan?anin, Mile Mrk?i? and Miroslav Radi?) and the Yugoslav People's Army's senior commanders, alleging the murder of almost 1,300 Croats in Vukovar, Osijek, Vinkovci, ?upanja and elsewhere.[13]

ICTY charges

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia indicted Had?i? for war crimes on 4 June 2004.[15]

Had?i? faced 14 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity for his alleged involvement in the forcible removal and murder of thousands of Croatian civilians from the Republic of Croatia between 1991-93. His indictment specifically cites the 1991 Vukovar massacre of 250 mostly Croats, from the Vukovar hospital; the Dalj, Erdut and Lovas massacres; involvement in Staji?evo, Begejci and Sremska Mitrovica camps; and the alleged wanton destruction of homes and religious and cultural buildings in Dalj, Erdut, Lovas, Tovarnik and Vukovar.[5]

In the weeks before his arrest, Had?i? disappeared from his home in Novi Sad, Serbia. In 2005, Serbian media reported he might be hiding in a Serbian Orthodox monastery in Irig or in Bijela, Montenegro.[16]Nenad ?anak, the leader of the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina, claimed in 2006 that Had?i? was hiding in a monastery somewhere on Fru?ka mountain.[17] At one point he was also rumoured to be hiding in Belarus.

In October 2007, the Serbian government council for national security had offered EUR250,000 for information leading to Had?i?'s arrest.[18] In 2010, the Rewards for Justice Program was offering an award of up to $5 million USD for information leading to Had?i?'s arrest.[19]

In 2010, Serbia raised the reward for Had?i?'s arrest to $1.4 million USD.[20] When asked by the press whether Had?i?'s trial could be transferred from the ICTY, Croatian Serb politician Milorad Pupovac indicated that Serbia should try Had?i?.[21]

Serbian police raided Had?i?'s home on 9 October 2009 and impounded some of his belongings but did not make any statements following the operation.[22]

In 2010, the Council of the European Union blocked Had?i?'s family from entering the EU.[23] After the arrest and extradition of the penultimate war-crimes fugitive, Ratko Mladi?, the European Union continued to insist on the arrest and extradition of Had?i?[24] to the Hague to face trial. And stated that his fugitive status was holding back Serbia's membership in that body[25]

Arrest

On 20 July 2011, Serbian President Boris Tadi? announced that Had?i? had been arrested by Serbian authorities.[8] He added that the arrest closes a "difficult chapter" in Serb history.[26]

Police located him near the village of Kru?edol on the slopes of Fru?ka Gora at 20:24,[27] where he was presumed to have been since he went into hiding following the ICTY indictment.[28]

A stolen Modigliani painting led investigators to discover his whereabouts. Looking to cash in on the portrait, Had?i? was tracked down by authorities after trying to sell it.[29][30]

At the time of his arrest he was the last remaining fugitive indicted by the ICTY.[24] He was taken into custody in the Fru?ka Gora, and had his extradition hearing in Belgrade before a Special Court, which found that all of the prerequisites for extradition to the Hague had been met.[31]

He did not appeal his extradition.[32]

Reaction

With the arrest, one of the obstacles to Serbia's entry into the EU was removed,[25][33] and the country thus, according to the New York Times, "completed its obligations to the United Nations tribunal".[34] EU leaders[35] congratulated Serbia for his arrest and called it a signal of Serbia's commitment to "a better European future."[28]

The Netherlands' Foreign Minister Uri Rosenthal said of the arrest that "it is of course another good step that has been taken. After Mladi? was arrested, we said to the Serbs: now it is really down to you making that last step and catching Had?i? [to further EU succession]. And that has now happened. That involves human rights, tackling corruption and fraud, getting the economy in order and not least, co-operation with the Yugoslavia tribunal. That last point is really happening."[36]

Extradition

On 22 July, Justice Minister Sne?ana Malovi? announced that he had been extradited to the Hague in a small Cessna plane after being allowed visits by his sick mother,[37] wife, son and sister[38] in a convoy of jeeps and police cars that left the detention unit of the Serbian war crimes court in the morning and headed first to Novi Sad and then to Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport.[37] He arrived at Rotterdam airport after he refused to appeal his extradition orders.[38]

The Croatian government directed its Chief Public Prosecutor's Office and the Ministry of Justice to "take all the necessary steps" to bring Had?i? to a war crimes trial in the country to face other "serious crimes" they claimed that had been committed in Croatia. The government of Croatia was said to have wanted to ensure that Had?i? serve the two prison sentences previously ordered in absentia by Croatian courts.[39]

Trial and death

Had?i?'s initial arraignment before the ICTY was on 25 July and lasted 15 minutes. He declined to enter a plea to charges arising from the war in Croatia. His duty counsel Vladimir Petrovic said Had?i? would not "enter a plea today. He is going to avail himself of the rights granted to him..."[40]

Had?i? pleaded not guilty at his second appearance before the tribunal on 24 August. The prosecutors announced they would call 141 witnesses, seven of them experts whose reports would be submitted later. Also announced was testimony from eighty-two fact witnesses, twenty of whom would give evidence in court. Transcripts of testimonials from the remaining sixty-two would be submitted into evidence, and the defense would have the opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses later.[41]

Prosecutors received a total of 185 hours to examine the witnesses and experts-in-chief.[42] The trial began on 16 October 2012. The prosecution completed its case in November 2013, and in February 2014 the tribunal rejected Had?i?'s mid-trial motion for acquittal. Had?i? had argued that the prosecutor had produced insufficient evidence to convict. Had?i? was then required to put on his defense.[42]

Had?i? was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer in November 2014. His trial was suspended in October 2014 as he was unable to take part due to the side effects of his treatment, which included chemotherapy. The prosecution wanted the trial to proceed in his absence but no decision was made. In April 2015 the court ordered Had?i?'s provisional release, and he was sent back to Serbia. Had?i? died of his cancer the following year on 12 July 2016, aged 57.[43][44]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Croatia". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Srem-Baranja District (Eastern Slavonia)". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ Glaurdic, Josip (2011). The Hour of Europe: Western Powers and the Breakup of Yugoslavia. London: Yale University Press. p. 51. ISBN 030016629X.
  4. ^ a b "Goran Had?i?, last Yugoslav war fugitive arrested, dies". The Guardian. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Del Ponte, Carla (21 May 2004). "The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Goran Had?i? - Indictment". The Hague, The Netherlands: International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ Uhi?en Goran Had?i?! at Dnevnik.hr (in Croatian)
  7. ^ McElroy, Damien (26 May 2011). "Ratko Mladic arrested: Goran Hadzic last remaining major figure at large". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2011.
  8. ^ a b "The Associated Press: Serbia arrests last Balkan war crimes fugitive". Google. Retrieved 2011.
  9. ^ Cluskey, Peter (5 July 2011). "Fugitive Goran Hadzic still in sights of tribunal prosecutors". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2016.
  10. ^ Tim Judah (2001). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. pp. 175-76, 244.
  11. ^ "A Letter of Secession". Vreme News Digest Agency No 192. 5 June 1995. Retrieved 2010.
  12. ^ Erlanger, Steven (21 January 2000). "Warlord, Now a Serbian Patriot, Is Buried". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011.
  13. ^ a b "Had?i? ne mo?e biti izru?en Hrvatskoj" (in Croatian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Croatian edition. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  14. ^ "Wanted HADZIC, Goran 2001/19862". Interpol.int. 2001. Retrieved 2011.
  15. ^ "War crimes fugitive: Goran Hadzic". Setimes.com. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  16. ^ "Goran Hadzic Still Evades Justice". Setimes.com. 13 July 2004. Retrieved 2011.
  17. ^ "Had?i? Hiding in Monasteries". Belgrade: B92.net. 25 September 2006. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011.
  18. ^ "Nitko ne?e dobiti milijun eura nagrade za informaciju o Goranu Had?i?u" (in Croatian). Index.hr. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  19. ^ "Wanted: Goran Hadzic, Up to $5 million Reward". Rewardsforjustice.net. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  20. ^ "Serbia offers $1.4m for Mladic". English.aljazeera.net. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  21. ^ "HHO President: Hadzic Should Be Tried in Croatia". Javno.com. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 2011.[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ "Police search Goran Hadzic's home". Setimes.com. Retrieved 2011.
  23. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION 2010/145/CFSP". Official Journal of the European Union. 8 March 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  24. ^ a b McElroy, Damien (26 May 2011). "Ratko Mladic arrested: Goran Hadzic last remaining major figure at large". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 2011.
  25. ^ a b "Serbia's last war crimes fugitive arrested". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
  26. ^ Serbia: Hadzic's arrest closes 'difficult chapter' of Serb history - Adnkronos Politics. Adnkronos.com. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  27. ^ ?tefan?i?, Suzana Lepan; Bradari?, Branimir (21 July 2011). "Had?i? je imao dvije ljubavnice i dvoje izvanbra?ne djece (Hadzic had two mistresses and two illegitimate children)". Ve?ernji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 1 April 2014.
  28. ^ a b "Serbia holds Croatia war crimes suspect Goran Hadzic". BBC News. 13 July 2004. Retrieved 2011.
  29. ^ Vladimir Vukcevic, the Serbian chief prosecutor for war crimes, is quoted as saying "The strategic breakthrough in detaining Goran Had?i? came after an attempt to sell a Modigliani painting. We came to the conclusion that [Had?i?] had run out of money and we started to follow that contact and to track communications related to that painting." Solash, Richard (22 July 2011). "Goran Hadzic's Modern Art Mystery". Radio Free Europe. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
  30. ^ McElroy, Damien (20 July 2011). "War crimes suspect Goran Hadzic finally captured after investigation into stolen Modigliani painting". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012.
  31. ^ "Had?i? sura?ivao sa tajnim slu?bama, pa i hrvatskima?" [Had?i? cooperated with secret services, including Croatian ones?] (in Croatian). Nacional (weekly). 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012.
  32. ^ Had?i?'s attorney said: "Goran Had?i? signed [a document] that he renounces his right to file an appeal... [The] conditions for his transfer have been met. It is realistic [to assume] that he could be transferred from Friday afternoon." "Hadzic 'won't appeal extradition to Hague'". Al Jazeera. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012.
  33. ^ Judah, Tim (27 May 2011). "Ratko Mladic arrest: What next for Serbia?". BBC News. Retrieved 2011.
  34. ^ Simons, Marlise (20 July 2011). "Serbia Arrests Its Last Fugitive Accused of War Crimes". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011.
  35. ^ European Commission President José Manuel Barroso, European Council President Herman Van Rompuy and the EU's foreign policy chief, Dame Catherine Ashton "EU: 'This is a further important step for Serbia in realising its European perspective'". Buenos Aires Herald. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
  36. ^ "Hadzic arrest a good step for Serbia, says Dutch Foreign Minister". Reuters. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014.
  37. ^ a b Press, Associated. Last Balkan suspect wanted by UN war crimes court extradited for prosecution, The Washington Post, 18 July 2011; retrieved 23 July 2011.
  38. ^ a b Serbia extradites war crimes suspect to Hague, Al Jazeera English; retrieved 23 July 2011.
  39. ^ "Croatia also bids for war criminal's extradition", EurActiv.com; retrieved 23 July 2011.
  40. ^ "Serb war crimes suspect appears at UN court". Al Jazeera. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012.
  41. ^ "141 Prosecution Witnesses to Testify at Goran Hadzic's Trial". Sense Agency. 12 July 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014.
  42. ^ a b "Hadzic has Case to Answer". Sense Agency. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014.
  43. ^ "Croatian Serb rebel Hadzic in Belgrade on release for cancer treatment". AFP. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  44. ^ "Goran Had?i? dead". Retrieved 2016.

External links


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